History

Hills Like White Elephants Essay


Four-fifths ofthese were males harvey880 reports for three years 1, 412 paperof hanging in india, of which 2 were accidental, in 3 there waspresumption of homicide, the rest probably all suicidal feebleness of body does not preclude subjects taking their lives inthis way they essaytimes also wound or poison themselves first andhang themselves afterward a subject being found suspended in a roomfastened on the inside, would be suggestive of suicide the absence ofsigns of struggling or of any marks of injury also favors the idea ofsuicide the possibility of a suicide breaking a rope, being injured by thefall, and rehanging himself successfully, must be admitted paper 57, 58 the possibility of blood flowing after death must not be forgotten it is worthy of note that after beating or other violence children andwomen may commit suicide from shame again, as tardieu says, thesis havehung themselves while writingially intoxicated, and it is likely thatessay such have just previous to the suicide met with falls or otheraccidents which have left marks like those of violence he also recordsthe case of a woman who fastened a cord to a bed-post, put her head ina noose while kneeling on the bed, and made a deep wound in her armwith a razor she closed the razor, laid it aside, and fainted fromloss of blood she must then have fallen forward and died from thepressure of the cord on her neck 881homicidal hanging is rare but does occur where the hands are tiedtogether. Where the injuries produced by the cord are severe. Wherethere are contusions and well-marked ecchymoses.

“the enclosed circular is sent out to the medical profession by dr william lucas, 287 w 70th st , new york what do you know of this man and his methods?. ”william h lucas was graduated by the medical college of ohio in 1895and was licensed in 1897 he is not a member of his local medicalsociety the products put out by the lucas laboratories are forintravenous use, and their method of exploitation indicates that theconcern is less interested in the science of therapeutics than it isin taking commercial advantage of the present fad for intravenousmedication the journal has protested editorially against theunnecessary use of the intravenous administration of drugs, and theabuse of this method of drug giving prompted the council on pharmacyand chemistry recently to emphasize the danger of indiscriminateintravenous medication the products of the lucas laboratories, inc , have not been examinedeither by the a m a chemical laboratory or by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the composition of these products isessentially secret, which in itself should be sufficient to deterphysicians from using them of course, in accordance with all thetenents of orthodox nostrum exploitation, “formulas” are furnished even the crude hieroglyphics that used to be palmed off on themedical profession by nostrum exploiters under the guise of “graphicformulas” are outdone by the lucas laboratories in publishing thealleged formulas of its preparations if we, as physicians, knewmore chemistry, the lucas laboratories would not find it profitableto publish such ineffable nonsense as that which characterizes their“literature ” for instance. “‘luvein’ arsans plain” is said to be. “di hypo sodio calcio phosphite hydroxy arseno mercuric iodid ” the first writing of this “formula” might stand for sodium and calcium hypophosphite the remainder is meaningless except that it suggests but does not insure the presence of arsenic and mercury iodide “‘luvein’ arsans, nos 1, 2 and 3 ”-- “meta hydroxy iodide sodio arsano mercuric dimethyl benzo sodio arsenate, ai oxy sodio tartaria sulpho disheuyl hydrazin ” who can venture even a conjecture as to the possible significance of this?. “‘luvein’ creosophite ”-- “ammonio hydroxy calcio sodio hypo-phosphite arsenous pentoxy iodide ” while the name suggests creosote, the “formula” gives no hint of this it might refer to hypophosphites of ammonium, calcium and sodium with iodide of arsenic whether arsenous trivalent arsenic or arsenic pentavalent arsenic iodide or both are intended, is a question “‘luvein’ hexacol ”-- “hexa methylenepyro catechin mono methyl amino ether glycerite ” by moving these syllables around like the old “fifteen puzzle” they can be arranged to represent hexamethylenamin and monomethyl-ether of pyrocatechin, or guaiacol, having the “glycerite” left over it is futile to discuss the therapeutic claims made for the variouspreparations put out by the lucas laboratories one might as profitablydiscuss the therapeutic claims made for “peruna” or “paine celerycompound” for the exploitation of the latter products is on just ashigh a scientific plane as the exploitation of the “luvein” nostrums the proposition offered to physicians by the lucas laboratories, inc , is an insult to the intelligence of the medical profession not thatthe products themselves are necessarily any worse or any better thanthesis offered for intravenous use. The selling methods are more crude, that is all the facts are, we have entered a new cycle of nostrum development theunscientific mixtures for oral administration that characterized solarge and disreputable a writing of the proprietary medicine business ofthe past two or three decades are giving way to equally unscientificmixtures for intravenous use the dangers of the older nostrumsare accentuated in the newer by the added element of risk that isinseparable from intravenous therapy add to this the temptation tothe physician in the way of more substantial fees which, legitimatelyenough, may be charged when intravenous administration is called for, and the menace of the new style nostrum becomes evident the journalcan only reiterate the warning that intravenous therapy should beemployed only when most positively indicated further, because of thedanger that is inseparable from this method of drug administration, physicians should be doubly careful to see that products employedfor intravenous use come from firms of unquestioned scientificstanding -- from the journal a m a , sept 20, 1919 “phylacogens”ll this matter was largely reprinted in the propaganda for reform, eighth and ninth editions a physician in florida writes. “i am enclosing a copy of a circular letter just received from parke, davis & company, and will call your attention to a marked paragraph in this letter on which i would like to have an expression of your opinion ”the circular letter which the doctor forwards is devoted to singingthe praises of “pneumonia phylacogen ” it opens with the statement:“influenza, we learn, has appeared in your section ” the paragraphmarked by our correspondent reads. “pneumonia phylacogen has been found to be a dependable means of preventing and treating pneumonic complications of influenza in one large city it became a routine measure to give all persons affected with influenza an injection of pneumonia phylacogen as a prophylactic of pneumonia the results were remarkable not only did the paper improve rapidly, but in a great majority of them the pneumonia did not occur ”the “phylacogens” were repeatedly discussed in the journal during 1913and 1914 when these products were being pushed with much vigor by themanufacturers we know of no evidence that calls for a revision ofthe statements then made regarding them the injection of phylacogensis simply the administration of a mixture of the filtered productsof several bacterial species the results which follow represent thereaction of the bacterial protein-- a reaction for good or evil thereis no scientific evidence to show that they possess any specificprophylactic virtue to recommend their use in paper of influenza, as a prophylactic against pneumonia, is unwarranted, and thephysician who acts on the advice of the manufacturer must assume theresponsibility for the results in case of mishap he cannot fall backon the manufacturer. He will find no scientific evidence to supporthim -- from the journal a m a , nov 15, 1919 pineoleum advertising methods capitalizing the name and position of the president of the american medical associationto the editor:-- enclosed is a postal card which a physician inoklahoma has sent me together with thirty-six cents in stamps theenvelop was addressed to me at the address of the pineoleum company the postoffice corrected the address and sent it to me it is evident, therefore, that the physician in oklahoma thought i was sending thesepostals as an employee of the pineoleum company, or, at least, wasendorsing their products illustration. Postal card capitalizing the name and position of the president of the american medical association kindly do me the favor to publish this letter in the journal as aprotest against the dishonesty of this method of advertising what isquoted from an article that i wrote appeared originally in the newyork state journal of medicine and was abstracted in the journalof the american medical association of august 2, 1919 the obviousinference to be drawn from this postal is that i referred to theproducts of the pineoleum company in that article i did not have theproducts of the pineoleum company in my mind i never have used theirproducts and never prescribed them this form of advertising is done with intent to deceive and did deceivethe doctor in oklahoma it was therefore a successful falsehood, itssuccess depending on the false use of the name of the president of theamerican medical association to bolster up the sale of the product i resent the use of my name in connection with the quack advertisingof nostrum venders the low, vulpine cunning of the method used ison the same level as the deceit and dishonesty which use this formof advertising to the injury of my name and reputation as presidentof the american medical association i must insist that you protectme by publishing this letter in the journal, giving it as widespreadpublicity as possible alexander lambert comment -- “pineoleum” is a “patent medicine” advertised in thecheapest and most effective way-- by the aid of the easy going andcomplacent physician in 1906 pineoleum was being marketed by thewinslow laboratory of new york city, which also put out three or fourother nostrums-- “morumalt, ” “egeriol, ” “digestylin, ” and “fordnucleo-peptone ” pineoleum was advertised to the public then as it isadvertised now, via the medical profession physicians are circularizedand are offered a petty graft in the form of a cheap nebulizer and asample bottle of pineoleum essay time ago the company seems to havedeveloped a scheme whereby physicians could make money “dispensingpineoleum nebulizer outfits at more than 140 per cent profit ” thepineoleum concern for years has also polluted the stream at its sourceby attempting to get the secretary of the senior class of every medicalschool to distribute its free nebulizer outfits to members of theclass and receive therefor 5 cents for each outfit distributed!. thelife history of pineoleum is that of the typical nostrum epidemics, of course, are utilized as opportunities for pushing the product in1911 a card was sent out featuring “a special lagrippe offer”. In 1916the profession was circularized recommending pineoleum as “the idealprophylactic” in infantile paralysis.

“it is reportedthat dr koch is treating thesis patients, promising much and chargingwell ” to this dr koch retorted that only about 30 per cent of hispatients had “contributed ” the rest were treated free the wayne county medical society bulletin for jan 5, 1920, wasdevoted almost exclusively to another discussion of dr koch “cancercure ” it was there stated that a second committee had hills like white elephants essay been appointedto gather what information could be obtained from outside sourcesrelative to paper treated by dr koch this committee reported thatof fifty-six paper of which it was able to obtain data, only three ofthe patients showed clinical improvement. Twenty-one of the patientswere dead three more patients treated both by the koch injections andby operation were reported as clinically improved the condition ofeighteen of the patients was reported as stationary, or unimproved ineleven of the paper, the results were unknown but the surgeons reportedunfavorably the committee reported further that dr koch records were incompleteand that he had submitted no proof that his injections have anywritingicular merit and the committee concluded that the study “isentirely experimental and improperly supervised ”evidently, the most that can be said of dr koch alleged “cure”for cancer is that the claims made for it have not been supported byindependent investigators -- from the journal a m a , feb 12, 1921 further commentlast week essay space was given to the alleged cure for cancer put outby dr william f koch of detroit incidentally, it should be mentionedthat dr koch article of oct 30, 1920, to which reference was made, appeared not in the new york medical journal, as stated, but in thenew york medical record the following correspondence throws additional light on the subject. To the editor:-- to the number of inquiries which you have received regarding the alleged cure of cancer by dr koch, permit me to add the following personal experience on july 1, 1920, i was asked to examine an ex-patient of mine whom i had not seen professionally for thesis years her husband frankly told me that for several months his wife had been treated by dr w f koch for inoperable carcinoma of the pelvic organs, that he wished dr koch to retain charge of the treatment but hoped i would give my opinion regarding certain nervous manifestations in the patient which were causing him her husband much concern at the same time, he showed me a letter written by dr koch purporting to explain the symptoms and offering suggestions regarding treatment i called on the patient and found her in the last stages of generalized carcinomatosis simple palpation of the abdomen revealed multiple nodules involving both lower and upper abdominal quadrants i did not feel justified in making a pelvic examination but noted a profuse foul-smelling discharge on the vulvar pad my prognosis did not meet with the deluded husband approval the patient died within a week and a necropsy confirmed the clinical picture of carcinomatosis enclosed is dr koch letter. The patient name should, of course, be omitted if you see fit to publish this note george de tarnowsky, m d , chicago the letter from dr koch which dr de tarnowsky enclosed with his own, follows we have, of course, deleted the name of the patient dear doctor. Mrs -- -- has absorbed and is still absorbing essay killed tumor tissue she has absorbed essay three pounds, i judge the results of the absorption are intoxication quite general nervous, muscular, perhaps nephritic the myocardium at present shows no signs of poisoning but the skeletal muscles and nerve do the important toxin liberated by the killed tissue is methyl cyanimide which combines ammonia nh₂ from the amino acids, and thus becomes methyl guanidine this latter has produced in my patients an intoxication varying in similarity to. Idiopathic tetany in children, chorea in children, eclampsia in women, and has even been so severe as tetanus in essay of the muscle spasms.

And ifyou add a little vinegar to hills like white elephants essay it, you will do well. If not, i hold sugarto be better than honey 5 it is kept in pots, and may be kept a year and longer 6 it is excellent for roughness of the wind-pipe, inflammations andulcers of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, asthmas, coughs, anddistillation of humours chapter x of ointments 1 various are the ways of making ointments, which authors have leftto posterity, which i shall omit, and quote one which is easiest tobe made, and therefore most beneficial to people that are ignorant inphysic, for whose sake i write this it is thus done:bruise those herbs, flowers, or roots, you will make an ointment of, and to two handfuls of your bruised herbs add a pound of hog greasedried, or cleansed from the skins, beat them very well together in astone mortar with a wooden pestle, then put it into a stone pot, theherb and grease i mean, not the mortar, cover it with a paper and setit either in the sun, or essay other warm place. Three, four, or fivedays, that it may melt. Then take it out and boil it a little. Thenwhilst it is hot, strain it out, pressing it out very hard in a press:to this grease add as thesis more herbs bruised as before. Let them standin like manner as long, then boil them as you did the former. If youthink your ointment is not strong enough, you may do it the third andfourth time. Yet this i will tell you, the fuller of juice the herbsare, the sooner will your ointment be strong.

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As also to resist theinfection of the plague, if essay of the same be also applied to thesores thereof the same also cools the heat of green wounds and oldulcers, hills like white elephants essay and heals them, being bathed therewith the distilled water ofthe green husks being ripe, when they are shelled from the nuts, anddrank with a little vinegar, is good for the place, so as before thetaking thereof a vein be opened the said water is very good againstthe quinsy, being gargled and bathed therewith, and wonderfully helpsdeafness, the noise, and other pains in the ears the distilled waterof the young green leaves in the end of may, performs a singular cureon foul running ulcers and sores, to be bathed, with wet cloths orspunges applied to them every morning wold, weld, or dyer weed the common kind grows bushing with thesis leaves, long, narrow andflat upon the ground. Of a dark blueish green colour, essaywhat likeunto woad, but nothing so large, a little crumpled, and as it wereround-pointed, which do so abide the first year. And the next springfrom among them, rise up divers round stalks, two or three feet high, beset with thesis such like leaves thereon, but smaller, and shootingforth small branches, which with the stalks carry thesis small yellowflowers, in a long spiked head at the top of them, where afterwardscome the seed, which is small and black, inclosed in heads that aredivided at the tops into four writings the root is long, white and thick, abiding the winter the whole herb changes to be yellow, after it hathbeen in flower awhile place it grows every where by the way sides, in moist grounds, aswell as dry, in corners of fields and bye lanes, and essaytimes all overthe field in sussex and kent they call it green weed time it flowers in june government and virtues matthiolus saith, that the root hereof curestough phlegm, digests raw phlegm, thins gross humours, dissolves hardtumours, and opens obstructions essay do highly commend it againstthe biting of venomous creatures, to be taken inwardly and appliedoutwardly to the hurt place. As also for the plague or pestilence thepeople in essay countries of this land, do use to bruise the herb, andlay it to cuts or wounds in the hands or legs, to heal them wheat all the several kinds thereof are so well known unto almost all people, that it is all together needless to write a description thereof government and virtues it is under venus dioscorides saith, thatto eat the corn of green wheat is hurtful to the stomach, and breedsworms pliny saith, that the corn of wheat, roasted upon an iron pan, and eaten, are a present remedy for those that are chilled with cold the oil pressed from wheat, between two thick plates of iron, or copperheated, heals all tetters and ring-worms, being used warm. And herebygalen saith, he hath known thesis to be cured matthiolus commends thesame to be put into hollow ulcers to heal them up, and it is good forchops in the hands and feet, and to make rugged skin smooth the greencorns of wheat being chewed, and applied to the place bitten by a maddog, heals it. Slices of wheat bread soaked in red rose water, andapplied to the eyes that are hot, red, and inflamed, or blood-shotten, helps them hot bread applied for an hour, at times, for three daystogether, perfectly heals the kernels in the throat, commonly calledthe king evil the flour of wheat mixed with the juice of henbane, stays the flux of humours to the joints, being laid thereon the saidmeal boiled in vinegar, helps the shrinking of the sinews, saith pliny;and mixed with vinegar, and boiled together, heals all freckles, spotsand pimples on the face wheat flour, mixed with the yolk of an egg, honey, and turpentine, doth draw, cleanse and heal any boil, plague, sore, or foul ulcer the bran of wheat meal steeped in sharp vinegar, and then bound in a linen cloth, and rubbed on those places that havethe scurf, morphew, scabs or leprosy, will take them away, the bodybeing first well purged and prepared the decoction of the bran ofwheat or barley, is of good use to bathe those places that are burstenby a rupture. And the said bran boiled in good vinegar, and appliedto swollen breasts, helps them, and stays all inflamations it helpsalso the biting of vipers which i take to be no other than our englishadder and all other venomous creatures the leaves of wheat mealapplied with essay salt, take away hardness of the skin, warts, and hardknots in the flesh wafers put in water, and drank, stays the laskand bloody flux, and are profitably used both inwardly and outwardlyfor the ruptures in children boiled in water unto a thick jelly, andtaken, it stays spitting of blood. And boiled with mint and butter, ithelps the hoarseness of the throat the willow tree these are so well known that they need no description i shalltherefore only shew you the virtues therof government and virtues the moon owns it both the leaves, bark, and the seed, are used to stanch bleeding of wounds, and at mouth andnose, spitting of blood, and other fluxes of blood in man or woman, and to stay vomiting, and provocation thereunto, if the decoction ofthem in wine be drank it helps also to stay thin, hot, sharp, saltdistillations from the head upon the lungs, causing a consumption theleaves bruised with essay pepper, and drank in wine, helps much the windcholic the leaves bruised and boiled in wine, and drank, stays theheat of lust in man or woman, and quite extinguishes it, if it be longused. The seed also is of the same effect water that is gathered fromthe willow, when it flowers, the bark being slit, and a vessel fittingto receive it, is very good for redness and dimness of sight, or filmsthat grow over the eyes, and stay the rheums that fall into them. Toprovoke urine, being stopped, if it be drank.