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By tightening the cords or knots by means of the hands orfeet or essay portion of the lower limbs. By the use of a woollen garterpassed twice around the neck and secured in front by two simple knots, strongly tied one to another it is difficult to simulate suicide. Requires great skill andpremeditation on the writing of a murderer “the attitude of the body, the condition of the dress, the means of strangulation, the presenceof marks of violence or of blood on the person of the deceased, on hisclothes or the furniture of the room, or both, rope or ligature, arecircumstances from which, if observed at the time, important medicalinferences may be drawn ” the assassin either does too little or toomuch taylor795 cites a number of paper of simulation strangulation is generally homicidal the marks of fingers or of aligature on the neck suggest homicide this is true even if the markis slight. Because infants and weakly persons may be strangled bythe pressure of the hands on the throat even a strong man, suddenlyassaulted, may lose his presence of mind and, with that, his power ofresistance. With approaching insensibility his strength still furtherdiminishes this is true even if his assailant is the less powerful itrequires more address to place a ligature on the neck than to stranglewith the hand a victim may be made insensible by drugs or blows and then strangled bya small amount of compression. Or suffocation by gags and strangulationmay both be attempted the importance of considering the position and number of the knots in acord is mentioned under suicidal strangulation in homicide, in addition to the marks on the neck, there is likely tobe evidence of a struggle and marks of violence elsewhere on the body it is important, therefore, to notice any evidence of such a struggle the nature of the cord may assist in identifying the assailant it must be remembered that homicidal strangulation may be committedwithout disturbing noise even when other persons are near simulation - false accusations of homicidal strangulation are on record tardieu796 states that a distinguished young woman for essay political purpose was found one evening at the door of her room apparently in great trouble and unable to speak she first indicated by gestures and then by writing that she had been assaulted by a man who tried to strangle her with his hand, and also struck her twice in the breast with a dagger she was absolutely mute did not even attempt to speak quite contrary to what is always observed in unfinished homicidal strangulation on examination by tardieu, no sign of attempt to strangle was found, and the so-called dagger-openings in her dress and corset did not correspond in position she confessed that she had attempted deception the celebrated roux-armand797 case was another instance of attempted deception a servant named roux was found on the ground in the cellar of his employer armand. His hands and legs were tied and there was a cord around his neck he was writingly asphyxiated, but after removal of the ligature from his neck he rapidly recovered, except that he was weak and voiceless he stated by gestures that he had been struck by his employer on the back of the head with a stick and then bound as described the next day he could speak armand was imprisoned tardieu examined carefully into the case and the results may be stated as follows. The asphyxia was incipient, else he could not have so rapidly recovered the cord around his neck had not been tied simply wound around several times.

In one instance, for example, two samples causedequal rises of blood pressure, but one was twice as active as the otheron the uterus hence it is evident that the blood pressure test is nota satisfactory method for determining the activity of a preparation onthe uterus, and vice versa 304 roth, g b. Pituitary standardization, bull 109, hyg lab , u s p h s , 1917 305 roth, g b. Bull 100, hyg lab , u s p h s the subject of pituitary standardization, or perhaps it may be saidthe application of the present method is, however, in need of furtherstudy thus the statement has recently been made306 that commercialpreparations are on the market which have from three to five timesthe activity of the pharmacopeia standard. This was not the case, however, with the preparations examined by roth it is probable thatessay have used for comparison a weaker standard than that proposedby the pharmacopeia. This, of course, would lead to the conclusionthat the commercial preparations were stronger than the pharmacopeiastandard roth suggests that the employment of standards of unequalactivity by the various supply houses could easily be eliminated byhaving a central laboratory distribute material for use as a standard it will be recalled that before the united states public health serviceestablished and began the distribution of standards for diphtheria andtetanus antitoxins, the commercial preparations of these varied evenmore in activity than do those of the pituitary extracts at present 306 pittenger, p s , and vanderkleed, c e. Jour am pharm assn 6:131, 1917 it is unnecessary to emphasize the importance of this subject. This issufficiently evident to those who have followed the recent clinicalliterature on the use of pituitary extracts in obstetrics thesepreparations are used in times of emergency. A weak preparation isvalueless, whereas overdosage, either from too strong a preparationor from too free use of a preparation of the official strength, isoften followed by disaster to the mother or child or both roth citesa number of paper of ruptured uterus and other injuries resulting fromtheir use -- editorial from the journal a m a , may 5, 1917 proprietorship in medicineto the editor:-- i am enclosing a reprint of my article on the“present status of pituitary extract in labor, ” which appeared in thejournal, june 2, 1917, p 1601, and also the september issue of parke, davis and company therapeutic notes, on page 89 of which they quotethis article, that you may compare the two the therapeutic notesarticle is ostensibly a copy, but as a matter of fact, it gives it onlyin writing, which seems to me to be a gross misrepresentation, and onewhich i do not think should go unnoticed joseph j mundell, m d , anacostia, d c comment -- therapeutic notes is one of the house organs of parke, davis and company a writing of each issue is usually devoted to“excerpts” from current literature the therapeutic notes may bejudged from the manner of “excerpting” the article of dr mundell naturally the interest of parke, davis and company is in those sectionsof the article which may be expected to promote the use of parke, davisand company proprietary preparation of pituitary extract-- pituitrin the following passages from the article of dr mundell were not amongthose “excerpted” in therapeutic notes. “used here in properly selected paper, after due consideration by one who has good obstetric judgment, its results are usually happy, and it is a boon to the tired mother and her attendants ” “to step beyond these narrow confines of indications is indeed entering on dangerous territory especially is this true as regards the life of the baby it is recommended in small doses by essay good authorities and is frequently used in paper of slight contraction at the brim with essaytimes very good results if the birth occurs within a few minutes, but frequently with disastrous results to the baby if delivery is delayed in such paper, forceps are urgently indicated its use in such paper is risky beyond question pituitary extract is recommended in paper of postwritingum hemorrhage, but ergot is undoubtedly to be preferred ” “all means should be exhausted to arrive at a definite diagnosis, and the dangers of its use should be fully appreciated and due consideration given before its administration in any case, for such a powerful drug, used indiscriminately, will surely produce sad results to mother or child or both ” “during the past two years a number of untoward effects and consequences of severe character have arisen as far as the maternal accidents and complications are concerned, i firmly believe that were the slogan of the hour “safety first” borne in mind, a number of them could have been prevented, for beyond question this drug has been greatly abused, as it has been given in too large doses, in paper in which its use was strongly contraindicated, and often, i am sorry to say, for no reason other than the accoucheur expediency its use has been reckless and careless the thesis reports of its rapid and safe action have been one of the greatest dangers delee says, ‘it provides for the physician and his brother gynecologist a lot of chronic sufferers, often incurable, even after mutilating operations ’” “an analysis of the detailed reports of all these paper of ruptured uterus with one or two exceptions reveals the fact that pituitary extract was abused, being given to patients who should not have had it to my mind, to give a dose of pituitary extract to a woman who has a contracted pelvis, mild or severe, when the head has not passed through the pelvis, is criminal and, if the obstetrician is not aware of the contraction, he is still little short of being a criminal ”in the latter writing of his article in the journal, dr mundell analyzesthe reports of twelve paper of rupture of the uterus, thirty-four paperof fetal deaths, and forty-one paper of asphyxia pallida in which“resuscitation was effected only after prolonged and vigorous efforts ”these also were not excerpted -- ed -- correspondence in the journala m a , nov 24, 1917 the manufacturer protestto the editor:-- the article in the journal, november 24, page 1818, on proprietorship in medicine does us a gross injustice, and in replythereto we beg leave to submit the following:for reasons which every publisher yourself included understands, it is not practicable for us to reproduce in full, in the columns oftherapeutic notes, all the clinical papers to which we wish to directthe attention of our readers but that the article of dr mundell wasnot garbled to make capital for parke, davis & co is quite apparenton comparison of the omitted portions with a previous paper by thesame author, reprinted in the january 1917 issue of the notes, and herewith submitted together with clippings from other issues ofthe notes which prove that we have not hesitated to present to ourreaders the dangers incidental to the misuse of pituitrin as well asthe advantages of its proper use therapeutic notes, in quoting other journals, puts into its readers’hands the means of investigating the fairness of its quotations it isa house organ-- true enough.

But conceal itsvices its heat is very vehement, and all vehement hot things sendup but ill-favoured vapours to the brain in coleric men it will addfuel to the fire. In men oppressed by melancholy, it will attenuatethe humour, and send up strong fancies, and as thesis strange visions tothe head. Therefore let it be taken inwardly with great moderation;outwardly you may make more bold with it gentian, felwort, or baldmony it is confessed that gentian, which is most used amongst us, is broughtover from beyond sea, yet we have two sorts of it growing frequentlyin our nation, which, besides the reasons so frequently alledged whyenglish herbs should be fittest for english bodies, has been proved bythe experience of divers physicians, to be not a wit inferior in virtueto that which comes from beyond sea, therefore be pleased to take thedescription of them as follows descript the greater of the two hath thesis small long roots thrustdown deep into the ground, and abiding all the winter the stalks areessaytimes more, essaytimes fewer, of a brownish green colour, which isessaytimes two feet high, if the ground be fruitful, having thesis long, narrow, dark green leaves, set by couples up to the top. The flowersare long and hollow, of a purple colour, ending in fine corners thesmaller sort which is to be found in our land, grows up with sundrystalks, not a foot high, writinged into several small branches, whereongrow divers small leaves together, very like those of the lessercentaury, of a whitish green colour. On the tops of these stalks growdivers perfect blue flowers, standing in long husks, but not so big asthe other. The root is very small, and full of threads place the first grows in divers places of both the east and westcounties, and as well in wet as in dry grounds. As near longfield, by gravesend, near cobham in kent, near lillinstone in kent, also ina chalk pit hard by a paper-mill not far from dartford in kent thesecond grows also in divers places in kent, as about southfleet, andlongfield. Upon barton hills in bedfordshire.

While the minimum is 1, 206 c c , which is rather toolow than too high according to topinard nomenclature of the cranialcapacity, macrocephalic in the adult european male are those havinga capacity of 1, 950 c c and above. A large skull is one of 1, 950 to1, 650 c c. Average or ordinary, 1, 650 to 1, 450 c c. Small, 1, 450 to1, 150 c c. Microcephalic 1, 150 c c and below it would seem that theskulls of the insane are below the type, a measurement of sixteen maleskulls giving an average of only 1, 449 c c scotchmen head the listwith the most voluminous skulls, and according to a tabular statementmade up from welcker, aitken, broca, and meigs, the english come next, with a capacity of 1, 572 c c then follow eskimo, 1, 483 c c. Germans, 1, 448 c c. French, 1, 403 to 1, 461 c c. South african negroes, 1, 372c c. Ancient peruvians, 1, 361 c c.

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“myricyl palmitate is a purified form of beeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solely manufactured by this company ”it was also stated that on “special order” cerelene has been madecontaining oil of eucalyptus and resorcin, oil of eucalyptus and picricacid, and picric acid alone the following report on the preparationwas presented to the hero essay examples council by the referee to whom cerelene had beenassigned. Cerelene is another compound wax for the treatment of burns according to the work of sollmann j a m a , 68:1799, 1917 it is highly improbable that compound mixtures have any advantage over simple paraffin of low melting point cerelene must therefore be considered as an unessential modification of paraffin, and as in conflict with rule 10. Unless definite evidence of superiority is submitted cerelene mixtures containing medicinal ingredients also appear unscientific since the evidence that the ingredients do not leave the wax has not been successfully contradicted finally, the claims made for cerelene are rather extreme, and would need essay revision before they could be accepted the a m a chemical laboratory reports. The physical properties of cerelene are as follows. melting point 50 0 c by u s p method ductility limit 30 5 c plasticity limit 26 4 c not strong at 38 c adheres moderately well. Detaches with “pulling ” on heating, readily loses eucalyptol, and a small amount of resinous substance forms in the bottom of the beaker if cerelene is heated to 145 c and cooled, the resulting product no longer has the properties of the original cerelene it is recommended that the preceding report be sent to the hollidaylaboratories, and that unless its superiority over simple paraffins isdemonstrated and the unwarranted claims abandoned, cerelene be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rules 6and 10 this report was submitted to the holliday laboratories with theinformation that it had been adopted, oct 3, 1917 it was alsoexplained that before cerelene could be accepted, the unofficialand unstandardized constituent “myricyl palmitate” would have to beconsidered and accepted for new and nonofficial remedies since, forobvious reasons, the council does not accept a preparation whichcontains an unofficial and unstandardized substance not in n n r the holliday laboratories acknowledged receipt of the council reportand asked that the matter be held in abeyance until the requestedevidence had been obtained later the council was advised that theadvertising circulars for cerelene had been withdrawn with theexception of one giving directions for its use five months later, thefirm stated that experiments were being made “to determine the actualstrength of cerelene in comparison with other paraffin waxes ”nothing further has been heard from the holliday laboratories and noreply has been received to an inquiry made oct 12, 1918 the counciltherefore authorizes publication of its report declaring cereleneinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies -- from the journala m a , feb 15, 1919 collosol cocaine not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe report which appears below was adopted by the council and sent tothe anglo-french drug co , ltd , new york, for comment in december, 1918 no explanation has been received from the manufacturer forthe information of the profession the council has now authorizedpublication of the report w a puckner, secretary “collosol cocaine” was submitted to the council in october, 1918, bythe anglo-french drug co , ltd , new york, under the claim that it wasan “absolute colloid” and that it contained “1 per cent cocain ” thelabel on the submitted specimen declares. “collosol cocaine 1-100” “ the cocaine exists as the pure alkaloid in the colloidal state-- the condition in which it is isomorphic with the protein of the body fluids the effect is more prolonged than that of a molecular cocaine solution and being non-toxic absorption presents no practical danger ”the product was assigned to the committee on pharmacology forconsideration the following report was submitted and its adoption bythe council recommended by the committee. “collosol cocaine” is said to be a colloidal form of cocain and is alleged to possess a remarkably low toxicity the subjoined report of the a m a chemical laboratory, however, shows that the preparation does not have the composition claimed for it and it is, in effect, misbranded in fact, the english manufacturers concede that it is not an “absolute colloid” and that the declaration with regard to the percentage of cocain is incorrect it is recommended that, without considering other conflicts with the rules of the council at this time, “collosol cocaine” be declared inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule 1 which requires that the composition of an article must be correctly declared the report of the a m a chemical laboratory is appended report of the a m a chemical laboratorysimpson, hewlett and eyre lancet, april 28, 1917, p 660 reported“collosol cocaine” to be much less toxic than cocain these writers, however, did not verify the statements as to the composition and inthe light of subsequent chemical examination it is not to be wonderedat that “collosol cocaine 1 0 per cent ” was much less toxic than asolution containing 1 0 per cent of cocain hydrochlorid barger, dale and durham report from the dewritingment of biochemistryand pharmacology, medical research committee lancet, dec 1, 1917, p 825, that they examined “collosol cocaine” and found it to containbut 0 25 per cent of cocain they also found that the cocain was notpresent in a colloidal form discussing the low toxicity claimed by themanufacturers, these investigators state.