History

Hills Like White Elephants Analysis Essay


1878, xix , pp 489-493 - woman, found dead sitting inbed she hills like white elephants analysis essay first tried to poison herself with arsenic, then hung herself 29 ibid - man, tried to poison himself with phosphorus and sulphuricacid, then hung himself there was a transverse rupture of thesterno-cleido mastoid muscle and suffusion in its sheath 30 maschka. Wien med woch , 1880, xxx , pp 714, 747, 1075 - man, age 63 it was at first a question of suicide by hanging or homicide bystrangling he concluded that it was the former 31 ibid - also man, age 58 similar case same opinion 32 ibid 1883, xxxiii , pp 1118-1120 - woman age 23 questionwhether she committed suicide by hanging or was strangled and thenhung opinion, that it was a case of suicide 33 hofmann. Allg wien med zeit , 1870, xv , pp 192-214 - man, age 60 suicide by hanging or homicide. Opinion, that it was the former 34 van haumeder. Wien med woch , 1882, xxxii , pp 531-533 - suicide by hanging or homicide there were thesis wounds inthe head. These occurred during the delirium of typhus 35 maschka. “sammlung gericht gutacht , ” etc prag, leipzig, 1873, p 137 - boy, age 9.

Lithium chloride, hills like white elephants analysis essay 0 035 per cent. Calcium hydrate, 0 010 per cent. Water to 100 writings ”the council asked the manufacturers for further information in regardto the composition or preparation of chloron and received this reply. “chlorine gas is prepared in the usual way and purified and passed into water until a saturated solution is made “water to the extent of three times the volume of the chlorine solution is used to dissolve the necessary amount of calcium chloride, and the two solutions are mixed “the necessary amounts of lithium and mercurous chloride are then intimately mixed and made into solution this solution is then added to the above and the whole is agitated for essay minutes ”a specimen of chloron was examined in the a m a chemical laboratoryand the chemists reported:qualitatively the presence of the following constituents was confirmed:calcium, mercury, lithium, chlorid, free chlorin the solution wasalkaline of course, the declaration that chloron contains mercurouschlorid calomel is obviously incorrect, as mercurous chlorid cannotexist in a solution containing active free chlorin, but is oxidizedto mercuric chlorid corrosive sublimate as the solution was alkalinein reaction, it seemed unlikely that all the active chlorin was presentin the free state, as declared on the label quantitative determinationof free chlorin and of total active “available” chlorin gave. Freechlorin, 0 036 gm per hundred c c. Total “available” chlorin, 0 330 gm per hundred c c , or 165 per cent of the claimed amount a comparison of the information sent to the council with the analyticfindings leads to the conclusion that chloron is not of reliablecomposition as evidence of the therapeutic value of chloron, the following “casereports” were submitted.

If theoriginal be lost, a certified copy of the record is sufficient evidence1, 300 without a certificate of qualification from theboard provided for in sec 1, 301, except as above provided, no personcan lawfully practise medicine in any of its branches or dewritingmentsas a profession or means of livelihood 1, 302 the standardof qualification, method or system, and subjects of examination areprescribed by the medical association of the state 1, 303 the board of medical examiners, on application, must examine anapplicant for a certificate of qualification as a practitioner ofmedicine, and if he be found qualified, and of good moral charactermust issue a certificate 1, 304 physicians having a license as above before the organization in acounty of a board, are on application thereto entitled to a certificatewithout examination and to be registered as licensed practitioners ofmedicine 1, 305 the certificate is a license throughout the state it must be recordedin the office of the judge of probate of the county in which the personresides at the time of issue upon recording it, the judge must indorsea certificate of record and sign it and affix the seal of the court1, 306 such certificate, or, if lost, a certified copy ofthe record, is evidence 1, 307 penalty - a contract for the services of a physician or surgeon is voidunless he has authority to practise. Proof of authority is not requiredat trial except on two days’ notice 1, 318 practising medicine or surgery without a certificate is a misdemeanorunder a penalty of a fine of from $25 to $100 this provision is notapplicable to physicians practising medicine in alabama in 1890, whoare graduates of a respectable medical college and have complied withthe law by having their diplomas recorded by the judge of probate inthe county where they practise. Nor to a physician who has practised inthe state for the past five years act 1890-91, c 376. Nor to womenpractising midwifery code 1887, s 1, 308 fees - the statutory fees are as follows:to judge of probate, for record of diploma, or license or certificate, $1 1, 298, 1, 299, 1, 306 to board of medical examiners, for examination, actual expenses s 1, 304 arizona qualification - it is unlawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or other obstetrics unless he have a diploma regularly issuedby a medical college lawfully organized under the laws of the statewherein it is located, or a license issued and authorized by a boardof medical examiners under and by virtue of the laws of any state orterritory the diploma must state that the person named is qualified topractise medicine and surgery in all of its dewritingments penal code, 1887, s 617, as amended act of april 11th, 1893 a diploma granted for moneyed consideration or other article of valuealone, or revoked or cancelled by the college by which it was issued orby act of the legislature, is not a sufficient qualification s 618 every practitioner of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics must register inthe county recorder office his name, residence, and place of birth, and present his diploma or license, and the county recorder must makea copy of it under the record of his name, residence, and place ofbirth the person registering must subscribe and verify an affidavit inwriting, annexed to the copy as transcribed, that he is the identicalperson named in the diploma 619, as amended by act of april11th, 1893 definition, exception - any person is regarded as practising medicinewho professes publicly to be a physician or habitually prescribes forthe sick, or appends to his name “m d , ” but the act does not prohibitgratuitous services in paper of emergency. Nor apply to lawfullycommissioned surgeons and assistant surgeons of the united states armyand those who were commissioned and mustered into the united statesservice in the great rebellion, or physicians or surgeons who havebeen in active practice for ten years and at least three years in theterritory, nor prevent practice and receiving pay in localities fifteenmiles or more from the residence or office of a regular physician620 offence - violation of the act is a misdemeanor 621 fees - to the county recorder, for registration, $5 619 arkansas qualification - it is unlawful for any one to engage in the practice ofmedicine and surgery, or either, as a calling except as provided in thestatute act april 14th, 1893, s 1 a person engaging in the practice of medicine or surgery must be ofgood moral character, twenty-one years of age, and a graduate of essayreputable college of medicine and surgery that requires for graduationnot less than two courses of lectures, each in a different year s 2 before engaging in practice, such person must exhibit his diploma toessay county clerk of the state and have it recorded the clerk mustgive him a certificate of record, which may be attached to the diploma3 in all paper of doubt as to the reputability of a college, it is theduty of the clerk of the county court, when a diploma is offered forrecord, to make inquiry of the secretary of the state where the saidcollege exists as to its reputability and requirements for graduation, and if the said clerk shall find that the said college does not conformto the requirements of this article, he shall not receive the diplomaand the holder shall not be allowed to practise in the state theaggrieved applicant may apply to the state board of medical examiners, whose decision shall govern the clerk in his action 4 if after recording any diploma it shall come to the knowledge of theclerk making the record, or any other judicial or executive officer ofthe state, that the record was obtained by fraud or misrepresentation, it shall be his duty to institute before the said court of recordproceedings to have such record reversed, and the holder of the diplomashall be judged guilty of a misdemeanor 5 exceptions - the act does not affect the standing of any one practisingat the time of its passage by virtue of a license under the thenexisting law, nor any one then legally engaged in the practice ofmedicine and surgery, nor does it prevent midwives from practisingtheir calling or any one else from giving such simple domestic remediesas they are in the habit of using 6 examinations - the constituted state board of medical examiners isauthorized to examine persons having no diploma from a medical college, and if found qualified to practise medicine and surgery issue acertificate entitling the holder to practise in this state s 7 systems, definition - no discrimination of schools of medicine isallowed any person who prescribes or administers medicine except asprovided in sec 6 is deemed a physician 8 penalty - the violation of this act is a misdemeanor punishable with afine of from $25 to $100 each day of practice is a separate offence9 date - the act took effect ninety days after its passage 10 fees - to the county clerk, for recording, $1 50 for certificate of record the county clerk is not allowed to charge afee 3 california qualification - every person practising medicine or surgery in any ofits dewritingments must present his diploma to the board of examiners withaffidavits if the board finds all facts required to be stated in theaffidavit to be true, it issues a certificate conclusive in any writingof the state act 1877-78, c 576. Amending act 1875-76, c 518 the secretary of the board receives applications the board issuescertificates to all who furnish satisfactory proof of having receiveddiplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions ingood standing act 1875-76, c 518, s 3 the medical society of the state, the eclectic medical society of thestate, and the state homœopathic medical society each appoint annuallya board of seven examiners who must be regular graduates act 1877-78, c 576. Amending act 1875-76, c 518 the board examines diplomas as to genuineness the affidavitaccompanying the diploma must state that the applicant is its lawfulpossessor, and the person therein named. That the diploma was procuredin the regular course of medical instruction and without fraud ormisrepresentation of any kind, and that the medical institutiongranting it had, at the time of granting the same, a full corps ofmedical instructors, and was at said time a legally incorporatedinstitution, actually and in good faith engaged in the business ofmedical education, and in good standing as a medical institution, andthat the applicant had complied with all the requirements of saidinstitution the affidavit may be taken before any person authorizedto administer oaths, and must be attested under the hand and officialseal of the officer, if he have a seal the board may hear such furthertestimony as they deem proper to hear as to the verification of thediploma or the identity of the person, or the manner in which thediploma was procured, and if it appears that any fact stated in theaffidavit is untrue, the application is rejected no board entertainsan application rejected by another.

They are also used to allay the pains of the gout you cannot useit amiss. A syrup of it is a fine cooling medicine for fevers elecampane descript it shoots forth thesis large leaves, long and broad, lyingnear the ground, small at both ends, essaywhat soft in handling of awhitish green on the upper side, and grey underneath, each set upona short footstalk, from among which arise up divers great and stronghairy stalks, three or four feet high, with essay leaves thereupon, compassing them about at the lower end, and are branched towards thetops, bearing divers great and large flowers, like those of the cornmarigold, both the border of leaves, and the middle thrum being yellow, which turn into down, with long, small, brownish seeds amongst it, andis carried away with the wind the root is great and thick, branchedforth divers ways, blackish on the outside and whitish within, of avery bitter taste, and strong, but good scent, especially when they aredried, no writing else of the plant having any smell place it grows on moist grounds, and shadowy places oftener than inthe dry and open borders of the fields and lanes, and in other wasteplaces, almost in every county of this land time it flowers in the end of june and july, and the seed is ripein august the roots are gathered for use, as well in the springbefore the leaves come forth, as in autumn or winter government and virtues it is a plant under the dominion of mercury the fresh roots of elecampane preserved with sugar, or made into asyrup or conserve, are very effectual to warm a cold windy stomach, or the pricking therein, and stiches in the sides caused by thespleen. And to help the cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing inthe lungs the dried root made into powder, and mixed with sugar, andtaken, serves to the same purpose, and is also profitable for thosewho have their urine stopped, or the stopping of women courses, thepains of the mother and the stone in the reins, kidneys, or bladder;it resists poison, and stays the spreading of the venom of serpents, as also putrid and pestilential fevers, and the plague itself theroots and herbs beaten and put into new ale or beer, and daily drank, clears, strengthens, and quickens the sight of the eyes wonderfully the decoction of the roots in wine, or the juice taken therein, killsand drives forth all manner of worms in the belly, stomach, and maw;and gargled in the mouth, or the root chewed, fastens loose teeth, andhelps to keep them from putrefaction. And being drank is good for thosethat spit blood, helps to remove cramps or convulsions, gout, sciatica, pains in the joints, applied outwardly or inwardly, and is also goodfor those that are bursten, or have any inward bruise the root boiledwell in vinegar beaten afterwards, and made into an ointment with hogsuet, or oil of trotters is an excellent remedy for scabs or itch inyoung or old. The places also bathed or washed with the decoctiondoth the same. It also helps all sorts of filthy old putrid sores orcankers whatsoever in the roots of this herb lieth the chief effectfor the remedies aforesaid the distilled water of the leaves and rootstogether, is very profitable to cleanse the skin of the face, or otherwritings, from any morphew, spots, or blemishes therein, and make itclear eringo, or sea-holly descript the first leaves of our ordinary sea-holly, are nothing sohard and prickly as when they grow old, being almost round, and deeplydented about the edges, hard and sharp pointed, and a little crumpled, of a bluish green colour, every one upon a long foot stalk. But thosethat grow up higher with the stalk, do as it were compass it about thestalk itself is round and strong, yet essaywhat crested, with joints andleaves set thereat, but more divided, sharp and prickly. And branchesrising from thence, which have likewise other small branches, each ofthem having several bluish round prickly heads, with thesis small jaggedprickly leaves under them, standing like a star, and essaytimes foundgreenish or whitish. The root grows wonderfully long, even to eight orten feet in length, set with rings and circles towards the upper writing, cut smooth and without joints down lower, brownish on the outside, andvery white within, with a pith in the middle. Of a pleasant taste, butmuch more, being artificially preserved, and candied with sugar place it is found about the sea coast in almost every county ofthis land which borders upon the sea time it flowers in the end of summer, and gives ripe seed within amonth after government and virtues the plant is venereal, and breeds seedexceedingly, and strengthens the spirit procreative. It is hot andmoist, and under the celestial balance the decoction of the roothereof in wine, is very effectual to open obstructions of the spleenand liver, and helps yellow jaundice, dropsy, pains of the loins, andwind cholic, provokes urine, and expels the stone, procures womencourses the continued use of the decoction for fifteen days, takenfasting, and next to bedward, doth help the stranguary, the difficultyand stoppage of urine, and the stone, as well as all defects of thereins and kidneys. And if the said drink be continued longer, it issaid that it cures the stone. It is found good against the frenchpox the roots bruised and applied outwardly, help the kernels ofthe throat, commonly called the king evil. Or taking inwardly, andapplied to the place stung or bitten by any serpent, heal it speedily if the roots be bruised, and boiled in old hog grease, or saltedlard, and broken bones, thorns &c remaining in the flesh, they donot only draw them forth, but heal up the place again, gathering newflesh where it was consumed the juice of the leaves dropped into theear, helps imposthumes therein the distilled water of the whole herb, when the leaves and stalks are young, is profitable drank for all thepurposes aforesaid. And helps the melancholy of the heart, and isavailable in quartan and quotidian agues. As also for them that havetheir necks drawn awry, and cannot turn them without turning theirwhole body eyebright descript common eyebright is a small low herb, rising up usuallybut with one blackish green stalk a span high, or not much more, spread from the bottom into sundry branches, whereon are small andalmost round yet pointed dark green leaves, finely snipped about theedges, two always set together, and very thick. At the joints with theleaves, from the middle upward, come forth small white flowers, markedwith purple and yellow spots, or stripes. After which follow smallround heads, with very small seed therein the root is long, small andthready at the end place it grows in meadows, and grassy land government and virtues it is under the sign of the lion, and solclaims dominion over it if the herb was but as much used as it isneglected, it would half spoil the spectacle maker trade.

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“ the fact hills like white elephants analysis essay has never been challenged that in fellows syrup of hypophosphites we have one of the most efficient, most complete, most all-around tonics and roborants in the materia medica ”no attempt is made to base this assertion on the therapeutic actionof the constituents in other words, the old theory, which formed thebasis for the popularity of fellows’ syrup, has been thrown overboard, but no substitute is deemed necessary. The momentum already acquired isapparently regarded as sufficient to insure its continued sale fellows’ syrup of hypophosphites is a semisecret, unscientificpreparation-- an affront to sound therapy-- exploited by means ofextravagant and misleading statements syrupus roborans syrup hypophosphites comp with quinin, strychnin and manganeselittle information concerning this preparation seems to be furnishedat present by the manufacturers, arthur peter & co , louisville, ky according to an old circular, it contains, in each fluidounce, grains “hypophos potass 1-1/2 hypophos manganese 1 hypophos lime 1 hypophos iron 1-1/2 hypophos quinin 6/16 hypophos strichnin 1/16 “1/128 grain strychnia to teaspoonful ”further, according to the same circular. “the hypophosphites are especially useful in all diseases where there is a lack of nutrition they are the best of all remedies in rachitis, non-union of fractures, osteomalacia and syphilitic periostitis ”as for syrupus roborans itself. “this elegant preparation is the best general tonic and reconstructive known ”the unwarranted therapeutic claims formerly made for it seem to be nolonger circulated syrupus roborans is an unscientific, shotgun mixture schlotterbeck solution hypophosphites of lime and soda liq hypophosphitum, schlotterbeckthe schlotterbeck & foss co , portland, maine, the manufacturers, sayof their preparation. “this solution contains 30 grains of the combined hypophosphites of lime and soda to the ounce it contains no sugar, no acid and it is perfectly neutral ” “indications for use -- galactostasis, imperfect metabolism, neurasthenia, nervous dyspepsia, insomnia, convalescence, acetonuria, cyclic vomiting in infants, diabetes, starvation, deficiency of lime, mother teeth during pregnancy, dentition of infants, rachitis, furunculosis, vomiting of pregnancy, obesity ” “migraine is often caused by conditions for which this solution is one of the most satisfactory remedies:” “in insomnia due to advancing age, it will often act as a hypnotic ”of the hypophosphites the schlotterbeck & foss company say. “if ‘damning it with faint praise’ on the writing of essay of the leading medical authorities, or utterly condemning it as useless, on the writing of others, would kill a medicine, the hypophosphites would long since have disappeared as medicinal agents negative testimony in regard to the value of a drug does not settle anything ”of their own preparation they say. “when we get the results that ought to follow the administration of hypophosphites, we have proved that schlotterbeck solution enters the system unchanged ” “this solution is primarily a blood and nerve tonic and chemical food ”schlotterbeck solution of hypophosphites of lime and soda is asemisecret preparation marketed under claims that are both unwarrantedand misleading robinson hypophosphitesaccording to the manufacturers, the robinson-pettet company, louisville, ky , each fluidounce of this preparation contains. “hypophosphites soda 2 gr hypophosphites lime 1-1/2 gr hypophosphites iron 1-1/2 gr hypophosphites quinin 3/4 gr hypophosphites strychnine 1/16 gr ”it is claimed to be “nutritive, tonic alterative a standard remedy in the treatment of pulmonary phthisis, bronchitis, scrofulous taint, general debility, etc stimulates digestion, promotes assimilation ”the declared composition of the preparation is unscientific, and thetherapeutic claims are unwarranted eupeptic hypophosphitesnelson, baker & co , detroit, mich , who market eupeptichypophosphites, call this preparation.