History

Hero's Journey Essay


Slight hemorrhage on surface abdominalorgans normal dr harvey states that the boy was no doubt strangled bypressure of a lathi on his neck 12 ibid - in another subject two sticks were tightly tied together, one pressing on the front, the other on the back of the neck, flattening larynx and other soft writings in the following case essayhard substance, like a brick, had been wrapped in a cloth and usedfor compression boy, age 15 necroscopy. Large dark ecchymosis insubcutaneous tissue of front of neck and upper writing of chest alsomarks of violence on chest and left side of face dissection of neckshowed blood-clot and also laceration of muscles trachea folded onitself, showing that compression had lasted several minutes tongueprotruding and bitten eyes closed features calm trachea muchcongested lungs congested great veins of heart and neck full of fluidblood heart, dark fluid blood in both sides, mostly in right brainand membranes much congested 13 pemberton. Lancet, may 22d, 1869, p 707 - woman, age 60 found dead nose writingly displaced and cartilages injured lips pale mouth closed lividity of front of neck from jaw to sternum cricoidcartilage ossified cretified?. and broken on left side. Hemorrhage insurrounding tissues lungs and heart as usual in suffocation 14 cullingworth. Med chron , manchester, 1884-85, i , p 577 - woman, married, found dead bruise and ecchymosis beneath theear. Effusion of blood in underlying tissue other bruises on face, etc several bruises in mouth, on lips and tongue blood dark andfluid brain and membranes much congested no marks of injury onthroat lungs congested. Surfaces emphysematous heart contained darkfluid blood urine and fæces had been discharged 15 the gouffé case - murdered by eyraud and bompard in 1889 archivanthropologie criminelle, paris, 1890, v , pp 642-716. Vi , 1891, pp 17 and 179 reports by bernard, lacassagne, and others gouffé wasdecoyed into a room and strangled.

Second, toobey his instructions and follow his directions, and, third, to payhim the reasonable worth and value of his services the differentbranches of this contract are reciprocal the failure of either writingyto fulfil the obligation of any one of them which is imposed uponhim, would bar him of his remedies against the other writingy to recoverdamages for any breach, or any proximate result of his breach, ofsuch obligations the necessary care and attention required of thephysician in such a case are measured by the requirements of the caseand the physician duties to his other patients, modified, however, by the rule that the physician is presumed to know, at the time hetakes up the case, the condition and situation of his other patientsat that time consequently, if those who have first employed him areso situated at the time that his services for them are likely to besoon and continuously required, he cannot without making himself liablein damages undertake another case and then neglect it, but he shouldeither decline to take it, or should with the full knowledge andconsent of the patient make provision for the temporary substitutionof hero's journey essay essay other physician, during the time that his prior obligationsengross his attention nevertheless, if the situation and condition ofthose to whom he has first contracted his services is such that he had, although he exercised due professional knowledge and skill, no reasonto apprehend that these patients would need his exclusive service, and by a sudden development, arising from those occult causes whichobtain in all serious diseases and injuries, any of his prior patientssuffer a sudden and dangerous relapse, or from an accession of new anddangerous symptoms and conditions so that he must fly to their aid, he would not be liable to another patient, to whom he had afterwardcontracted his services, for neglecting his case. Still he should insuch instances use extra means to obtain the services of essay other andequally skilful man only ordinary and usual skill required - the degree and characterof necessary skill contracted for has been variously defined by thecourts when malpractice is discussed, a more extended considerationof this matter will be required at present the doctrine laid downin shearman and redfield on “negligence, ” paragraphs 433-435, may beadopted it is as follows:“although a physician or surgeon may doubtless by express contractundertake to perform a cure absolutely, the law will not imply sucha contract from the mere employment of a physician a physician isnot an insurer of a cure, and is not to be tried for the result ofhis remedies his only contract is to treat the case with reasonablediligence and skill if more than this is expected it must be expresslystipulated for the general rule, therefore, is, that a medicalman, who attends for a fee, is liable for such want of ordinary care, diligence or skill on his writing as leads to the injury of his patient to render him liable, it is not enough that there has been a lessdegree of skill than essay other medical man might have shown, or a lessdegree of care than even himself might have bestowed. Nor is it enoughthat he himself acknowledged essay degree of want of care.

For both errorand superstition so far as it is a question of medical matters are tworadically different conceptions, because the former concerns itselfonly with natural, the latter with supernatural factors yet it is quite conceivable that the dissemination of an intellectualprinciple can be furthered and promoted without overt advocacy of theprinciple itself, and this was the relation that existed for thousandsof years between medicine and superstition. For we learn from thisinvestigation that the representatives of medicine were too often readyto admit all kinds of superstitious views into medicine wheneverreligion, philosophy, and natural science have seriously attempted toinfluence medicine in a manner promoting superstition, medical scienceyielded to these attempts, and this is the only reproach which can bejustly laid at the door of our science however, this reproach is mitigated if we consider that medicine didnot accord a home to superstition of its own free will, or even froma predilection for the heresies of other disciples, but it did sounder compulsion. For the religious, the philosophical, the physicalviews which forced the entrance of superstition into medical sciencewere almost always the views of a formidable writingy it is a factsufficiently demonstrated by history that powerful and far-reachingpredilections of the popular mind resistlessly hurry along whatever isin their path such mental currents are the products of their period;they are the immediate result of the general sentiment and feelingof their time, and for this very reason they successfully overcomeresistance the opinion of a single individual may raise a protestagainst the spirit of the age, but this resistance is always bound tobe in vain the opinion of a single individual, even if it actuallyrepresents the truth, is absolutely powerless to resist the spirit ofthe age which, with elemental force, compels obedience therefore, thecourageous, truth-seeking resistance which was offered to the heresiesof medicina astrologica by pico of mirandola and girolamo fracastoriwas bound to be futile, because astrology was a genuine child of itstime, and therefore held irresistible sway over thought and sentiment if religion and philosophy so often interfered with the development ofmedicine, this was only possible because the general tendency of thecontemporary mind was thoroughly absorbed in this or that religious orphilosophical idea for each domain of human activity must needs be amere reflection of the tendency which guides the mind of its period this is a law which, with iron force, dominates the development ofculture superstition in medicine, therefore, was bound to flourish andthrive whenever it harmonized with the spirit of the age this law, tho it may have checked the development of our science, nevertheless holds out the certain promise of a period, theintellectual power of which will thoroughly clear away all relics ofsuperstition, which, still persisting in the minds of the thesis, drivesthem to the faith-curist and to the quack viimedical superstition and insanitythe history of medicine is conjoined with the evolution of theologyto an extent which makes them almost inseparable, and this maybest be seen from a study of the management of the insane, whichis a continuous record of cruelty based upon medico-theologicalsuperstition perhaps the most heartrending chapter of unphilosophicaltheology teems with the narration of thousands of unfortunatebeings murdered, tortured, and mishandled by the finesse in theinterpretation of biblical texts the greatest triumph of modernmedicine has consisted in unfettering the views of effete centuries, born of superstition and misconception, and in placing the treatmentof the insane upon a humane, often even a curative, plane as otherafflictions of humanity were attributed to the agency of evil spirits, this was writingicularly the case with insanity. For if the evil one foundit an easy task to control the corporeal acts of humanity, his powerover the mental functions of the person afflicted was even greater hence, it was not the person who acted, but the evil spirit in him thus, the devil and his minions were the specific pathogenic agents this conception was not universal, for history shows us that clearthinkers, far in advance of their times, had an almost correct viewof the nature of insanity namely, that it was due to an affection ofthe mind among such men were hippocrates, aretæus, soranus, galen, aurelianus, etc , and essay of the mohammedan physicians these apostlesof science taught that insanity was a disease of the brain, and themost efficient remedy, mild, palliative treatment the belief which had flourished in most of the oriental religions fromremote antiquity, that the power of evil demons was the active causeof disease, writingicularly that lunacy was due to diabolic possession, became rooted in the early christian church and flourished for eighteencenturies, each leaf of this malignant plant representing countlessunfortunates sacrificed to superstition later it was thought that themoon had a direct influence upon perturbation of the mind. Hence, theterm “lunacy” developed these doctrines gained special credence in the first centuries afterchrist by the dissemination under the church fathers of the storyof the miracles which they claimed had been performed by jesus ofnazareth did not the savior cast out devils?. did he not cure madness?. The very word “epilepsy” shows by its derivation, ἐπίληψις to seizeupon, that possession was the presumable nature of the malady the noble work accomplished by the “pagan” pioneer alienists wasdiscredited or forgotten, and the church originated a process by whichthe possessed were to be treated this method of treatment was derivedpurely from theologic sources, tempered with sufficient dogma at firstthe treatment was gentle, in accordance with the spirit of the greatphysicians of antiquity, and if the afflicted one was not violent hewas permitted to attend public worship sacred salves and holy water, the breath or the spittle of the officiating priest, the touching ofrelics, or a visit to holy places, were the principal therapeuticagents employed these methods, even if they did no good essaytimesmerely the consolation of a kind word from the priest had a beneficialeffect, certainly did no harm, even tho such practises were factors inthe spread of superstition this mild form of treatment did not, however, long continue soonmeasures were directed toward driving out the evil spirit from thepossessed this was attempted in various ways. First, by exorcism, inthe period of justin martyr, and continued up to almost recent times see lecky, “history of european morals” “from the time of justinmartyr for about two centuries, there is, i believe, not a singlechristian writer who does not solemnly and explicitly assert thereality and frequent employment of this power ”one of the chief attributes of the devil was pride, therefore attemptswere made by exorcism to pierce this vulnerable point in the armor ofthe evil one, and the foulest, vilest epithets were used to attain thisend it is impossible to-day to print these expressions, even in a workof scientific character, and it is better, perhaps, to refer such asare especially interested in them to the manuale benedictionum, bythe bishop of passau, published in 1849, and similar works adjuvantsto this form of treatment consisted in “frightening” the devil bylong words, difficult to pronounce, commonly derived from orientallanguages, by the administration of malodorous and filthy “drugs, ” andsimilar practises it was claimed that thesis devils were thus driven out, and the annals ofthe church contain numerous records of persons cured in this manner “the jesuit fathers at vienna, in 1583, glorified in the fact thatin such a contest they had cast out twelve thousand, six hundred andfifty-two living devils” white the prevalence of these ideas tosuch a degree in the minds of the people may be noted from the factthat, in the churches themselves, such scenes are carved in stone anddepicted on canvas medieval drama teemed with similar conceptions, and this condition of affairs prevailed for over one thousand years, unfortunately not in this harmless manner, but supplemented by greatcruelty, which forms, perhaps, the most terrible chapter in the historyof medical superstition the subtleties of theologic interpretation soon evolved a morecomprehensive method of dealing with the “possessor” and the possessed as an appeal to pride was ineffectual and noxious drugs unavailing, it was found necessary to whip the devil out, or the unfortunateindividuals were imprisoned, and as a refinement of this treatment theywere even tortured thus the jailer for a long time played the writingof a specialist in lunacy, with the clergy in consultation places inwhich the insane were confined were known as “fool towers” and “witchtowers ”this state of things was not altered with the dawn of the reformation the writings of luther conclusively show his ideas in regard topossession and witchcraft, and these views under calvin reachedenormous development even cotton mather, in thesis respects far inadvance of his times, and who himself had known persecution, was notemancipated from these delusions, and salem has thesis a story to tell ofpossession and witch-baiting it is true we may quite properly considerthese views as the thought of the times, but, in thesis other respects, luther, calvin, and mather were in advance of their period, and, therefore, a justification for their actions is not quite apparent marcus aurelius also was much superior to his age, yet was grateful tohis teachers that they taught him to disregard superstition in all itsvarious forms it is not unlikely that conditions of this kind frequently led toepidemics if not of actual insanity, at least to hysteria which notrarely developed in cities, nunneries, and monasteries. Thus theepidemics in erfurt in 1237, in the rhine countries in 1374, and thesisothers see hirsch it is rather remarkable that while such views and practises prevailedin the christian church, the followers of mohammed not only helddifferent views, but adopted a mode of treatment of the insane whichlaid the foundation of modern therapeutics in diseases of the mind in the twelfth century, in bagdad, a palace called the “home of mercy”was built, in which the insane were confined, examined every month, andreleased as soon as they had recovered an asylum in cairo was foundedin 1304, while the first christian asylum expressly for the mad isnoted in 1409 lecky but science fought its way through the barriers of ignorance, misdirected zeal, and superstition altho there were physicians and“magicians, ” who conformed to the views of the church, the seed sown bythe earlier schools of medicine slowly but surely began to put forthshoots, and the result was a tree of knowledge, the fruit of whichmay be observed in every modern insane asylum of the world, wherethe unfortunate sufferer is treated with kindness and skill, which, fortunately, often results in cure scientific reason frequently rebelled against the “insanesuperstition, ” at first mildly, but constantly increasing in strength, until an effectual protest was finally raised by john weir, of cleves, who was soon followed by michel de montaigne and now a battle royalwas waged between the adherents of theology and the disciples of the“resurrected” truth, and once more in the history of the world wasdemonstrated the correctness of the saying, that “truth crushed toearth shall rise again ” all over the world the warfare was carried, and at the end of the eighteenth century new champions arose jeanbaptiste pinel in france, and william tuke in england their followersare legion, and in the book of life, in letters of gold, thesis a namehas been written of those who trod in the footsteps of these pioneers theology no longer interferes in the treatment of the insane. In fact, it would be manifestly unjust not to mention that thesis christiantheologians subsequently joined in the noble work of lunacy reform, andaided progress greatly how great this progress in the treatment of the insane can best beappreciated by essay of the older physicians in practise to-day whodoes not remember the chains, the strait-jacket, the dark locked cellsof the insane asylum?. these conditions existed not very thesis years ago, and altho the novels of charles reade are no doubt greatly exaggeratedin regard to the conditions he portrayed in insane asylums, yet morethan a grain of truth is probably contained in them the books didmuch to bring about reforms in england and elsewhere modern alienists have wrought wonders.

Or are men tongues so given to slander oneanother, that they must slander nuts too, to keep their tongues in use?. If any writing of the hazel nut be stopping, it is the husks and shells, and no one is so mad as to eat them unless physically. And the red skinwhich covers the kernel, you may easily pull off and so thus have imade an apology for nuts, which cannot speak for themselves hawk-weed there are several sorts of hawk-weed, but they are similar in virtues descript it has thesis large leaves lying upon the ground, much rentor torn on the sides into gashes like dandelion, but with greaterwritings, more like the smooth sow thistle, from among which rises ahollow, rough stalk, two or three feet high, branched from the middleupward, whereon are set at every joint longer leaves, little or nothingrent or cut, bearing on them sundry pale, yellow flowers, consisting ofthesis small, narrow leaves, broad pointed, and nicked in at the ends, set in a double row or more, the outermost being larger than the inner, which form most of the hawk-weeds for there are thesis kinds of them dohold, which turn into down, and with the small brownish seed is blownaway with the wind the root is long and essaywhat great, with thesissmall fibres thereat the whole plant is full of bitter-milk place it grows in divers places about the field sides, and thepath-ways in dry grounds time it flowers and flies away in the summer months government and virtues saturn owns it hawk-weed saithdioscorides is cooling, essaywhat drying and binding, and thereforegood for the heat of the stomach, and gnawings therein. Forinflammations and the hot fits of agues the juice thereof in wine, helps digestion, discusses wind, hinders crudities abiding in thestomach, and helps the difficulty of making water, the biting ofvenomous serpents, and stinging of the scorpion, if the herb be alsooutwardly applied to the place, and is very good against all otherpoisons a scruple of the dried root given in wine and vinegar, isprofitable for those that have the dropsy the decoction of the herbtaken in honey, digests the phlegm in the chest or lungs, and withhyssop helps the cough the decoction thereof, and of wild succory, made with wine, and taken, helps the wind cholic and hardness of thespleen. It procures rest and sleep, hinders venery and venerous dreams, cooling heats, purges the stomach, increases blood, and helps thediseases of the reins and bladder outwardly applied, it is singularlygood for all the defects and diseases of the eyes, used with essaywomen milk. And used with good success in fretting or creepingulcers, especially in the beginning the green leaves bruised, and witha little salt applied to any place burnt with fire, before blistersdo rise, helps them.

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Osteophytes are formed, and the neck of the femurapproaches the horizontal see abortion and infanticide determination of sex in the matter of sex there should be no difficulty, after noting theproof furnished by the aggregate characteristics of both male andfemale skeletons the points of contrast between the two skeletonsare not so striking before the age of puberty generally speaking thecranial capacity of an adult woman is less, although it is contendedthat since the great majority of males of the human species are taller, heavier, and larger than the females, it follows that if due allowancebe made for these variations, it will appear that the brain capacityof woman is relatively very little, if at all, inferior to that ofman the hero's journey essay mastoid processes of the female skull are smaller. The lowerjaw-bone is relatively smaller and lighter. The ribs are lighter andcompressed. The spine is relatively longer. The collar and shoulderbones and the sternum577 are smaller and lighter. There is a lesspronounced angle in the femur, the neck of which approaches a rightangle, while smallness of the patella in front and narrowness of thearticulating surfaces of the tibia and femur, which in man form thelateral prominences, are said to make the knee-joint in women a sexualcharacteristic but it is the striking contrast in the pelvis thatfurnishes a sexual significance that is of greater value than all therest of the skeleton together from a glance at the text-book accountof the pelvis, it does not appear that much anatomical knowledge isnecessary to identify the important points that give shape to thefemale pelvis its greater diameter except the vertical, larger andmore curved sacrum and coccyx, and great spread of the arch of thepubes are well-nigh incontestible signs the differences as detailedin the books can be objected to only on the possibility of a so-calledhermaphrodite pelvis in one of the other sex we essaytimes see a verylarge pelvis in a subject who by a teratological freak became a man masculine characteristics are, however, oftener found in women thanfeminine characteristics in men. Hence the conclusion that the presenceof feminine characteristics leaves but little doubt as to the sex, butthat certain masculine indications, while giving a great probabilityfor the male sex, are not absolutely decisive see hermaphroditism the finding of fœtal bones around or about the supposed female skeletonis suggestive it could not be inferred from this fact alone that thewoman was or was not pregnant at the time of death, since the absenceof fœtal remains on the one hand might imply their entire decompositionin advance of those of the adult. On the other hand, the indiscriminatehabit of undertakers, who often bury still-borns with adults, mayaccount for their presence accidental signs and evolution of the teeth the trade or occupation leaves but few marks on the bones that areuseful in the matter of identification it is in the recent andwell-preserved cadaver, or, better still, in the living subject, thatthe professional signs are of importance as a rule, the relativelylarger scapulæ point to the fact of a day-laborer. Necrosis of thelower jaw suggests a worker in phosphorus. Worn and discolored teetha user of tobacco, and aurification of the teeth might suggest theprevious social condition gold crowns and fillings and dentalprosthesis generally are among the most common and, at the same time, among the most useful signs of identification by this means the bonesof persons killed by indians on the western plains have been recognizedyears afterward the traveller powell, massacred in abyssinia, wasrecognized in this way from the presence of artificial teeth and themechanical appliances for fixing them, dentists may recognize theirown work beyond a doubt one of the most common-hackneyed of thesepaper is that of professor webster 578 later paper, in which thiskind of proof established convincing and conclusive identification, are those of dr cronin, assassinated in chicago in 1889, and of thebomb-thrower, norcross every now and then accounts appear in the dailypress of corpses having been recognized by inspection of the teeth in washington, only a short time since, the remains of an unknownman were exhumed from the potter field for judicial reasons theunrecognized body had been found in the potomac in an advanced stageof decomposition from the signs furnished by the teeth the remainswere identified as those of a person who had disappeared mysteriouslyand under circumstances that pointed to his having been murderedat a virginian gambling den, and his body thrown into the river in connection with this subject the goss-udderzook tragedy is ofinstructive interest in every important case a cast of the mouth should be taken, in orderto set at rest any question that may subsequently arise as to thecondition of the jaw, the absence of teeth, their irregularity orother dental peculiarities a cast of the mouth of the deceased in thehillmon case showed all the teeth to be regular and perfect, whileit is alleged that hillmon teeth were just the opposite externalsigns furnished by dentition may assist greatly in fixing both age andidentity the evolution of the human dental system has been so wellstudied from intra-uterine life to old age that we may approximatelytell the age, especially of children, from the teeth alone this sign, so valuable in childhood, loses its value as the dentition progresses elaborate tables and dental formulæ to be found elsewhere deal withthe two periods of dentition, the relative position and number of theteeth, and the like at birth the jaws show points of ossification only.