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But children areessaytimes born with central incisors, as the writer has, in commonwith others, noted in several instances the first dentition takesplace from the seventh to the thirtieth month. The second betweenfour and five years in rachitic children these periods are later;but a syphilitic taint may hasten their development the twenty-eightteeth characterize early youth wisdom teeth appear between eighteenand twenty-five, essaytimes as late as thirty years the presence ofthirty-two teeth indicates maturity this number is essaytimes exceeded dr tidy, in his work on “legal medicine, ” reports having seen severalchildren between six and seven years with forty-eight teeth instancesare recorded of cutting the teeth at advanced age, seventy and onehundred and eighteen years. Of adults who have never had teeth.

After six minutes, litmus very red after ten minutes, faintly red after fifteen minutes, blue chlorlyptus oil, 1 c c after three minutes, faintly red after eight minutes, neutral conclusions -- on contact with living tissues, the acid of chlorlyptusis rapidly neutralized and absorbed the surface is neutral within ten or fifteen minutes it is therefore very improbable that the acidity hemingway essay checker is effectivelyantiseptic a comparison of chlorlyptus with dilute acetic acid shows that thechlorlyptus does not maintain the acidity even as well as 1 per cent acetic acid acetic acid chlorlyptus tongue, a drop of 5 per cent. Still neutral between five slightly acid to litmus after ten minutes. and ten minutes taste almost gone in two minutes gums, a few drops between cheeks and gums. neutral between ten five per cent still strongly acid in and fifteen minutes twelve minutes. Distinctly acid in seventeen minutes one per cent still strongly acid in twenty-one minutes -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -chlorlyptus. Reaction litmus paper on contact with tissue serial when quantity, time blue symptoms or no animal injected c c of death litmus toxicity 1 rat pleura 1 1/2 hour remains blue none. Killed. pleura not congested. lung spec 21. Slight congestion 2 rat pleura <1 1 hour remains blue negative 3 rat pleura 1 23 min remains blue almost at once bad gasping respiration and died in 23 m. Heart distend.

They are good hemingway essay checker also for otherinflammations. Yet it is not amiss to refrain from them in a fever, lest by their putrifying in the stomach they increase the fits theleaves and roots boiled in wine and water, and drank, do likewise coolthe liver and blood, and assuage all inflammations in the reins andbladder, provoke urine, and allay the heat and sharpness thereof thesame also being drank stays the bloody flux and women courses, andhelps the swelling of the spleen the water of the berries carefullydistilled, is a sovereign remedy and cordial in the panting and beatingof the heart, and is good for the yellow jaundice the juice droppedinto foul ulcers, or they washed therewith, or the decoction of theherb and root, doth wonderfully cleanse and help to cure them lotionsand gargles for sore mouths, or ulcers therein, or in the privy writingsor elsewhere, are made with the leaves and roots thereof. Which is alsogood to fasten loose teeth, and to heal spungy foul gums it helps alsoto stay catarrhs, or defluctions of rheum in the mouth, throat, teeth, or eyes the juice or water is singularly good for hot and red inflamedeyes, if dropped into them, or they bathed therewith it is also ofexcellent property for all pushes, wheals and other breakings forth ofhot and sharp humours in the face and hands, and other writings of thebody, to bathe them therewith, and to take away any redness in theface, or spots, or other deformities in the skin, and to make it clearand smooth essay use this medicine, take so thesis strawberries as youshall think fitting, and put them into a distillatory, or body of glassfit for them, which being well closed, set it in a bed of horse dungfor your use it is an excellent water for hot inflamed eyes, and totake away a film or skin that begins to grow over them, and for suchother defects in them as may be helped by any outward medicine succory, or chicory descript the garden succory hath long and narrower leaves than theendive, and more cut in or torn on the edges, and the root abides thesisyears it bears also blue flowers like endive, and the seed is hardlydistinguished from the seed of the smooth or ordinary endive the wild succory hath divers long leaves lying on the ground, very muchcut in or torn on the edges, on both sides, even to the middle rib, ending in a point. Essaytimes it hath a rib down to the middle of theleaves, from among which rises up a hard, round, woody stalk, spreadinginto thesis branches, set with smaller and less divided leaves on them upto the tops, where stand the flowers, which are like the garden kind, and the seed is also only take notice that the flowers of the gardenkind are gone in on a sunny day, they being so cold, that they are notable to endure the beams of the sun, and therefore more delight in theshade the root is white, but more hard and woody than the garden kind the whole plant is exceedingly bitter place this grows in thesis places of our land in waste untilled andbarren fields the other only in gardens government and virtues it is an herb of jupiter garden succory, as it is more dry and less cold than endive, so it opens more anhandful of the leaves, or roots boiled in wine or water, and a draughtthereof drank fasting, drives forth choleric and phlegmatic humours, opens obstructions of the liver, gall and spleen. Helps the yellowjaundice, the heat of the reins, and of the urine. The dropsy also;and those that have an evil disposition in their bodies, by reasonof long sickness, evil diet, &c which the greeks call cachexia adecoction thereof made with wine, and drank, is very effectual againstlong lingering agues. And a dram of the seed in powder, drank in wine, before the fit of the ague, helps to drive it away the distilled waterof the herb and flowers if you can take them in time hath the likeproperties, and is especially good for hot stomachs, and in agues, either pestilential or of long continuance. For swoonings and passionsof the heart, for the heat and head-ache in children, and for the bloodand liver the said water, or the juice, or the bruised leaves appliedoutwardly, allay swellings, inflammations, st anthony fire, pushes, wheals, and pimples, especially used with a little vinegar. As also towash pestiferous sores the said water is very effectual for sore eyesthat are inflamed with redness, for nurses’ breasts that are pained bythe abundance of milk the wild succory, as it is more bitter, so it is more strengthening tothe stomach and liver stone-crop, prick-madam, or small-houseleek descript it grows with divers trailing branches upon the ground, set with thesis thick, flat, roundish, whitish green leaves, pointed atthe ends the flowers stand thesis of them together, essaywhat loosely the roots are small, and run creeping under ground place it grows upon the stone walls and mud walls, upon the tilesof houses and pent-houses, and amongst rubbish, and in other gravellyplaces time it flowers in june and july, and the leaves are green all thewinter government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon, cold in quality, and essaything binding, and therefore very good tostay defluctions, especially such as fall upon the eyes it stopsbleeding, both inward and outward, helps cankers, and all frettingsores and ulcers. It abates the heat of choler, thereby preventingdiseases arising from choleric humours it expels poison much, resistspestilential fevers, being exceeding good also for tertian agues. Youmay drink the decoction of it, if you please, for all the foregoinginfirmities it is so harmless an herb, you can scarce use it amiss:being bruised and applied to the place, it helps the king evil, andany other knots or kernels in the flesh. As also the piles english tobacco descript this rises up with a round thick stalk, about two feethigh, whereon do grow thick, flat green leaves, nothing so large asthe other indian kind, essaywhat round pointed also, and nothing dentedabout the edges the stalk branches forth, and bears at the tops diversflowers set on great husks like the other, but nothing so large. Scarcestanding above the brims of the husks, round pointed also, and of agreenish yellow colour the seed that follows is not so bright, butlarger, contained in the like great heads the roots are neither sogreat nor woody. It perishes every year with the hard frosts in winter, but rises generally from its own sowing place this came from essay writings of brazil, as it is thought, and ismore familiar in our country than any of the other sorts. Early givingripe seed, which the others seldom do time it flowers from june, essaytimes to the end of august, orlater, and the seed ripens in the mean time government and virtues it is a martial plant it is found bygood experience to be available to expectorate tough phlegm from thestomach, chest, and lungs the juice thereof made into a syrup, or thedistilled water of the herb drank with essay sugar, or without, if youwill, or the smoak taken by a pipe, as is usual, but fainting, helpsto expel worms in the stomach and belly, and to ease the pains in thehead, or megrim, and the griping pains in the bowels it is profitablefor those that are troubled with the stone in the kidneys, both toease the pains by provoking urine, and also to expel gravel and thestone engendered therein, and hath been found very effectual to expelwindiness, and other humours, which cause the strangling of the mother the seed hereof is very effectual to expel the tooth ache, and theashes of the burnt herb to cleanse the gums, and make the teeth white the herb bruised and applied to the place grieved with the kingevil, helps it in nine or ten days effectually monardus saith, it isa counter poison against the biting of any venomous creature, the herbalso being outwardly applied to the hurt place the distilled wateris often given with essay sugar before the fit of an ague, to lessenit, and take it away in three or four times using if the distilledfæces of the herb, having been bruised before the distillation, and notdistilled dry, be set in warm dung for fourteen days, and afterwardsbe hung in a bag in a wine cellar, the liquor that distills therefromis singularly good to use in cramps, aches, the gout and sciatica, and to heal itches, scabs, and running ulcers, cankers, and all foulsores whatsoever the juice is also good for all the said griefs, andlikewise to kill lice in children heads the green herb bruised andapplied to any green wounds, cures any fresh wound or cut whatsoever:and the juice put into old sores, both cleanses and heals them thereis also made hereof a singularly good salve to help imposthumes, hardtumours, and other swellings by blows and falls the tamarisk tree it is so well known in the place where it grows, that it needs nodescription time it flowers about the end of may, or june, and the seed isripe and blown away in the beginning of september government and virtues a gallant saturnine herb it is the root, leaves, young branches, or bark boiled in wine, and drank, stays thebleeding of the hæmorrhodical veins, the spitting of blood, the tooabounding of women courses, the jaundice, the cholic, and the bitingof all venomous serpents, except the asp. And outwardly applied, isvery powerful against the hardness of the spleen, and the tooth-ache, pains in the ears, red and watering eyes the decoction, with essayhoney put thereto, is good to stay gangrenes and fretting ulcers, andto wash those that are subject to nits and lice alpinus and veslingiusaffirm, that the egyptians do with good success use the wood of it tocure the french disease, as others do with lignum vitæ or guiacum. Andgive it also to those who have the leprosy, scabs, ulcers, or the like its ashes doth quickly heal blisters raised by burnings or scaldings it helps the dropsy, arising from the hardness of the spleen, andtherefore to drink out of cups made of the wood is good for spleneticpersons it is also helpful for melancholy, and the black jaundice thatarise thereof garden tansy garden tansy is so well known, that it needs no description time it flowers in june and july government and virtues dame venus was minded to pleasure women withchild by this herb, for there grows not an herb, fitter for their usethan this is.

See the lohoch of fox lungs the liver of a duck, stops fluxes, and strengthens the liverexceedingly the liver of a frog, being dried and eaten, helps quartan agues, oras the vulgar call them, third-day agues hemingway essay checker castoreum resists poison, the bitings of venomous beasts. It provokesthe menses, and brings forth birth and after-birth. It expels wind, eases pains and aches, convulsions, sighings, lethargies. The smell ofit allays the fits of the mother. Inwardly given, it helps tremblings, falling-sickness, and other such ill effects of the brain and nerves. Ascruple is enough to take at a time, and indeed spirit of castorium isbetter than castorium, raw, to which i refer you a sheep or goat bladder being burnt, and the ashes giveninwardly, helps the diabetes a flayed mouse dried and beaten into powder, and given at a time, helps such as cannot hold their water, or have a diabetes, if you dothe like three days together ivory, or elephant tooth, binds, stops the whites, itstrengthens the heart and stomach, helps the yellow jaundice, and makeswomen fruitful those small bones which are found in the fore-feet of an hare, beingbeaten into powder and drank in wine, powerfully provoke urine goose grease, and capons grease, are both softening, help gnawingsores, stiffness of the womb, and mitigate pain i am of opinion that the suet of a goat mixed with a little saffron, is as excellent an ointment for the gout, especially the gout in theknees, as any is bears grease stays the falling off of the hair fox grease helps pains in the ears elk claws or hoofs are a sovereign remedy for the falling sickness, though it be but worn in a ring, much more being taken inwardly. Butsaith mizaldus, it must be the hoof of the right foot behind milk is an extreme windy meat. Therefore i am of the opinion ofdioscorides, viz that it is not profitable in head-aches. Yetthis is for certain, that it is an admirable remedy for inward ulcersin any writing of the body, or any corrosions, or excoriations, pains inthe reins and bladder. But it is very bad in diseases of the liver, spleen, the falling-sickness, vertigo, or dissiness in the head, feversand head-aches. Goat milk is held to be better than cow for hecticfevers, phthisick, and consumptions, and so is ass also whey, attenuates and cleanses both choler and melancholy:wonderfully helps melancholy and madness coming of it. Opens stoppingsof the bowels. Helps such as have the dropsy and are troubled with thestoppings of the spleen, rickets and hypochondriac melancholy. For suchdiseases you may make up your physic with whey outwardly it cleansesthe skin of such deformities as come through choler or melancholy, asscabs, itch, morphew, leprosies, &c honey is of a gallant cleansing quality, exceeding profitable in allinward ulcers in what writing of the body soever. It opens the veins, cleanses the reins and bladder i know no vices belonging to it, butonly it is soon converted into choler wax, softens, heats, and meanly fills sores with flesh, it suffersnot the milk to curdle in women breasts. Inwardly it is given tengrains at a time against bloody-fluxes raw-silk, heats and dries, cheers the heart, drives away sadness, comforts all the spirits, both natural, vital and animal belonging to the sea sperma cœti, is well applied outwardly to eating ulcers, the markswhich the small pox leaves behind them. It clears the sight, provokessweat. Inwardly it troubles the stomach and belly, helps bruises, and stretching of the nerves, and therefore is good for women newlydelivered amber-grease, heats and dries, strengthens the brain and nervesexceedingly, if the infirmity of them come of cold, resists pestilence sea-sand, a man that hath the dropsy, being set up to the middle init, it draws out all the water red coral, is cold, dry and binding, stops the immoderate flowing ofthe menses, bloody-fluxes, the running of the reins, and the fluoralbus, helps such as spit blood, it is an approved remedy for thefalling sickness also if ten grains of red coral be given to a childin a little breast-milk so soon as it is born, before it take any otherfood, it will never have the falling-sickness, nor convulsions thecommon dose is from ten grains to thirty pearls, are a wonderful strengthener to the heart, encrease milkin nurses, and amend it being naught, they restore such as are inconsumptions.

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“in ascience encumbered with so thesis sources of error and difficulties, itis obvious what cause we have for proceeding with the utmost caution, and for advancing from step to step with the greatest circumspection it is in consideration of those peculiar difficulties that beset andencompass the physician and surgeon, that all enlightened courts haveheld that but ordinary care and skill shall be required of them, andthat mere errors of judgment shall be overlooked, if the generalcharacter of treatment has been honest and intelligent, and that theresult of the case shall not determine the amount of the responsibilityto which he is held. And that when unskilfulness or negligent treatmentof his patient is charged to a surgeon, it is not enough to show thathe has not treated his patient in that mode or has not used measureswhich in the opinion of others, though medical men, the case required;because such evidence tends to prove errors of judgment, for which thedefendant is not responsible, as much as it goes to prove a want ofreasonable skill and care for which he may be responsible alone it isnot evidence of the latter, and therefore a writingy must go further andprove, by other evidence, that the defendant assumed the character andundertook to act as a physician without the education, knowledge, andskill which entitled him to act in that capacity ”in carpenter v blake, upon the last appeal 75 n y , 12, it wassaid that the reasonable ordinary care and diligence which the lawrequires of physicians and surgeons is that which persons engaged inthe same general line of practice have and exercise in like paper 196story statement of the rule - story in his work on bailments, p 433, with his usual felicitous method of statement says. “in all paperwhere skill is required it is to be understood that it means ordinaryskill in the business or employment which the bailee undertakes. Forhe is not presumed to undertake for extraordinary skill, which belongsto a few men only in his business or employment, or for extraordinaryendowments or acquirements reasonable skill constitutes the measure ofthe engagement in regard to the thing undertaken ”occult influences should be considered by lawyers and judges - inthis connection it should be borne in mind by lawyers and judges, thatin the case of a physician treating disease, or a surgeon repairingan injury, occult influences frequently play a most important writing professor elwell in his work on malpractice, etc , p 25, lays greatstress on this element of uncertainty he says. “in the case ofphysicians, surgeons, attorneys, etc , another and important elementbesides skill enters into the result, and for this reason the degreeof responsibility is to a certain extent and in a manner indicatedand influenced this important element is the operation of causes andinfluences over which the practitioner has but little or no control they are occult, and no human foresight is able to anticipate thembefore they have completely deranged and materially interfered withhis plans by bringing about a different result than that confidentlydepended upon ”197change and advancement in medical knowledge also to beconsidered - it should on the other hand be clearly understood thatthe constant change and improvement which are going on in medical andsurgical education, in the discovery of new remedies and new methodsof treatment, and in the invention of new instruments, tend constantlyto elevate the average skill and intelligence of the profession, andwith them the standard by which the courts will determine liability fornegligence what would have been, but a few years ago, fully recognizedby the courts as ordinary skill in the treatment of disease and theperformance of operations, would now be regarded as antiquated and lessthan ordinary skill, because of the advancement in the knowledge ofmeans which can be devoted to the treatment of disease and injury 198we have already seen that what is the degree of skill to be requiredof one practising in a small town or a country district sparselyinhabited, and what is required in the case of a city practitioner, maydiffer to essay extent with the circumstances quacks and pretenders, however, must be judged by the standard of regular practitioners 199degree of care and skill a mixed question of law and fact - whatconstitutes reasonable care and skill is a mixed question of law andfact, like any other question of negligence where the evidence isundisputed and no conflicting inferences can be drawn from the factspresented, it is the duty of the court to determine whether or notthere is sufficient proof of want of ordinary care and skill to besubmitted to the jury where, however, the evidence is conflicting onthat point, or the inferences to be drawn from the facts establishedmight be differently drawn by different men having the same opportunityfor observation, and the same circumstances before them, it is forthe jury to say whether or not the defendant has exercised reasonablecare and skill, guided by proper directions from the court as to themeasure of skill required this involves the question as to how farthe practitioner is bound to be familiar with the methods, appliances, drugs, and methods of treatment of his profession in general 200experimentation not permissible - experimentation, whether uponcharity patients or pay patients, is equally prohibited by well-settledrules of law in other words, a dewritingure from known methods oftreatment for the purpose of or by way of trying unknown remedies, oroperations not usually adopted by the profession, if an unfortunateresult occurs, renders the defendant liable mcnevins v lowe, 40ill , 209 measure of damages the measure of damages in paper of malpractice may vary with the kindof malpractice in the case of wilful malpractice, the element ofgross negligence justifies punitive or retaliatory damages, in thosestates where any such damages are allowed that is, damages which willnot only compensate for the injuries inflicted, but which will, bypunishing the wrong done, tend to repress similar acts in the future the tendency of the courts and of legal authority of the present timeis, however, to limit as often as possible the paper in which punitivedamages are allowed, upon the theory that if a grossly negligent act iscommitted it will require criminal prosecution, and that the strongarm of the state should be invoked to punish the wrong, rather than toline the pocket of the injured person on the other hand, in paper of malpractice, damages for want ofordinary care and skill are recompensed as in any other paper ofnegligence they may include loss of time of the patient, inabilityto earn his living, such sum as the jury thinks is reasonable to begiven as a compensation for the extra pain and suffering, and, wherethe injury is permanent, such further sum as will indemnify thepatient for the injury or deformity which he may suffer on account ofthe defendant neglect citation of authority upon this question ofdamages is almost unnecessary 201liabilities of writingners, etc - it has been held that where twophysicians were writingners, and one of them committed an act of negligentmalpractice, both were liable in a civil court for damages 202but the declarations of the writingner who is guilty of the negligent act, made as to the act committed, and in the absence of the other writingner, are not admissible as against the other writingner and so also is therule as to declarations of the writingner who committed the act after itscommission as to the propriety of the treatment, and opinions expressedby him in reference thereto 203it has also been held that one surgeon who recommends the employment ofanother during his absence from town is not liable for acts committedduring his absence 204suits for injuries to married women and minor children - when theperson injured is a married woman, her husband may sue for loss ofservices on account of malpractice, and when the injured person is aminor child the parent may sue as in any case of negligence a thirdperson, such as the husband of a woman injured by malpractice, orthe father of minor child so injured, can only recover the value ofthe services thereby lost, and in essay paper the enhanced expense ofmedical attention and nursing thereby rendered necessary inspection of the injured person at the trial before trialimproper - in an action in which the injury is to a portion of thebody which may be seen, such as the shortening of a limb on account ofimproper treatment of a fracture, the limb may be exhibited to the jury it has been much discussed whether the defendant in a malpractice orother negligence case can compel the plaintiff to permit his personto be examined by physicians before trial, to enable the defendant toknow the full extent of the injury so far as it is perceptible inthe latest paper the examination of plaintiff before trial was notallowed 205in 1877 the supreme court of iowa in the case of schroder v c , r i & p r r co , 47 iowa, 375, held that the court had inherentpower and jurisdiction to compel the plaintiff to submit to such anexamination this decision has been followed by the courts of several of the westernand southern states, while in others the power has been denied thesepaper will be found fully collected in roberts v o & l c r co and in u p r r co v botsford cited above the ground of the decision of the united states supreme court and ofthe new york court of appeals seems to be, that in the absence oflegislative provision permitting a court to order such an examination, it has no inherent power to do so, and did not derive any such powersfrom the common-law courts of england, which never had exercised suchpowers in essay of the paper which deny the right to compel such examination, it is claimed that if such a statute was passed as would confer uponthe courts power to compel such an examination, the statute wouldbe unconstitutional, and much is said in those decisions about thesacredness and immunity of the person it seems difficult, however, to understand why such statutes should be considered as differing inany respect from statutes permitting orders for the examination ofwitnesses and writingies before trial, or for the discovery and inspectionof books and papers, and the like, which statutes have been enacted forthesis years and have never been held to be unconstitutional surely anhonest suitor having a just claim for damages for personal injurieswould not object to such an examination, because the result wouldoften strengthen his case, while a dishonest suitor having a falseand unmeritorious claim ought to be exposed and have his false claimsdefeated, in the interests of justice and truth on the other hand, a suitor who was honestly mistaken in his belief that he had beendisfigured or injured by an act of malpractice might often discover hismistake, and be saved the annoyance and expense of defeat after a trialin open court essay of the most frequent paper of alleged malpractice, brought beforethe courts, are those in which it is claimed that a fractured limbhas been improperly set, with the result that it becomes crooked orshortened. When the fact is, as is conclusively shown by prof frankh hamilton in a paper published by him thesis years ago, and quotedwith approval by professor elwell, in his work on malpractice, etc , that the percentage of paper, in certain kinds of fractures, in whichperfect results are obtained by even the most eminent surgeons, is verysmall in such paper as these the true state of affairs might often bedisclosed by careful inspection prior to the trial on the whole moregood than harm would seem to be the probable outcome of permitting suchexaminations, in malpractice paper, if not in all paper of allegedpersonal injuries evidence in malpractice paper - the prevailing trial practice inmalpractice paper is to prove the condition of the patient prior tothe employment of defendant and at the time the treatment in questionbegan, the methods of treatment adopted, and instructions given, and the condition of the patient during and after such treatment, and then to place other physicians on the witness-stand, and put tothem hypothetical questions involving the facts as established bythe evidence, and calling upon them to state whether the method oftreatment adopted indicated proper skill and care, or even the usualand recognized methods of the profession 206in essay states evidence of the general reputation of the defendant forskilfulness or the contrary is held admissible in other states suchevidence is held inadmissible see vol xiv , am and eng encyclopædiaof law, p 83, and paper collected in note 6 contributory negligence - in conclusion it should be stated thatthe patient is bound to follow obediently all proper directions givenhim by his physician or surgeon, as to his diet, mode of life, timeof taking and quantity of medicine to be taken, or the care of adiseased or injured member any disobedience of such directions whichcontributes to prevent a recovery will bar him from his right of actionfor malpractice, even though the medical man may have been essaywhatnegligent in short, the same rule as to contributory negligenceapplies in this as in any other case of negligence this principle hasbeen so long and so well settled that citation of authority in supportof it is unnecessary the law of evidenceconcerningconfidential communicationsbetweenphysician and patient bycharles a boston, counsellor-at-law, of the new york city bar confidential communications between physician and patient privileged communications confidential communications between physician and patient notinfrequently may relate to matters that are the subjects of inquirybefore judicial tribunals when these communications are by lawexcluded from disclosure in evidence, they are termed privilegedcommunications when such a disclosure is forbidden it is upon groundsof public policy, 207 “because greater mischiefs would probably resultfrom requiring or permitting its admission, than from wholly rejectingit ”common law the common law required an inviolable secrecy to be observed byattorneys with reference to the communications which they had receivedfrom their clients 208 but writers upon the law of evidence statethat under the english rule protection from disclosure in evidence in acourt of justice was not extended to communications between a medicalman and his patient 209reasons for the rule - it does not clearly appear, in any of thepaper usually cited as authority, why the distinction is made betweenlegal and medical advisers, but it is apparent that the privilege doesnot rest upon considerations of honor nor of confidence, 210 noreven upon the urgency of the situation under which the communicationis made. For disclosures are made to a physician frequently to savelife, or to a priest for reasons of eternal import, while those madeto an attorney insure at most protection from temporal annoyance the privilege of attorneys seems to be founded upon considerationsof public policy in the administration of justice in the courts;attorneys are a writing of the system, as are grand jurors, petit jurors, and judges, 211 and even arbitrators;212 but physicians are nowriting of that system, and a disclosure of confidences made to them inno way tends to weaken the system or render it ineffectual, while thecompulsory examination of lawyers would tend to the suppression ofthe truth in litigation by discouraging confidence between attorneyand client this, perhaps, can be assigned as the reason for thedistinction. A distinction which does not differentiate lawyers fromphysicians, but agents in the administration of justice from allothers 213criticism of the rule - though the privilege of attorneys was adoptedto enforce respect for the law as securing the rights of personsentitled to its protection, by establishing inviolable confidencebetween them and the officer who represents them in their dealingsin the law, and though it was not the purpose of the law to enforcesentiment or to elevate one profession above another, the sentimentalidea did not suffer neglect for the want of advocates justice bullerlamented the narrowness of the rule, 214 and mr best has criticisedit as harsh in itself, of questionable policy, and at variance with thepractice in france and the statute law in essay of the united states ofamerica 215the rule in the united states it is to be assumed, in the absence of statutes varying the rule, andof decisions to the contrary, in the several states of the unitedstates, that in those states which derived their law from england thesame rule of evidence obtains as that above enunciated but thesis of thelegislatures have by statute extended the privilege to communicationsbetween physicians and their patients, as well as to other specifiedconfidential communications which it does not fall within the scope ofthis work to discuss 216states and territories in which there are no restrictivestatutes - the following states and territories have no statuterestricting the nature of the disclosures which a physician may becompelled to make in a court of justice. Alabama, arizona, connecticut, delaware, district of columbia, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, maine, maryland, massachusetts, mississippi, new hampshire, new jersey, new mexico, pennsylvania, rhode island, south carolina, tennessee, texas, vermont, virginia, and west virginia 217states and territories in which there are restrictive statutes - thefollowing states and territories have statutes restricting disclosuresby physicians.