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The liquid has help writing a great university paper a slight opalescence thereis considerable deposit of a heavy black precipitate does not becomehomogeneous on shaking and the black substance quickly separates again collosol cuprum, 0 5 per cent. Dark red essaywhat opalescentliquid no precipitate may be colloidal collosol ferrum, 1-2000. Liquid clear large quantities of dark brownflocculent precipitate the precipitate is not distributed evenly whenthe mixture is shaken and settles out quickly on standing collosol hydrargyrum, 5 per cent. Milky liquid large quantities ofwhite deposit mixed with considerable black the deposit mixes fairlywell but the greater writing settles out after standing an hour or two collosol manganese, 2 5-1000. Clear reddish-brown liquid withoutdeposit of any kind is not opalescent or fluorescent collosol iodin, 1-500. Very pale straw colored liquid withoutdeposit has a slight opalescence collosol sulphur, 1-100.

Whether the cause isdirected against the body or the body against the cause ” the sameauthor quotes another definition of a wound as, “every lesion howeverslight, resulting in concerning or affecting the body or health of anindividual ” taylor602 defines a wound in a medico-legal sense as “abreach of continuity in the structures of the body whether external orinternal, suddenly occasioned by mechanical violence ” thus, the termwound in its medico-legal acceptation includes not only surgical woundsbut contusions, fractures, burns, concussion, etc in france at leastthe voluntary inoculation of syphilis has been considered as comingunder the category of wounds 603medico-legally, the severity of a wound is much more important thanthe kind of wound thus we may consider wounds according to theircomparative gravity, as mortal, severe, or slight a mortal wound is one which is directly fatal to life in acomparatively short time, usually from hemorrhage, shock, or the injuryof a vital writing a wound may result fatally without being a mortalwound, as when a slight wound causes death on account of essay woundinfection severe wounds, or “wounds causing grievous bodily harm, ” as they havelong been called, do not put life in imminent danger, though they maybe inconvenient or detrimental to health pollock, c b , says that awound causing grievous bodily harm is “any wound requiring treatment ”a medical opinion or certificate may be required as to the danger of agiven wound, and on this opinion may depend the question of bail forthe prisoner by the danger of a wound in such a case is usually meantimminent danger, as any wound may be remotely dangerous to life slight wounds, as already stated, may result fatally under certainconditions under the french practice a slight wound is one which doesnot incapacitate one from work for more than twenty days looked atin another way, slight or severe wounds may be classified accordingas they are completely curable, leaving no infirmity or disturbanceof function, or not completely curable the latter are such as arenecessarily followed by permanent or temporary infirmity the question as to the severity of any given wound may essaytimes beleft to the jury to decide from the description of the wound, or amedical opinion may be required although the intent of the assailant is often of equal or greaterimportance than the severity or kind of wound, yet this can onlyoccasionally be inferred from the surgical aspects of the wound the classes of wounds to be treated in the following pages are incisedand punctured wounds and wounds with blunt instruments, essay of thecharacteristics of which we will now consider incised wounds are such as are produced by a cutting instrument, andthey are distinguished by the following characteristics. They measuremore in length than in the other dimensions they are usually straightin direction, though not infrequently curved, and they may even bezig-zag, especially where the skin lies in folds the edges of anincised wound are linear, and show no signs of contusion they areeither inverted or everted and the edges and sides of the wound areretracted the eversion of the skin is due to its elasticity, but inessay regions of the body, e g , in the scrotum, etc , the skin isinverted owing to the contraction of the muscle fibres immediatelybeneath the gaping of the wound is due to the retraction of thedivided muscles and fibrous structures it varies according as themuscles are cut directly across or more lengthwise, and in proportionto the distance of the wound from the points of attachment of themuscles the fibrous tissues, fasciæ, and aponeuroses retract less, and so givea essaywhat irregular surface to a large wound ogston604 divides incised wounds into three writings, the commencement, centre, and end, of which the end often has two or more serrationsdiffering from the commencement, which has but a single point thereare often one or more slight, superficial, tentative incisions situatedalmost always, though not invariably, near the commencement 605 thedeepest writing of the wound is more often near the commencement ifthere are angular flaps on the edges their free angles point to thecommencement of the wound coagula and clots of blood are to be found in the wound, more or lessfilling it up if it has not been interfered with on examination theends of the divided vessels are found plugged with clots which mayprotrude essaywhat from their openings if the wound is seen very shortly after its infliction, hemorrhage isin progress, and the divided arteries show their position by theirindividual, intermittent jets of blood the severity of incised woundsdepends upon the amount of hemorrhage, which is greater the deeper andlarger the wound, and the more vascular the tissues in which it occurs, especially if large and important vessels are concerned in the lattercase an incised wound may be very rapidly fatal incised wounds present the least favorable conditions for thespontaneous arrest of hemorrhage of any form of wounds the edges of anincised wound may be quite rough and even dentated or lacerated if theedge of the weapon be rough and irregular the kind and condition of a weapon which has produced a given incisedwound may often be learned by an examination of the characteristics ofthe wound weapons cutting by their weight as well as by the sharpness of theiredges, such as axes, etc , may cause a certain amount of contusionabout a wound. They crush the soft writings to a certain extent, and thebones may be indented or even fractured wounds caused by fragments of bottles, pieces of china, earthenware, or glass, though strictly speaking incised wounds, are often curved, angular, and irregular, and their edges jagged and contused wounds caused by scissors may essaytimes be of the nature of incisedwounds when they present a double wound of triangular shape, with theapex of the triangle blunt, they are more of the nature of puncturedwounds in general a “tail” or long angle in the skin at one end of anincised wound indicates the end of the wound last inflicted, and essaylight may thus be thrown upon the inflicter of the wound incised wounds present very favorable conditions for healing by primaryunion, but often fail in this and heal by secondary union when anincised wound fails to unite by primary union, bleeding continuesfor several hours or even as long as a day, the blood being mixedmore or less with a serous discharge the latter continues until thethird day or so by the fourth or fifth day the surface has begun togranulate, and there may be a more or less profuse purulent dischargefrom the surface the granulating surfaces do not necessarily dischargepus, however for essay days, therefore, after the infliction of anincised wound, or until the surface is covered with granulations, thecharacteristics of the wound permit of a diagnosis as to the nature ofthe wound the diagnosis of an incised wound is generally without difficulty essay wounds by blunt instruments, however, in certain regions of thebody, resemble incised wounds very closely such instances are foundwhere a firm, thin layer of skin and subjacent tissue lies directlyover a bony surface or a sharp ridge of bone these are seen most oftenin the scalp or in wounds of the eyebrow where the sharp supra-orbitalridge cuts through the skin from beneath the diagnosis of an incisedwound can often be made with great probability from the cicatrix thisis especially the case if the wound has healed by primary union and thecicatrix is linear the prognosis in incised wounds is good as to life unless a largevessel has been divided or unless an important viscus has beenpenetrated the prognosis as to function varies with the position andextent of the wound, and the circumstance of the healing of the wound punctured wounds, stabs, etc - these are characterized by narrownessas compared to depth, though the depth is not necessarily great they are more varied in character than incised wounds owing to thegreat variety of form of the weapons by which they may be made fromthe form, etc , of a writingicular wound we may often infer the varietyof weapon by which it was produced according to the weapon used, punctured wounds have been divided into several classes, of which m tourdes distinguishes four. 1st punctured wounds by cylindrical orconical instruments like a needle if the instrument be very fine likea fine needle, it penetrates by separating the anatomical elementsof the skin, etc , without leaving a bloody tract such wounds aregenerally inoffensive, even when penetrating, if the needle is aseptic, and they are difficult to appreciate on the cadaver it is almostimpossible to find the tract of such a wound if the instrument be alittle larger it leaves a bloody tract, but it is difficult to followthis in soft tissues, more easy in more resistant structures, such astendon, aponeurosis, cartilage, or serous membrane if the instrument be of any size this variety of punctured woundspresents a form quite different from that of the weapon instead of around wound it is generally a longitudinal wound with two very acuteangles and two elongated borders of equal length, showing but littleretraction this is the shape of the wound even when the instrumentproducing it is so large that the resulting wound resembles that madeby a knife see fig 2 the direction of the long axis of these woundsvaries in different writings of the body and is uniform in the same writing their shape and direction are explained by the tension of the skin orstill more clearly by the direction of the fibres of the skin, justas with the same round instrument in a piece of wood a longitudinalopening or split would be made parallel to the grain see fig 1 inessay regions, as near the vertebræ, the fibres may run in differentdirections, and the resulting wound is stellate or triangular in shapeas if a thesis-sided instrument had caused it as the direction of thefibres of the various tissue layers, such as aponeuroses, serous andmucous membranes, etc , may be different, a deep wound involvingseveral such layers would have a different direction for each layer inillustration of this, examine the figure of a wound through the wall ofthe stomach see fig 3 illustration. Fig 1 - direction of the long axis of wounds of theback caused by conical instruments after langer the wounds above described when large are smaller than the weapon, as the splitting of the skin has certain limits and also owing to theelasticity of the skin, which is put on the stretch by the weapon andrelaxed on its withdrawal when such wounds are small they are largeras a rule than the instrument causing them illustration. Fig 2 - slit-like wound caused by a pointed conicalinstrument 2 5 cm in diameter natural size illustration.

Gelsemium, green tincture, 8 minims. Inula, represented by the camphoraceous stearoptene helenin, 20 grs. Iodized lime, 8 grs. Menthol, 1-4 grs. Aromatic syrup yerba santa, 60 minims ”it is said to be. “a new combination of well-tried remedies of especial value in pertussis and other spasmodic coughs it is composed of astringent, antispasmodic, sedative and expectorant agents, that control the paroxysms, relieve the irritation, promote expectoration, and give tone to mucous membranes involved ”still more exaggerated claims are made for the individual constituentsof casta-flora, writingly by direct statement, writingly by inference forexample. “castanea is almost a specific in whooping cough and other spasmodic coughs “passiflora is a narcotic, sedative and antispasmodic without habit-forming properties, nor does it lock up the secretions and upset digestion like opiates “inula elecampane has been employed as a cough remedy in england for centuries its action is similar to guaiacol and creosote its active principle, helenin, is destructive of tubercle bacilli in dilutions of 1 to 10, 000 “iodized lime, menthol, and yerba santa are too well known as expectorants and antiseptics to require more than passing mention ”that casta-flora is a “new” combination may be admitted.

“in every form of leucorrhea naphey medicated uterine wafers are indicated ” “what is true of leucorrhea is also true of all other functional troubles affecting the female genital canal. They are all treated best by astringents and antiseptics and these, to be effective, must be applied in prolonged contact ”the implication that all “functional troubles affecting the femalegenital canal” are best treated by astringent tablets like napheymedicated uterine wafers is an absurdity the naming of diseaseconditions on the label, the manifestly unwarranted and exaggeratedtherapeutic claims, the name, which is non-descriptive of compositionbut suggestive of use, and the fixed formula, which cannot rationallybe expected to give uniformly satisfactory results in the wide rangeof conditions for which the product is recommended, render napheymedicated uterine wafers ineligible for new and nonofficial remediesunder rules 4, 6, 8 and 10 the report having been sent to naphey & co , the manufactureroffered, on condition that the preparation be accepted, to revise theadvertising matter in minor writingiculars, to remove disease names fromthe trade package and to adopt the name naphey wafers or napheytablets the council advised naphey & co that the proposed names donot conform to the requirements for acceptance in new and nonofficialremedies because they do not indicate the composition of thispharmaceutical mixture, and moreover, that the routine use of a complexformula such as that of these tablets is irrational -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 66 nujol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynujol, a liquid petrolatum standard oil company of new jersey, bayonne, n j , was submitted to the council by the manufacturers the council advised the company that, before nujol could be madeeligible for new and nonofficial remedies, the advertising claims madefor it must be revised to conform to the rules of the council and theterm “liquid petrolatum” must be used in connection with the branddesignation and given equal prominence on the labels, advertisementsand all circulars the company thereupon submitted a label on whichthe name “nujol” appeared in large red letters and under it in smallletters the words “liquid petrolatum ” this did not meet the councilrequirement with regard to the name moreover, nujol continued to beadvertised to the public under exaggerated and unwarranted claims the foregoing report was sent to the standard oil company of newjersey, which thereupon submitted revised advertising copy thiscopy was decidedly less objectionable than the previous advertisingbut still contained exaggerated statements the copy for use inlay journals writingicularly evidenced exaggeration observation onthesis occasions of a similar fact has convinced the council of theinexpediency of admitting to new and nonofficial remedies any articlewhich is advertised to the public 101101 since publication of this report the council on pharmacy andchemistry has revised its rule against recognition of articlesadvertised to the public so that this shall not apply a todisinfectants, germicides and antiseptics, provided the advertising belimited to conservative recommendations for their use as prophylacticapplications to superficial cuts and abrasions of the skin and to themucous surfaces of the mouth, pharynx and nose, and provided they arenot advertised as curative agents, and b to non-medicinal foodpreparations, except when advertised in an objectionable manner the council held that conflict with rules 3, 6 and 8 preventedthe acceptance of nujol and authorized the publication of thisreport -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 68 pulvoids natrium compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrypulvoids natrium compound was submitted to the council by the drugproducts company, inc , new york, with the statement that each pulvoid coated tablet, said to be made to dissolve in the intestinal tractrepresents the equivalent of. Potassium nitrate 2-1/2 grs sodium nitrite 1/2 gr sodium bicarbonate 2 grs fl ext crataegus oxycantha 1 min nitroglycerin 1/250 gr according to the advertisements the tablets are “indicated in thetreatment of high blood pressure and all forms of hypertension of thecardio-vascular system ” it is claimed that the tablets “will notirritate the kidneys ”the council, having submitted its objections to the manufacturer andconsidered the firm reply, held that pulvoids natrium compound wasinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for the following reasons:1 the claim is made that the tablets disintegrate in the intestines;experiments conducted by the council indicated that in most paper theywould be broken up in the stomach it was found that the tablets werevisibly changed immediately after being put into gastric juice or eveninto distilled water. They disintegrated within from three to fourhours, not only in gastric juice obtained from a dog at 37 c , butalso in distilled water it is quite usual for solids to remain inthe stomach for more than three hours if they make their way out ofthe stomach in less than that time the gastric movements must be sovigorous as further to hasten the disintegration of the tablets 2 the rules of the council require that the name of a pharmaceuticalmixture shall indicate the potent ingredients the name of this mixturedoes not indicate the presence of the nitrites, the potassium nitrate, the bicarbonate or the extract of hawthorne and the nondescriptive nameis likely to lead physicians to use the tablets without fully realizingwhat they are giving 3 no evidence was submitted that the tablets, as found on the market, contained the amount of sodium nitrite and nitroglycerin claimed that is, it does not appear that the manufacturer checks the sodiumnitrite and nitroglycerin content by analysis the council did notdetermine the nitrite content of the tablets it maintains that whena manufacturer places a product on the market the burden of proof ison that manufacturer to show that the facts are in accordance withhis claims for his product further, the examination by the councilof one or several specimens of any commercial product writingicularlyin the case of nitroglycerin preparations would not be a guaranteeof the constancy of its composition so long as the manufacturer doesnot himself control the composition by analysis the necessity ofsuch control of tablets containing nitroglycerin is evident from thereport102 of l f kebler of the u s bureau of chemistry dr kebler said:102 j a m a , nov 2, 1912, p 1604 “ nitroglycerin tablets have in a majority of paper been found deficient in the nitroglycerin content declared ” “ these commodities are manufactured largely by rule of thumb little checking obtains in their manufacture and generally no analyst is employed ”a further proof that nitroglycerin tablets are likely to be deficientin strength is contained in the convictions under the food and drugsact of manufacturers who sold tablets below the declared strength, recorded from time to time notices of judgments nos 3405, 2059, 1843, 1799 4 there is no good evidence, experimental or clinical, to justify thesimultaneous administration in fixed proportion of two vasodilatorslike sodium nitrite and glyceryl trinitrate nitroglycerin also thereis no rational excuse for combining extract of hawthorne, which is saidto have a tonic effect on the heart muscle, with nitrites, which causerelaxation of the vascular system, or for the combination with theseconstituents of potassium nitrate or of sodium bicarbonate in the absence of evidence for the combination, pulvoids natriumcompound must be considered an irrational mixture, the use of which isa detriment to sound drug therapy and, hence, not admissible to newand nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 69 saloform report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya referee submitted the following report of the american medicalassociation chemical laboratory to the council. analysis of saloformsaloform flexner is advertised by the robinson-pettet company oflouisville, ky in the advertisements for the product it is stated that. “saloform is a definite chemical compound the component writings of which are hexamethylene tetramine, salicylic acid and lithia ” “as a uric acid solvent it is indicated in rheumatism, gout, in phosphaturia, in gravel, and in renal colic ” “as a genito-urinary antiseptic it limits suppuration anywhere along the urinary tract, from the kidneys down to the orifice of urethra ”as, even after diligent search, no description of a compound ofhexamethylenamine hexamethylenetetramine, salicylic acid and lithiawas found in chemical literature, it seemed probable that saloformis merely a mixture of hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate accordingly the separation of saloform into its component writings bymeans of selected solvents was attempted by triturating the powderwith chloroform, filtering and evaporating the filtrate, a residuewas obtained which gave satisfactory tests for hexamethylenaminebut contained only traces of salicylic acid or lithium salicylate the portion insoluble in chloroform was dissolved in water thesolution gave satisfactory tests for lithium salicylate but not forhexamethylenamine from these tests it is evident that saloformis a simple mixture of hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate quantitative examination indicated that the two ingredients, hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate, are present in approximatelyequal amounts referee recommendationthe report of our chemical laboratory shows that saloform is not adefinite compound as claimed, but a simple mixture of hexamethylenaminand lithium salicylate it is therefore in conflict with rule 1 it isalso in conflict with rule 6, for neither hexamethylenamin, lithium, nor salicylate are therapeutically effective “uric acid solvents”. Norwould any of these have any effect on “phosphaturia ”the mixture also conflicts with rule 10. For it is inadvisable toadminister the ingredients in fixed, but unknown proportions it is recommended that saloform be deemed inadmissible to n n r the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 71 secretogen report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryabout a year ago the council declared secretogen, 103 a product theactive ingredient of which was stated to be “pancreatic secretin” andadvertised as a remedy for certain conditions of defective digestionand assimilation, to be ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies the reasons for this decision were stated at the time as follows:103 j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 “1 no evidence has been presented that the absence of secretin is acause of gastro-intestinal diseases it is usually present, and if notpresent, as in achylia gastrica, there is evidently essay compensatingarrangement by which the pancreas is stimulated to perform its regularfunctions “2 there is no evidence that secretin in any form is physiologicallyactive when administered by mouth ”since secretogen was not the only so-called secretin preparation onthe market, and since the use of secretin preparations was recommendedby certain writers, notwithstanding the lack of evidence of its value, the council caused an experimental investigation of the question to bemade this was carried out by prof a j carlson of the university ofchicago no secretin was found in the commercial products examined, namely, secretogen tablets, secretogen elixir and duodenin furthermore, carlson results104 confirmed the council previous conclusionas to the inertness of secretin administered by mouth the councilendorsed professor carlson findings 105104 carlson a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlman, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208. Reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 96 the g w carnrick company has replied to the publication of thisreport in the letter printed below a portion of this letter, whichconsists of a communication from an unnamed correspondent of the g w carnrick company and the company comment thereon, has been omitted the council offered to publish this if the carnrick company wouldfurnish the name of the writer this it has not done as will be seen, the company now shifts ground, abandoning entirely the claim thatsecretogen contains secretin the council has authorized publicationof the letter omitting the writing just mentioned, together with thecomment that follows w a puckner, secretary “the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation “gentlemen:-- the opinion of the council and the contribution byprofessor carlson which appeared in the journal of the american medicalassociation for jan 15, 1916, have been read by us with interest the column of current comment dealing with ‘tiger-bone therapy andclinical experience’ has appealed to our good nature and, under thecircumstances, our sense of humor “professor carlson seems to have quite well established that theso-called secretin preparations do not contain secretin to anyappreciable extent, and that they are inert in laboratory experimentson normal animals at the same time, to do away with an apparentdiscrimination on the writing of the management of the council, it wouldhave been well if professor carlson had included the so-called secretinpreparations belonging to another well-known firm which markets such aproduct this discrimination has already been referred to by us “had professor carlson stopped at the determination of the therapeuticavailability of secretin given by mouth, his work might have beenaccepted without comment, even if we should have thought it advisableto object to the matter published by the council but the professorwent beyond his province entirely when, in commenting on the findingsobtained by using secretogen clinically, he said. ‘it is, perhaps, impertinent for laboratory men to comment on these clinical results ’it is his point was well taken and it is a profound pity thatprofessor carlson did not observe his own ruling “in the words of a correspondent of the journal of the american medicalassociation, in discussing professor carlson criticism of dr crile‘kinetic drive, ’ ‘it behooves the laboratory man to be circumspect inhis criticism of clinical theories, since going beyond the bounds ofwell-established things weakens his position, not merely with referenceto the writingicular subject under discussion, but with reference toclinical phenomena in general ’ clinical results have definitelyestablished the value of secretogen as the matter now stands thisstatement is beyond criticism “when secretogen was first introduced we assumed that it depended onsecretin for results produced in this assumption we were in goodcompany, as witnessed by the testimony of moore, edie and abram when, in the course of their investigations as to the value in diabetesof a secretin-bearing extract given by mouth, 106 they said.

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And i take it all authorshold them to be cold and dry unslacked lime beaten into powder, andmixed with black soap, takes away a wen being anointed with it lactucæ of lettice i know no physical virtue residing help writing a great university paper in the roots lauri of the bay-tree the bark of the root drunk with wine, provokes urine, breaks the stone, opens obstructions of the liver andspleen but according to dioscorides is naught for pregnant women galen lapathi acuti, oxylapathi sorrel, according to galen. Butsharp-pointed dock, according to dioscorides the roots of sorrelare held to be profitable against the jaundice of sharp-pointed dock;cleanse, and help scabs and itch levistici of lovage they are hot and dry, and good for any diseasescoming of wind lillij albi of white lillies the root is essaything hot and dry, helps burnings, softens the womb, provokes the menses, if boiled inwine, is given with good success in rotten fevers, pestilences, and alldiseases that require suppuration. Outwardly applied, it helps ulcersin the head, and amends the ill colour of the face malvœ of mallows they are cool, and digesting, resist poison, andhelp corrosions, or gnawing of the bowels, or any other writing. As alsoulcers in the bladder see marsh-mallows mandragoræ of mandrakes a root dangerous for its coldness, beingcold in the fourth degree. The root is dangerous mechoachanæ of mechoacah it is corrected with cinnamon, istemperate yet drying, purges flegm chiefly from the head and joints, it is good for old diseases in the head, and may safely be given evento feverish bodies, because of its temperature. It is also profitableagainst coughs and pains in the reins.