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“v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “v-e-m with ichthyol. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, ichthyol, white vaseline “v-e-m with stearate of zinc. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, stearate of zinc, white vaseline “v-e-m with camphor. Camphor, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “v-e-m with boric acid. Pulv boric acid, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “for local application in the treatment of affections of the nose and throat “the efficacy of these combinations of remedial agents is so well established as to preclude the necessity of more than passing mention what is obvious is that in acute coryza, in chronic and acute nasal catarrh, in dry catarrhal conditions especially, in both forms of chronic rhinitis-- atrophic and hypertrophic-- in the latter stages of the prevailing grippe colds, and even in hay fever, v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound affords pronounced relief and proves a most grateful application ”though the identity and purity of eucalyptol are provided for by thestandards of the u s pharmacopeia, the claim is made that the productcontained in these preparations “transcends in purity and efficiencyall other brands ”a package of v-e-m unguentum eucalyptol compound, recently sent to aphysician, contains the following.

Reading from left to right, the help with writing four intravenousinjections are. 1 5 c c secretin made fresh from dog duodenalmucosa. 2 three tablets of duodenin digested in 15 c c 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid and neutralized. 3 three tablets of duodenin boiledin 15 c c 0 4 per cent hydrochloric acid and neutralized. 4 threetablets of duodenin in 15 c c sodium chlorid 0 9 per cent table 5 -- summary of experimentsdogs with pancreatic fistula, weight 14 kg secretin given by mouth | |rate of secretion| | | of pancreatic | | | juice in | no of | | c c per hour |increase experi-| material fed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- in ment | | three | three | c c | | hours | hours | | | before | after | | |feeding |feeding | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 |secretin slightly acid | 5 | 11 | 6 5 |secretin slightly alkaline | 24 | 30 | 6 4 |secretin passed through berkefeld| 18 | 23 | 5 1 |secretin exposed to sun for 4 hrs| 16 | 29 | 13 2 |extract of colon rabbit | 19 | 29 | 10 3 |extract of gastric mucosa | 14 | 23 | 9 3 |extract of muscle | 8 | 16 | 8 2 |mixture of gelatin, peptone and | 23 | 33 | 10 | salt | | | 1 |1 per cent peptone solution | 6 | 8 | 2 4 |0 2 per cent hydrochloric acid | 13 | 37 | 24 3 |milk and bread | 7 | 20 | 13 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- it is possible by large doses of sodium bicarbonate given shortlybefore the administration of a preparation so to depress the stomachthat it does not respond with the usual production of hydrochloricacid under these conditions the administration of secretin isuniformly negative, but the administration of hydrochloric acid on thecontrary still serves to increase the pancreatic secretion table 6 table 6 -- secretin in experimental “achylia gastrica” | | rate of secretion of pancreatic juice | | in c c per hour | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - exp | material fed |continuous secretion| secretion after no | | before feeding* | feeding | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - | |first |second|third |first |second|third -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 1 |} {| 8 7 | 7 5 | 6 8 | 3 0 | 1 0 | 4 8 2 |} 150 c c secretin {| 4 5 | 6 5 | 10 0 | 6 0 | 7 5 | 7 6 3 |} {| 15 6 | 8 1 | 16 0 | 3 9 | 4 9 | 2 9 | | | | | | | 1 |} 150 c c 4% hcl {| 9 8 | 7 0 | 6 0 | 65 1 | 28 0 | 7 1 2 |} diluted to 250 c c {| 17 4 | 18 5 | 17 0 | 34 0 | 18 0 | 20 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -* five gm na hco₃ given at beginning of each first two hours commercial preparations of secretinsecretogen and elixir secretogen -- the carnrick company offerssecretogen90 for use in a large number of conditions the followingindications for the use of the preparation purport to be based onclinical tests covering a period of several years. Dyspepsia, andthe indigestions generally, fermentative disorders, gastric catarrh, flatulence, nausea. Pancreatic insufficiency, intestinal indigestion;gastric secretory deficiencies, apepsia. Constipation and hepatictorpor. Intestinal stasis. Diarrhea. Infantile diarrhea, “summercomplaint, ” marasmus, inanition and malnutrition. Gastric atony anddilatation. Cholecystitis and gallstones. Nephritis, neurasthenia, cachexia and cancer.

Small vessels could be seen stretching across the fissures case 15 brain congested, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” p 316, vol i - boy, æt 1-1/2 years, set fire to his clothing death in 1½ days post-mortem examination showed congestion of the brain, inflammation of the trachea, engorgement of the lungs with hepatization of the lower writing of the right lung case 16 burn of lower writing of body death same reference - woman, æt 81. Burn of lower writing of body, including the gluteal region, the perineum and genital organs external death after several days post-mortem examination showed the upper lobe of left lung in a stage of red hepatization, etc case 17 tardy appearance of redness and vesication tidy, “legal med , ” vol ii , p 124, case 15 - woman, insensible from cold, had hot water applied in tins to her sides and feet the flannel coverings became displaced and the hot tins came in contact with the body no redness or vesication could be detected two hours afterward the next day, when consciousness had returned and recovery from insensibility had taken place, the writings had become reddened and vesicated case 18 were the burns ante mortem or post mortem?. caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 317 - woman intoxicated. Clothing caught fire. Death due to asphyxia essay burns apparently caused during life and essay after death the case was decided upon the character of the vesications and their contents lungs and other organs normal right side of heart engorged with dark blood case 19 murder body burned dr duncan, med gazette, lond , vol viii , p 170 - man charged with the murder of his wife and attempting to burn the body afterward the body was so extensively burned as to remove all means of deciding the cause of death the man claimed that her clothing took fire when she was intoxicated persons in the same house had heard sounds of a struggle before smelling smoke and fire furniture was not burned, nor the house the prisoner was found guilty of murder case 20 blisters was the scalding ante mortem?. taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - the body of an infant found in a saucepan, boiled the prisoner admitted that the child had breathed the boiling water had destroyed the means of positively deciding whether the child had breathed blisters found upon it contained yellow serum was the child living when put in the water?. the prisoner was acquitted case 21 scald of a lunatic in a bath taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” 8th am ed , p 411 - insane patient placed in a hot bath temperature 123° f death in collapse next day 1879 case 22 criminal burning, strangling report of profs liebig and bischoff, of giessen, march, 1850 - the man stauff was tried at darmstadt for the murder of the countess of goerlitz, whom he had attacked and murdered in her chamber, and then fired the furniture in order to conceal the crime it was uncertain whether she had died from injury to the head or from strangulation the tongue protruded and was swollen, as in paper of strangling, and maintained this condition he was convicted chiefly on circumstantial evidence after conviction he confessed that he had strangled her and then set fire to the furniture, which he had piled up about her case 23 murder body burned identified “report of the trial of prof webster, ” etc , boston, 1850 - prof webster killed dr parkman and then burned the body, in portions, in a furnace in his laboratory search among the cinders of the furnace disclosed pieces of human bones and a set of false teeth which the dentist who made them recognized as made by him for dr parkman, etc case 24 murder body entirely burned identified the “druse case, ” trans new york state med soc , 1887, p 417 - mrs druse, with the compulsory aid of her children, killed her husband with an axe the body was burned in a wood stove, with pine shingles the ashes were thrown into a swamp near by they were found and carefully sifted pieces of bone of various sizes, identified as human, were found, as also a few porcelain buttons, etc a few hairs found, with stains, completed the identity experiments in this case showed that the body could have been consumed within ten hours the prisoner was convicted of murder the medico-legal relations of electricity by william n bullard, m d medico-legal relations of electricity as the frequency of accidents caused by electricity is rapidlyincreasing, we have of late years been enabled to generalize ina manner never before possible in regard to their results, andalthough our present conclusions must be recognized as provisionaland perhaps temporary to be changed or modified in accordance withfuture knowledge yet we have obtained a basis of fact on which wecan securely rely the general laws of injury and accident throughelectricity have been fairly well determined, although thesis of thedetails are not yet thoroughly worked out or understood the advancesof knowledge in this direction are so rapid that an article on thissubject, if it deals too closely with details, is liable to become outof date almost before it has left the press like all large subjectswhen first made objects of general interest and investigation, and inregard to which we are on the threshold only of knowledge, the factsdiscoverable may lead us at any time in unexpected directions and openout new fields of thought and inquiry we shall try to limit ourselveshere, as far as possible, to proved facts, and leave questions doubtfulor in dispute to be settled later. Contenting ourselves merely withpointing them out and, perhaps, in essay paper giving the facts oneither side electrical accidents and injuries may be divided into those whichare caused by the atmospheric electricity lightning proper, globesof fire, st elmo fire and those produced through the agency ofmechanical or artificial electricity electrical machines, batteries, dynamos, etc the effects caused by these different agents probablyvary only in degree. The atmospheric electricity in the form oflightning, etc , being so much more powerful than the charges usuallyproduced artificially as to cause essay difference in the results results of accidents and injuries from electrical machines andconductors medical electricity - in the ordinary use of the mild forms ofelectricity employed for medical purposes, certain phenomena may attimes occur, which, although not of any serious import or of longduration, may yet cause considerable inconvenience, pain, or discomfortto the patient or others, and may even be of essay importance from amedico-legal point of view we shall not enter here into the discussionof the proper methods of application of medical electricity, nor domore than point out that if these be not followed with care the patientmay be not only not benefited, but made worse, and may even sufferconsiderable injury the increase of pain caused by the improperapplication of certain currents is usually temporary and of minorconsequence but serious and lasting inflammations may be caused bythe careless, ignorant, or injudicious use of the stronger currentsinternally, and metritis and peri-uterine inflammations have been notinfrequently reported from the unskilled practice of the methods ofapostoli these subjects, however, scarcely come under the scope ofthis article in addition, however, to these troubles we may have external injuriesproduced even in paper where the current amounts to not more than afew milliamperes burns may be caused by the ordinary electrodes of thegalvanic battery the faradic current when medically used does not, asa rule, produce any external injuries such might be caused by a sparkfrom a static machine, but it would be due to gross carelessness, andis very unusual burns, however, from the use of the galvanic currentare not very uncommon they usually occur under the electrode after ithas been for a few moments stationary in contact with the skin theyoccur in certain patients with extraordinary readiness, especially inthose with organic spinal lesions, and where the sensation is essaywhatdiminished, and where also essay trophic lesion might be supposed toexist they are not confined, however, to this class of paper, butmay occur in any one if the electrode be retained too long in any oneplace, and especially if it be allowed to become dry these burns arepeculiar in appearance and can usually be recognized at once they arecircular, as if punched out, about the size of a common pencil or alittle smaller, comparatively deep, gray with perhaps a dark ring atthe circumference, and frequently surrounded by a reddened area theedges are sharp their peculiarity consists 1 in their painlessnessand 2 in their size, regular form, their depth in comparison to theirextent, and the sharp limitation of the area of tissue destroyed one or more may occur under a broad electrode, and they are probablyproduced at those points where the contact is imperfect or theconduction in essay other way impeded they heal without much difficultyand leave no serious results other unpleasant symptoms produced by currents in medical use may bementioned for the sake of completeness, and also as an introductionto the more serious symptoms caused by stronger currents dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting, and syncope are readily causedby even slight currents the sensation of light in the eyes and themetallic taste in the mouth are the results of medical currents ofordinary strength when applied to the head or in its neighborhood, andstronger currents applied at greater distances cause these sensations all the above symptoms may be readily caused by even slight currents, whether galvanic or faradic, passed through the head the syncope thusproduced is to be carefully differentiated from the syncope causedpsychically by excitement or fear of the application of electricity hysterical women, and even persons who show no special signs ofnervous instability, may faint at the suggestion of the applicationof electricity i have seen a large, strong, well-built italian man, perfectly sound physically, so far as could be detected, except essayslight local neuralgia, faint from pure fright when the electricity wasto be applied but even the application of moderately severe shocksfrom the ordinary medical battery are not likely to produce seriousresults these shocks are ordinarily caused by the opening or closingof the galvanic current, and are most severe when the current passesthrough essay portion of the head a still more powerful shock may begiven by reversing the current in a galvanic battery by means of thecommutator currents of high tension strong artificial currents passing on now to the consideration of the stronger currents, wecome to those used for mechanical purposes, for electric lighting, electric railways, and other analogous objects these currents startfrom dynamos or from storage batteries, and accidents are caused bythem whenever they are diverted from their proper course and arecaused to come in contact with or to pass through any portion of thehuman body in any considerable strength accidents not infrequentlyoccur from direct contact with the batteries or dynamos, but stillmore frequently they are produced in their circuit along the wires ortransmitters they may also be caused, as essay of the most fatal havebeen, by contact with metallic or other readily conducting objectswhich have themselves accidentally come in contact with essay portionof an electric circuit usually wires and have diverted the whole, ormore usually a portion, of the current to themselves thus was killeda young man in new york, the clerk in a store, who while lifting themetal-edged cover of a show-case brought it in contact with the chargedwires of an electric light and received an immediately fatal shock asa rule, those meeting with accidents from dynamos or electric machinesdirectly are employees of electric companies, who are presumed tohave more or less knowledge of the risk of carelessness, or they maybe workers in institutions or factories in which such machines are inuse thesis of the accidents due to wires also occur to linemen and otheremployees of electric, telephone, or telegraph companies or of electricrailway companies in charge of wires or electric outfit so long as thecurrent transmitters and terminals wires, etc are properly insulatedand in their proper position in relation to other conductors, it isunusual for accidents to occur, except in paper of gross ignorance orcarelessness unfortunately, however, proper insulation is not alwaysaccomplished, and frequently wires and other transmitters are removedfrom their proper positions by accidents and otherwise so long as andwherever the system of overhead wires exists, if there be among thesewires any which are the transmitters of strong electric currents, there is always a risk, and often a very serious one, that at essay timeor other one of these current-bearing wires will come into contactwith essay other non-current-bearing and ordinarily harmless wire insuch a manner that the current of the first should be diverted, inwhole or in writing, on to the ordinarily innocuous wire, which therebybecomes at once charged and dangerous such an accident may be due tothe displacement of either wire or to any other cause which bringsthe two in contact, either direct or indirect, at a point where thecurrent-bearing wire is not sufficiently insulated the current havingonce passed out of its proper circuit will, of course, follow thepaths of best conduction, and may hence suddenly appear in unexpectedquarters and produce the most dangerous and even fatal effects itis accidents of this character which most frequently occur among thepeople who are neither employees of electric companies nor engaged infactories or buildings where electrical machines are employed insulation of wires and other electrical transmitters - we cannotmention here the various methods employed to insulate wires, as thegeneral principles of insulation are well known electric wires evenwith very strong currents can be insulated and can be kept insulatedif sufficient pains be taken and sufficient money be expended butthis is very expensive and in thesis paper is not done only writingialinsulation is attempted, and even this is not always carried tothe degree intended or stipulated hence so long as overhead wiresof various kinds exist, accidents from the transmission of strongelectric currents along ordinarily harmless wires are liable at anytime to occur, as practically little or no attempt at keeping thecurrent-bearing wires covered with a thoroughly insulating materialis in most paper made it is usually deemed sufficient that glass orother insulators should be so placed that under ordinary conditions thewire will not come into contact with any conductor which may cause anyessential writing of its current to diverge in most paper a so-calledinsulating material is placed over the wire itself, but this usually isinsufficient at the outset or becomes so before very long and is thennot renewed it must not be supposed, however, that underground electric wiresor transmitters cannot produce accidents on the contrary, thecurrent may be diverted from them to the gas or water pipes or to anyother conductors which come into contact with them or can attractto themselves a portion of their current severe shocks have beenexperienced by persons attempting to draw water at their faucet fromcauses of this character at the same time, so far as mere safety isconcerned and freedom from electrical accidents, it would seem thatunderground wires are preferable to overhead wires electrical wires have not infrequently come in contact with telegraphand telephone wires causing unpleasant results telephone boxes havebeen set on fire, and also telegraph boards and tables, and in certainpaper what might have been serious conflagrations have been startedin this manner by means of proper arrangements on the telegraph andtelephone circuits these dangers can be at least writingially avoided, but there is always the risk that the automatic alarms and othercontrivances do not act, and the still greater one that persons orthings may come into contact with these charged wires and receivedangerous or serious injuries electric cars - the danger from the overhead wires in the trolleysystem of electric cars would not be great were these wires properlysupported, properly insulated, and properly protected each of theseterms must be explained wires which fall for any cause whatever shortof being intentionally removed cannot be deemed properly supported inthe sense in which we use the term any one of these electric wireswhich falls is liable to produce serious injury to persons or animals thesis horses have been killed by them, or to set fire to objects withwhich it comes into immediate or indirect contact, the amount of injurybeing in writing dependent upon the nature and the condition wet or dryof the object and its position in relation to other conductors wiresas dangerous as these car wires should be so supported that no ordinaryaccident, no condition of the weather, strong winds, or heavy falls ofsnow should be capable of wrenching them from their supports, and theyshould be placed in such positions and with such protection as not toreceive blows from passing or falling objects secondly, these wires should be properly insulated this is to beunderstood to mean that all the wires which carry the electric current, or are liable to carry it, should be attached to their poles or othersupport in such a manner that no appreciable quantity of electricity isunder any circumstances liable to be diverted to the poles or supports, and in this way cause destruction or injury in addition to this theside wires should be so covered that if any accident occurs, it willbe difficult or impossible for the current to pass away from them toother objects the middle wire on which the trolley runs cannot bethus covered, but must be left bare, and hence, if knocked down orbrought into contact with properly conducting objects, must be the mostdangerous. But on the other hand from its position it is less liable toaccidents when we say that these wires should be properly protected we mean thatsuch arrangements and contrivances should be used as will prevent themwhile in their usual position from coming into contact with dangerousobjects, writingicularly with other wires this may be accomplished byguard wires or in other ways it is plainly of great importance thatthis should be specially cared for, and writingicularly in a city wherethere are thesis overhead wires, and perhaps a considerable number ofdead or non-used wires if the electricity comes into contact with oneof these no one can tell where it may be transmitted or what harm itmay do the principles which apply to these overhead wires of course applyceteris paribus to all other electric overhead wires, and in likemanner the statements made in regard to the diffusion or spreadingof currents in underground wires are applicable to all methods oftransmitting electricity mechanically through the ground so far as theconditions are similar an electric current will always follow the pathof best conduction, and where several paths are opened it will followthem proportionally according to the excellence of their conduction orinversely to the amount of their electric resistance we shall not enter here into any questions in regard to the diffusionof electricity, its transmission through fluids, water, air or othergases, nor shall we discuss the relations of good or bad conductors toelectricity except so far as this relates to certain portions of thehuman body an elementary knowledge of physics and electricity must bepresupposed we can now enter more directly upon the immediate subject of thisarticle, that is, the effect upon the human body of severe ormoderately strong currents of electricity derived from artificialsources the accidents produced by these currents may be divided intotwo classes, the direct and the indirect under the direct we placeall those conditions which are apparently produced by the actionof the electricity itself, such as the general shock, the loss ofconsciousness, the burns, etc on the other hand, all those accidentsare to be considered indirect which are not primarily due to the actionof the electric current, but are only secondary results thereof theseare largely determined by the immediate surroundings and conditions atthe time such, for example, are the surgical injuries due to fallscaused by the loss of consciousness produced by the electric shock indirect accidents these will be considered first, as they do not demand so detailed adescription as the direct they are traumatic in character and are theresult either of loss of consciousness, momentary or lasting, or ofthe involuntary muscular contraction which may be occasioned by theelectric shock they are among the most frequent effects of severeelectric shocks these accidents consist in contusions, fractures, dislocations, wounds, and any other injuries which may be produced fromsudden loss of consciousness while in a dangerous position death mayreadily occur either immediately or as the more or less delayed resultof such injuries if the person shocked falls into the water he may bedrowned, or if into the fire he will be burnt the varieties of suchaccidents dependent on the sudden loss of consciousness produced bythe electricity are, of course, innumerable, and their occurrence mustlargely depend upon the position of the victim at the moment of theshock we see, perhaps, most of these accidents in linemen on the topsof poles or houses or in other exposed places, but persons who receiveshocks when simply standing on the ground or when sitting are notexempt from severe surgical injuries other than burns they are oftencast to the ground with great violence, and not infrequently are thrownto a distance of several feet this is caused by the violent muscularcontraction produced by the electric shock, and it may occasion, likeany violent push or fall, severe injuries from contact with thevarious objects against which they may be forced although much rarer, it is also possible that the violence of these muscular contractionsmay be such as of themselves to cause injury, as rupture of a muscle ortendon as practically all these indirect accidents are traumatic andsurgical in character, they do not differ from other accidents similarin kind, but otherwise caused, and are to be treated on the samegeneral principles as these direct accidents quite different from the indirect are the direct accidents. Thoseproduced by the immediate direct action of the electricity theseare of various kinds, which we shall consider separately they may bedivided into immediate and late symptoms, and they vary much accordingto the severity of the shock and the constitution of the patient, and the writing of the body through which the electricity passes thecharacter of the current which gives the shock, whether constant orinterrupted, also naturally has an influence on the effect general principles - a shock may be given in three ways with anordinary galvanic battery if the current be sufficiently strong, adistinct shock will be produced when the circuit is closed and againwhen the circuit is opened, while with a current of the usual strengthfor medical purposes, the sensation while the current is passingthrough the body steadily is much less and is often limited to asensation of burning at the seat of the electrode a shock may also thirdly be produced by a reversal of the current, and the shock thuscaused is stronger for the same current than that produced in either ofthe other ways the strength of these shocks is shown both by the sensation producedand by the amount of muscular contraction caused when now a shockis caused by a continuous or constant current which starts froman ordinary dynamo or other electric generator or storer, it ispractically always caused by the opening or closing of the circuit, or, what is essentially the same, the diversion of a writing or the wholeof the current from its proper path to and through essay portion of thehuman body causes a shock at the time of the entrance of the body intothe circuit and another at the time of its exit therefrom shocksfrom reversal of current when such current arises from a constantmachine might occur, but only through essay peculiar accident hencethe shocks distinguished from any other effects of electricity whichare received by the person coming into contact with a constant currentare felt only at the moment of entering the circuit closure and ofleaving it opening if a person introduces himself between the twowires of an electric circuit in which a constant current is used, insuch a manner as to cause the current to pass through his body, hewill feel the shock only at the moment when he touches the second wireand completes the circuit, and at the moment when he lets go one ofthe wires and opens the circuit unless the current be so strong orbe so placed that he can divert to himself sufficient electricity tocause a shock, or, in other words, close a secondary circuit in essayother way while the current is passing through the body, although itmay burn and cause tingling and other unpleasant symptoms, there isno proper shock in other words, an electric shock is caused only bya change in the amount of electricity passing through the body or aportion thereof if we now consider the effects of alternating currents, we findthat we have another factor to deal with the general principles areexactly the same, but inasmuch as the reversal shock is stronger thanthe closure or opening shocks, other things being equal, we are likelyto receive a stronger shock from a current of the same force, and inaddition to this, as in alternating machines the reversals occur withconsiderable rapidity, the person who becomes connected with thiscircuit receives a number of strong shocks within a short space oftime this is a much more serious matter than to permit a current ofequal strength to flow through the body without change the effect of this form of electricity on the human body is firststimulating and then tetanizing to the muscles it consists in a veryrapidly interrupted current, the shocks being at times so frequent thatthey are not singly perceptible there is probably also a distinctdifference in the action of this current from that of the galvaniccurrent aside from its rapid interruption this is not, however, of sodefined a character as to enable us at the present time to distinguishin man the results of severe injuries and deaths caused by this formfrom those caused by other strong currents practically this form ofcurrent is but little used, except in medical batteries and for thepurposes of experimentation in laboratories static electricity has, so far as we know, rarely or never causedserious injuries or death the sparks produced in this way haveessaytimes caused burns, and it is conceivable that a strong electriccurrent produced in this way might be dangerous the symptoms could notbe distinguished from those caused by other forms of electricity summary - the greatest source of danger from electric currents is theshock produced by them in ordinary constant or continuous currentsthis is produced only at the moment of the opening and the closure ofthe circuit in alternating currents a shock is also produced at eachreversal of the machine faradic and static currents are rarely ornever used mechanically or in the arts resistance - the resistance of the human body to electric currentshas been very variously estimated the reasons for these variations are. 1 that the different tissuespresent different resistances. 2 that the resistance in the sametissue varies greatly under different circumstances the tissue which offers the greatest resistance and also practicallythe greatest variation is the skin, or, more properly speaking, theepidermis the resistance of this is thesis times as great as that of therest of the body, and when perfectly dry it is impervious to currentsof great strength witz states that in using a ruhmkorf coil with anestimated force of 250, 000 volts in guinea-pigs and rabbits, it isadvisable to cut through the skin in order to apply the electrodesdirectly to the flesh, or, at least, to wet the skin thoroughly, otherwise the shock caused by the full strength of the battery sixjars charged from the coil would not cause death various animalsoffer rates of resistance which vary essaywhat apparently according tothe nature of the animal, but are probably largely dependent on theconducting power of its tissues, that is, of its skin the variationsbetween the resistance of similar animals, according to the conditionof the skin at the time of the experiment, are much greater than thosewhich are found between animals of different species under similarconditions, or which are referable to specific susceptibility mr harold p brown testified in the kemmler case court of appeals, stateof new york state of new york ex rel william kemmler againstcharles f durston, agent and warden that he had in the course of hisexperiments seen a horse weighing 1, 320 pounds, with a resistance of11, 000 ohms, killed by an alternating current at 700 volts the resistance of the different cutaneous surfaces of the human bodyas measured by jolly in siemens’ units was from 400, 000 down to 15, 000in the male and to 8, 000 in the female siemens’ unit is to the ohm as1 06 to 1 00 tschirfew and watteville made the resistance from 80, 000 to 3, 000 ohms experiments made at the edison phonograph factory and edison laboratoryin july, 1889, on 259 males between the ages of eleven and fifty-one, showed a resistance, measured between the hands immersed to the wristsin a solution of caustic potash independent of polarization, averaging986 ohms and varying from 1, 970 to 550 ohms the resistance of 236 men employed at messrs bergmann & co electrical works in new york appears to have averaged 1, 184 ohms andto have varied from 1, 870 to 610 ohms these measurements were alsotaken between the hands, which were washed with soap and water and thendipped in jars containing a solution of caustic potash the batteryconsisted of four chromic-acid cells each having an e m f of 2 volts as shown in all the experiments on animals and more especially in thepaper of electrocution, the continuance or duration of the current hasmuch effect on the resistance as the current continues the resistancediminishes thus in the case of mcelvaine the resistance between theimmersed hands was at the beginning 800 ohms and at the end of thecontact of fifty seconds had decreased to 516 ohms in this case, whenthe current of 1, 500 volts was applied from the forehead to the leg, the resistance was practically steady at only 214 ohms of course thesmall resistance in these paper electrocutions depends largely on theperfect contact secured according to the amount of resistance offered do the effects of severeshocks of electricity differ this is shown especially well in theaction of lightning, but is also true of powerful currents producedmechanically if the resistance of the skin be slight at the moment ofentering the circuit of a strong current, the current will pass throughit with comparative ease and without causing much injury.

Boil it in white wine, and take this onegeneral help with writing rule all things of a cleansing or opening nature may be mostcommodiously boiled in white wine remember but this, and then i neednot repeat it galega goat-rue. Temperate in quality, resists poison, killsworms, helps the falling-sickness, resists the pestilence you may takea dram of it at a time in powder galion ladies-bed straw. Dry and binding, stanches blood, boiled inoil, the oil is good to anoint a weary traveller. Inwardly it provokesvenery gentiana see the root genista brooms. Hot and dry in the second degree, cleanse and openthe stomach, break the stone in the reins and bladder, help the greensickness let such as are troubled with heart-qualms or faintings, forbear it, for it weakens the heart and spirit vital see the flowers geranium cranebill, the divers sorts of it, one of which is thatwhich is called muscata. It is thought to be cool and dry, helps hotswellings, and by its smell amends a hot brain geranium columbinum doves-foot. Helps the wind cholic, pains in thebelly, stone in the reins and bladder, and is good in ruptures, andinward wounds i suppose these are the general virtues of them all gramen grass. See the root gratiola hedge-hyssop, purges water and flegm, but works verychurlishly gesner commends it in dropsies asphodelus fœm see the root hepatica, lichen liverwort, cold and dry, good for inflammations ofthe liver, or any other inflammations, yellow jaundice hedera arborea, terrostris tree and ground-ivy tree-ivy helpsulcers, burnings, scaldings, the bad effects of the spleen. The juicesnuffed up the nose, purges the head, it is admirable for surfeits orheadache, or any other ill effects coming of drunkenness ground-ivyis that which usually is called alehoof, hot and dry, the juice helpsnoise in the ears, fistulas, gouts, stoppings of the liver, itstrengthens the reins and stops the menses, helps the yellow jaundice, and other diseases coming of stoppings of the liver, and is excellentfor wounded people herba camphorata stinking ground-pine, is of a drying quality, andtherefore stops defluxions either in the eyes or upon the lungs, thegout, cramps, palsies, aches. Strengthens the nerves herbu paralysis, primula veris primroses, or cowslips, which youwill the leaves help pains in the head and joints. See the flowerswhich are most in use herba paris herb true-love, or one-berry it is good for wounds, falls, bruises, aposthumes, inflammations, ulcers in the privities herb true-love, is very cold in temperature you may take half a dramof it at a time in powder herba roberti a kind of cranebill herba venti, anemone wind-flower the juice snuffed up in the nosepurgeth the head, it cleanses filthy ulcers, encreases milk in nurses, and outwardly by ointment helps leprosies herniaria the same with empetron helxine pellitory of the wall cold, moist, cleansing, helps thestone and gravel in the kidnies, difficulty of urine, sore throats, pains in the ears, the juice being dropped in them. Outwardly it helpsthe shingles and st anthony fire hyppoglossum horse-tongue, tongue-blade or double-tongue the rootshelp the stranguary, provoke urine, ease the hard labour of women, provoke the menses, the herb helps ruptures and the fits of the mother:it is hot in the second degree, dry in the first. Boil it in white wine hyppolapathum patience, or monk rhubarb. See the root hypposclinum alexanders, or alisanders. Provoke urine, expel theplacenta, help the stranguary, expel wind sage either taken inwardly or beaten and applied plaister-wise to thematrix, draws forth both menses and placenta horminum clary.

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688 march 9. 923 march 301918 bracken, l l. Federal trade commission requests use of officialnames, ibid 70. 558 feb 23 1918 the new american names are:arsphenamin224 contracted from the scientific name arsenphenolaminfor salvarsan, arsenobenzol, diarsanol, arsaminol 224 the testing and standardizing of arsphenamin is being done by thehygienic laboratory, u s public health service for chemical testssee reprint 472, public health reports for a review of the patentliterature see article by h f lewis, j indust engin chem , feb 1, 1919, p 141 barbital contracted from the scientific name diethyl-barbituric acidfor veronal barbital-sodium the sodium salt of barbital for “veronal-sodium” and“medinal ”cinchophen for atophan or phenylcinchoninic acid the u s p ix name procain for novocain hydrochlorid from “pro” and “ cocaine” procain nitrate for novocain nitrate examination of synthetic drugsin testing chemically the products which had been submitted to thefederal trade commission, the aims were that the product should conformto a high degree of purity. At the same time the candidate for licenseshould not be inflicted with undue hardships in making the product, such as an unnecessarily high degree of purity it was insisted thatthe purity of the drugs should be equal to, if not greater than, thatof the respective former german-made products, in order to uphold thename and reputation of the american manufacturers in the after-the-warcompetition consequently, in the chemical work the american productwas always examined parallel with the german-made product, authenticsamples of the latter of which the laboratory had in its possession whenever possible, the tests described in books of standards werecarried out barbital veronalbarbital was introduced into medicine under the proprietary name“veronal, ” and was manufactured in gerthesis by friedr bayer &co , leverkusen, and e merck & co , darmstadt, gerthesis barbitalis described in new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, 225 asdiethylbarbituric acid diethylmalonyl urea having the formula. nh co c₂h₅ / \ / oc c \ / \ nh co c₂h₅225 new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, published by the council onpharmacy and chemistry of the american medical association, p 82 it is official in the british pharmacopeia under the name“barbitone, ” and in the german pharmacopeia as “acidumdiethylbarbituricum ” barbital “may be prepared by the interactionof esters of diethylmalonic acid with urea in the presence ofmetallic alcoholates it is also obtained by condensation ofdiethylcyanacetic ester with urea by means of sodium alcoholate ”barbital is used in medicine chiefly as a hypnotic the different brands of barbital which were submitted to the laboratorywere subjected to the tests given in the books referred to above 226the products were:226 the pharmaceutic monograph on barbital has been omitted it waspublished in the 1918 edition of the annual reports of the chemicallaboratory of the american medical association 1 barbital abbott sample a, to federal trade commission 2 barbital abbott sample b, to federal trade commission 3 barbital abbott sample c, to red cross 4 barbital antoine chiris, to federal trade commission 5 barbital v halter, to federal trade commission 6 barbital rector chemical company to federal trade commission 7 diethylbarbituric acid merck, to council 8 “veronal, ” manufactured by farb vorm fried bayer & co , gerthesis all responded satisfactorily to the tests in table 1 are given therespective melting points and percentages of ash found the meltingpoint of a mixture of the sample with the original “veronal” was alwaystaken table 1 -- melting point ash ash 1 188 5-189 0 0 01 5 188 0-188 5 0 01 2 188 5-189 0 0 01 6 188 0-188 5 0 01 3 188 0-188 5 0 01 7 188 0-188 5 0 01 4 188 0-188 5 0 04 8 188 0-188 5 0 02barbital does not seem to form an insoluble salt with chlorplatinicacid. Nor an ether-insoluble hydrochlorid or oxalate. Nor an insolublebarium salt it does not respond to thesis urea tests, and is notaffected by urease as would be expected in light of the extensiveinvestigations made on this enzyme by van slyke and cullen as barbital is also sold in the form of tablets or mixtures, a reliablemethod for its quantitative determination in the presence of othersubstances is needed essay experiments in this direction were made, butthe press of other work did not permit their continuation when timepermits, this work will be resumed at the time of writing this article, licenses for manufacture had beengranted by the federal trade commission to the abbott laboratories, toantoine chiris company, and to the rector chemical company barbital sodium medinal or veronal-sodiumbarbital sodium, formerly sold under the proprietary names“veronal-sodium” and “medinal, ” is, as the former name suggests, thesodium salt of diethylbarbituric acid its therapeutic advantagesare stated to be that more rapid results are obtained because ofits increased solubility over barbital alone 227 barbital sodiumshould yield, according to theory, 11 19 per cent of sodium and 89 31per cent of diethylbarbituric acid a number of years ago, when“veronal-sodium” and “medinal” were being introduced, puckner andhilpert228 found that these products yielded results correspondingclosely to the theoretical amounts of sodium and diethylbarbituricacid a recent examination of veronal-sodium, merck, made for thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, showed it to be of the samecomposition as that previously reported 227 new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, p 96 228 puckner, w a , and hilpert, w s. Veronal-sodium and medinal, j a m a 52:311 jan 23 1909. Rep a m a chemical lab , 2:13 only one firm product has been submitted to the laboratory throughthe committee on synthetic drugs, but because of the unsatisfactoryresults, it was not recommended for license, nor, as far as we areaware, has the firm investigated its anomalies 229 the amount ofmoisture in this specimen was 0 04 per cent it yielded 10 94 and 10 97per cent, of sodium puckner and hilpert found 11 02 per cent ofsodium in “medinal, ” and 11 01 per cent of sodium in “veronal-sodium ”the theoretical amount, according to the formula given for medinal bythe proprietors c₂h₅₂ cconnaconhco is 11 19 per cent when an aqueous └───────┘solution of barbital sodium was acidified, and the diethylbarbituricacid extracted with ether, it was found that theamount of freed acidextracted varied directly with the length of time after acidification 229 since this was written, the council on pharmacy and chemistry hasalso accepted “barbital-sodium abbott ”it is possible that in preparing the sodium salt of diethylbarbituricacid, the ring opens up, forming a compound not so easily affected bydilute mineral acids table 2 -- extraction of a sample of barbital-sodium diethylbarbituric acid length of time per cent a immediately 75 5 a^1 3/4 hour 82 0 b immediately 82 0 c 1-1/2 hours 80 5 d 4 hours 82 82 e 4 hours 83 56 f 4 hours 83 41 g 45-1/2 hours 84 89 h 45-1/2 hours 84 73 theory 89 31 veronal-sodium puckner and hilpert 89 01 average medinal puckner and hilpert 88 95 average phenetidyl-acetphenetidin hydrochlorid230 holocain hydrochloridphenetidyl-acetphenetidin hydrochlorid was introduced in theunited states under the name of “holocain hydrochloride” byfarbwerke, vorm meister lucius and bruening, hoechst a m gerthesis;the product apparently had not been patented in this country, although it was protected in gerthesis under patents no 78868 and80568 new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, describes “holocainhydrochlorid” as ethenyl-paradiethoxy-diphenyl-amidin hydrochloridch₃.