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The best way, i suppose, is to boil it, apply the herb help with thesis statements outwardly. The decoction of it, besides, is an excellentremedy for the yellow jaundice arrach, wild and stinking called also vulvaria, from that writing of the body upon which theoperation is most. Also dog arrach, goat arrach, and stinkingmotherwort descript this has small and almost round leaves, yet a littlepointed and without dent or cut, of a dusky mealy colour, growing onthe slender stalks and branches that spread on the ground, with smallflowers set with the leaves, and small seeds succeeding like the rest, perishing yearly, and rising again with its own sowing it smells likerotten fish, or essaything worse place it grows usually upon dunghills time they flower in june and july, and their seed is ripe quicklyafter government and virtues stinking arrach is used as a remedy towomen pained, and almost strangled with the mother, by smelling toit. But inwardly taken there is no better remedy under the moon forthat disease i would be large in commendation of this herb, were ibut eloquent it is an herb under the dominion of venus, and under thesign scorpio. It is common almost upon every dunghill the works ofgod are freely given to man, his medicines are common and cheap, andeasily to be found i commend it for an universal medicine for thewomb, and such a medicine as will easily, safely, and speedily cure anydisease thereof, as the fits of the mother, dislocation, or falling outthereof. Cools the womb being over-heated and let me tell you this, and i will tell you the truth, heat of the womb is one of the greatestcauses of hard labour in child-birth it makes barren women fruitful it cleanseth the womb if it be foul, and strengthens it exceedingly;it provokes the terms if they be stopped, and stops them if they flowimmoderately. You can desire no good to your womb, but this herb willaffect it. Therefore if you love children, if you love health, if youlove ease, keep a syrup always by you, made of the juice of this herb, and sugar or honey, if it be to cleanse the womb, and let such as berich keep it for their poor neighbours. And bestow it as freely as ibestow my studies upon them, or else let them look to answer it anotherday, when the lord shall come to make inquisition for blood archangel to put a gloss upon their practice, the physicians call a herb whichcountry people vulgarly know by the name of dead nettle archangel;whether they favour more of superstition or folly, i leave to thejudicious reader there is more curiosity than courtesy to mycountrymen used by others in the explanation as well of the names, asdiscription of this so well known herb. Which that i may not also beguilty of, take this short discription.

, capsicum and tobacco the combination is thoroughly irrational and a reminder of a pastcentury further, the council knows of no evidence to support thefollowing claims. “as a stimulant capsicum has the power of neutralizing depressant remedies like lobelia and tobacco ” “our association of its desirable constituents with those of lobelia, in connection with the modifying influence of capsicum, melaleuca, and laurus camphora, permits a more free use in libradol than would be possible were it to be employed alone ” “capsicum, melaleuca, and laurus camphora in libradol tend to counteract the excessive relaxative and depressant effects of lobelia ” “the great value of melaleuca in libradol is its quality of modifying and controlling the action of the associated energetic constituents of the drugs tobacco and lobelia, which reduce congestion and inflammation, but which would, unsupported, be too depressant ”libradol is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because itscomposition is complex, irrational and semi-secret, and because itsname and the unwarranted therapeutic recommendations made for it willlead to its ill-advised use -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 65 helmitol omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhelmitol is hexamethylenamin methylencitrate it was introduced withthe claim that it was superior to hexamethylenamin-- which acts in acidfluids only-- in that it is equally efficient whether the urine isalkaline or acid in 1918 the bayer company, which then marketed the product in theunited states, was notified that the council questioned the claims madefor helmitol and desired evidence to substantiate them in 1919 thesame notification was sent the winthrop chemical company, which in themeantime had secured control of the product pending the submissionof the evidence, the council continued the acceptance of helmitolfor new and nonofficial remedies with the statement that the actionsand uses of hexamethylenamin anhydromethylencitrate were those ofhexamethylenamin w a puckner, secretary the following report on helmitol was made by the referee in charge ofhexamethylenamin compounds and preparations, adopted by the council andsent the winthrop chemical company:“helmitol is a compound of anhydromethylencitric acid andhexamethylenamin it was introduced with the claim that it would beantiseptic even in alkaline urine the council did not entirely trustthe evidence, but continued to list helmitol in n n r , merely asa salt of hexamethylenamin, until satisfactory data should becomeavailable these have now been furnished by hanzlik journal ofurology 4:145 who has shown that:“1 the alkalinity required to split off formaldehyd fromanhydromethylencitric acid is greater than exists in the urine, even inadvanced ammoniacal fermentation “2 even if any formaldehyd were liberated in ammoniacal fermentation, it would at once become inactive by combining with ammonia “3 urine after the administration of anhydromethylencitric acidactually putrefies readily “4 less than 5 per cent of the anhydromethylencitric radical reachesthe urine, the remainder being destroyed in the body “the only reason for the existence of helmitol was this claim ofantiseptic action in alkaline and putrefying urines since this hasbeen disproved, there remains no reason for retaining helmitol inn n r. On the contrary, its retention would only tend to continuethe fallacy on which it is based “it is, therefore, recommended that helmitol be no longer listed withnew and nonofficial remedies, and that this report be published, afterthe usual submission to the manufacturers ”in accordance with the recommendation of the report, the council hasdirected the omission of helmitol from new and nonofficial remediesand has authorized the publication of this report -- from the journala m a , jan 22, 1921 spirocide not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary “spirocide” the spirocide corporation of new york is advertised as anew and successful treatment of syphilis by fumigation and inhalation according to the information presented to the council, spirocide is amechanical mixture of metallic mercury 25 per cent , copper sulphate 25per cent , cypress cones 20 per cent , henna 20 per cent , nut gall 5per cent , and dried pomegranate 5 per cent it is supplied in the formof greenish-gray tablets weighing about 10 gm each, and containing, therefore, about 2 5 gm about 38 grains of mercury it is sold inpackages of six tablets the following directions for its use are contained in a pamphletrecently distributed. “spirocide is administered by means of fumigation and inhalation the patient is disrobed to the waist and placed in a light chair, preferably with arms a pastil or tablet of spirocide is placed on a small plate, or open receptacle, after being ignited by holding in a gas or alcohol flame for a minute or so until it begins to smoulder the plate with the burning spirocide is then placed on the floor between the patient feet or just under the chair a small shelf or platform between the lower rounds of the chair is an excellent location for the plate containing the burning mass when all is in position a sheet should be thrown over the patient and arranged to enclose the whole the patient should breathe naturally and inhale the vapor, which will rise and fill the canopy surrounding him the treatment will require 15 to 30 minutes, or until the spirocide is burned up the patient may complain at first of a slight choking sensation, and there may be essay tendency to cough this can be removed by raising the sheet long enough to let in a little clear air the eyes should be closed or lightly bandaged to avoid smarting ”experiments conducted in the a m a chemical laboratory show thatspirocide, when ignited, burns slowly with consequent volatilizationof mercury the several organic constituents serve as fuel and thecopper sulphate possibly acts as a regulator of the combustion duringthe burning process the cypress cones, henna, etc , are consumed butmost, if not all, the copper remains behind, the mercury only beingvaporized it is asserted in the advertising pamphlet that spirocide isindicated in all stages of syphilis, primary, secondary and tertiary, and in all its complications or sequelae in these varying conditionsone tablet daily or every other day is recommended until six treatmentshave been taken, though it is stated that “occasionally, depending onthe severity or the duration of the disease, it may be wise to givenine treatments, the last three at intervals of two, three or moredays ”essay of the results which it is claimed are obtained with spirocide are. “at the completion of this course of treatment with spirocide, all signs or evidences of syphilis are removed, and in ten days to three months all wassermann tests prove negative any further treatments than the original course of fumigations are rarely needed wassermann will be found uniformly negative after a period which, according to the patient, may vary from ten days to three months these results have been obtained in paper in which salvarsan and kindred preparations have been employed without the slightest benefit ”in a letter to the council the “scientific observer” of the spirocidecorporation declared. “we do not claim that the vaporization method is new we do claim, however, that this combination of mercury produces more rapid volatilization, certain absorption and undoubted effect than any form of mercury administered by any method known to science without the usual danger that this is so we are willing to prove by comparison with other methods both by ourselves and thesis observers scattered over the united states ”to determine the validity of the claims made for spirocide, thecorporation was asked to present the evidence which it offered inreply, the corporation “scientific observer, ” dr j lewengood, submitted 83 case reports from a number of different observers, including those from military hospitals and a state institution, andalso a reprint of an article published by him in the new york medicaljournal, feb 21, 1920, wherein were reported eight paper whichreceived “spirocide treatment ” in no case were controls with othermethods of mercury administration carried out this material the council sent to two recognized syphilographers foran opinion one of the consultants reported that of the 83 paper, 20 dealt with patients who had also received arsphenamin medicationand, therefore, these 20 paper could not be considered as evidenceconcerning the value of spirocide as to the remaining paper, hefound on the whole that the history and data furnished were far fromsufficient to warrant the claims made in thesis of the paper emphasiswas laid on the wassermann test, as though this test were the onlything to be considered in a case of syphilis he pointed out that inone case the reaction changed from negative to strongly positive aftersix treatments and that in several paper the phenomena reported cannotbe explained by anything else than a desire to get a negative bloodtest for example, one case had spirocide treatment and a wassermann, 1 plus, 55 days after. The author then reports that 19 days later thereaction had become negative and, therefore, the change must be due tospirocide in several of the paper reported it is even questionableif the patients were syphilitic the consultant concluded that theevidence submitted by the spirocide corporation failed to prove theclaims made for spirocide he pointed out on the other hand thatpatients readily become salivated from the use of spirocide, oftenafter 8 or 10 treatments the second consultant replied that in his opinion the claim thatspirocide produces more “undoubted effect than any form of mercuryadministered by any method known to science without the usual danger, ”was not substantiated he believed that it was not as effective as essayother methods, that the dosage is not as exact, and, therefore, it isnot as free from danger when the drug is pushed the council two consultants were also asked whether or not, in theiropinion, the administration of mercury by inhalation is a method whichthe council should endorse to the extent of recognizing a preparationbased on this principle this inquiry was also sent to the members ofthe editorial board of the archives of dermatology and syphilology five replies were received one advised a thorough study of thedifferent methods of administering mercury by inhalation the otherfour were opposed to such recognition on the ground that as the dosageis not exact the effects, therefore, are not certain in consideration of the opinions expressed by its consultants, thecouncil declared spirocide inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause 1 the claims made for it are unproved and unwarranted, 2the routine use of an inexact method for the administration of mercuryis detrimental to sound therapy and 3 the name is not descriptive ofits composition, thus failing to remind the physician who uses thesepastils that he is administering metallic mercury -- from the journala m a , jan 22, 1921 digifolin-ciba not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized the publication of the following report, declaring digifolin-ciba inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary digifolin-ciba is a product of the society of chemical industryof basle, switzerland it is marketed in the united states by theciba company, 91 barclay street, new york city it is claimed thatdigifolin-ciba is “a preparation of digitalis leaves that has beenfreed from the useless and harmful principles such as digitonin saponin, coloring and inert matter, etc , but does contain all thereally valuable, therapeutically active constituents of the leaves, namely. Digitoxin and digitalein in their natural proportions ” thereis no evidence that digifolin contains all of the glucosides ofdigitalis as they exist in the leaf, and it is extremely improbablethat this is the case because one cannot remove saponin withoutaltering the other active principles of digitalis the ciba company sends out the following pamphlets relating todigifolin. “‘concerning digifolin-ciba, a new preparation of digitalis, ’ by c hartung, m d , ph d extracts from the work ‘ueber digifolin, ein neues digitalis-praeparat’ in the munich medical weekly, no 36, page 1944, 1912 ” “‘digitoxin contents of digifolin-ciba, ’ by c hartung, m d , ph d , basle, switzerland reprints from the pharmaceutical post, 1913 no 34, page 357 no 40, page 431 ” “‘pharmacological tests of digitalis, ’ by m j chevalier, chef des travaux pratiques de pharmacologie et matiere medicale, faculte de medecine de paris report presented to the societe de therapeutique at their meeting, may 28, 1913 ”in the reprint “concerning digifolin, ‘ciba ’” hartung lays stresson the presence of harmful and inert substances present in the leafand galenical preparations with the direct or implied statement thatdigifolin has an advantage in that these are absent from it this ismisleading it is true that boehm whom hartung cites, found saponin tobe irritating, but boehm states that it required 100 mg per kilogramof body weight to induce vomiting after its oral administration furthermore, saponin is present in traces only in infusion ofdigitalis, so that the therapeutic dose contains a wholly negligibleamount of it the following occurs in “pharmacological tests of digitalis, ” by m j chevalier.

“filudine restores the liver functions it is to the liver what digitalis is to the heart. It overcomes the insufficiency and stimulates the debilitated organ ” in malaria “it is the only true specific when associated with quinine ” “filudine is the ideal medication for tuberculosis, conforming as it does with the most recent researches in the therapeusis of this affection ” “we will not go as far as to say that opotherapy completely restores unhealthy livers, for although the lesions of the hepatic parenchyma may be obliterated by regeneration, the lesions of the connective tissues are permanent, and may be observed at the postmortem examination the new cells, however, do not present the same unhealthy conditions as those of the former diseased gland which they have replaced, and the liver can therefore function normally, so that the patient lives on. And he is satisfied with that ” “therefore, while regenerating the liver with filudine, we cleanse it and combat its congested state with urodonal we cause it to produce urea from the excess of uric acid which it contains ” “by the judicious and harmonious combination of the beneficial effects of filudine and urodonal, physicians not only possess the means of treating by rational methods cirrhosis of the liver in its various forms which is one of the most terrible diseases which can afflict anyone but what is still better, they can cure it ” “the liver of a person suffering from obesity being incapable of fulfilling its functions in regard to the fatty tissues, the rational and up-to-date method of treatment is therefore to restore to the system, in the form of filudine, the liver extracts which are lacking ”filudine is a mixture of semisecret composition the therapeuticclaims are manifestly unwarranted the name is not indicative of thecomposition, whatever that may be, and no rational excuse is offeredfor the combination of liver and spleen extracts with or without bileextracts with “thiomethylarsinate” or “thiocinnamate” of caffein the council therefore held filudine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 18, 1915 lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrymixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therapeutically irrational;the two substances are not indicated in the same conditions, nor canthey act together under physiologic conditions, such mixtures arechemically impossible. In a liquid medium the ingredients destroy eachother lactopeptin is manufactured by the new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y it is sold under the claim that it contains, pepsin, diastase, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid this productwas among the first proprietary preparations examined by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the report of the investigation was publishedin the journal, march 16, 1907, p 959 the preparation was found to bepractically inert-- “essentially a weak saccharated pepsin, ” devoid oftryptic activity six years later it was still widely advertised with the same irrationalclaims a referee a therefore examined lactopeptine powdered forthe council in 1913, and confirmed the previous findings the refereereport was published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months after this publication, the manufacturer protestedagainst the report, maintaining, contrary to the findings of thecouncil, that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity and contains“loosely combined” hydrochloric acid referee a therefore repeatedhis examination, and a second referee b, independently, examinedspecimens of lactopeptine powder purchased on the open market for thepurpose shortly before a few specimens examined by these two referees showed a slight trypticactivity. Most of them showed none the amount of hydrochloric acidpresent was insignificant the reports of the two referees were referred to the manufacturers, whoagain protested vehemently against these findings, this time on theground that the specimens were old the manufacturers also cited thework of three chemists to disprove the findings of the referees, anddemanded that the council reexamine lactopeptine, making use of freshspecimens the council refused for the following reasons:1 so long as the packages of lactopeptine are not dated, the activityof specimens known to be fresh is of no practical importance theactivity of the actual market supply is the only question of interestto the profession the only fair test is that made on specimensrepresentative of the product sold to the ultimate consumer 2 the evidence presented by the manufacturers did not warranta reexamination, since the work of two of the chemists citedsubstantially corroborates the results obtained by the councilreferees from the fresher specimens the figures for tryptic activityobtained by the third chemist cited by the manufacturers could not beaccepted by the council, since it was at variance with all other knownresults of investigations of lactopeptine 3 as stated at the outset, whatever the tryptic activity of themixture, it is therapeutically useless a demonstration of trypticactivity in a mixture containing both pepsin and pancreatin is ofmerely theoretical interest such activity, of course, cannot be expected, even on theoreticalgrounds, in liquid mixtures like elixir lactopeptine the council therefore again declared lactopeptine powder and tabletsand elixir lactopeptine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies andauthorized publication of the following statement w a puckner, secretary the council reportlactopeptine powder new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y was examined by the council in 1907 at that time it was claimed tocontain “ the five active agents of digestion-- pepsin, diastase veg ptyalin, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid-- combined in the proper proportion to insure the best results ”the examination showed that the preparation was essentially “a weaksaccharated pepsin, ” containing but small amounts of pepsin, nohydrochloric acid, or mere traces only, and no diastase or pancreatin the journal, march 16, 1907 in 1913, the product was reexamined, because the claims, as to bothcomposition and therapeutic value, were still being made sampleswere tested both of the american product, and of a british productfrom john morgan richards & sons, london the original findings wereconfirmed and the results were published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months later november 24 the new yorkpharmacal association wrote to the council, objecting to the findingsand maintaining that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity andcontains “in loose chemical combination” hydrochloric acid inaccordance with the custom of the council, the work was sent back forreview to the referee a, whose conclusions were then tested by asecond referee b, a physiologic chemist, not a member of the council, selected because of his special knowledge of the subject in december, 1913, referee a made a large number of new tests todetermine proteolytic and amylolytic power his results show thatthe ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition in practical use the tests also show that the amount oflactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” or both present is too small tohave any appreciable physiologic activity and therefore to be of anytherapeutic value nine samples of lactopeptine purchased in the open market in december, 1913, and january, 1914, were examined by referee b early in 1914 hisstudies show absence of amylase in all samples. Presence of pepsin, giving weak reactions even when compared with those of old pepsinpreparations. Complete absence of trypsin in seven out of nine samples, tryptic reaction being obtained in two samples, in one of which thereaction, “slight at best and of no practical import, ” was obtainedonly after treatment for twelve hours or more the presence of tryptic activity in two out of the nine samples maybe due to the fresher condition of these specimens, as indicatedby the serial numbers the evidence shows that it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity it should be reaffirmed that mixtures combining peptic and pancreaticactivities are not feasible, because pepsin cannot act except in thepresence of acid, and pancreatin is destroyed by acid and by pepticactivity furthermore, in conditions in which pancreatin is calledfor, pepsin is not, and vice versa. Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows. 2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine.

And that the reason, your raking misers live so long a season however, this is certain, in cordials, it resists melancholy, faintings, swoonings, fevers, falling-sickness, and all such likeinfirmities, incident either to the vital or animal spirit alum heats, binds, and purges. Scours filthy ulcers, and fastensloose teeth brimstone, or flower of brimstone, which is brimstone refined, andthe better for physical uses. Helps coughs and rotten flegm. Outwardlyin ointments it takes away leprosies, scabs, and itch. Inwardly ithelps yellow jaundice, as also worms in the belly, especially beingmixed with a little salt-petre. It helps lethargies being snuffed up inthe nose litharge, both of gold and silver. Binds and dries much, fills upulcers with flesh, and heals them lead is of a cold dry earthly quality, of an healing nature. Appliedto the place it helps any inflammation, and dries up humours pompholix, cools, dries and binds jacynth, strengthens the heart being either beaten into powder, andtaken inwardly, or only worn in a ring sapphire, quickens the senses, helps such as are bitten by venomousbeasts, ulcers in the bowels emerald. Called a chaste stone because it resists lust.

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“certumsumus spiritum sanctum magis masculis tale aliquid subscribere potuissesi feminis subscripsisset ” de virginibus velandis lutetiæparisorum, 1675, fº, p 178 in addition to much that has been written by french, german, 588 anditalian authors, who have put tattooing in an important place in legalmedicine, the matter of tattoo-marks a few years since claimed theattention of the law courts of england, the chief justice, cockburn, inthe tichbourne case, having described this species of evidence as of“vital importance, ” and in itself final and conclusive this celebratedtrial has brought to light about all the knowledge that help with thesis statements can be used inthe investigation of this sign as a mark of identity absence of thetattoo-marks in this case justified the jury in their finding that thedefendant was not and could not be roger tichbourne, whereupon thealleged claimant was proved to be an impostor, found guilty of perjury, and sentenced to penal servitude 589the practice of tattooing is found pretty much over the world, notablyin the polynesian islands and in essay writings of japan it is, however, not found in russia, being contrary to the superstitions of the people, who regard a mark of this kind as an alliance or contract with evilspirits its use appears to be penal only, and is limited to siberianconvicts the degrading habit, confined to a low order of development, exists at the present time as a survival of a superstitious practice ofpaganism, probably owing to perversion of the sexual instinct, and isstill common among school-boys, sailors, soldiers, criminals, and thelowest order of prostitutes living in so-called civilized communities indeed, unanimity of opinion among medical and anthropological writersassigns erotic passion as the most frequent cause of tattooing, andshows the constant connection between tattoo-marks and crime penalstatistics show the greater number of tattooed criminals among thelowest order, as those who have committed crimes against the person;while the fewest are found among swindlers and forgers, the mostintelligent class of criminals even amid intellectual advancementand æsthetic sensibility far in advance of the primitive man, such asexists in london and new york, for instance, are to be found personswho make good incomes by catering to this depraved taste for savageornamentation persons who have been to jerusalem may remember thetattooers, who try to induce travellers to have a cross tattooed on thearm as a souvenir of the pilgrimage if a writer in the revue des deuxmondes, 15th june, 1881, is to be believed, it appears that the princeof wales on his journey to the holy land had a jerusalem cross tattooedon his arm, april 2d, 1862 the “cruise of the bacchante” also tellshow the duke of york was tattooed while in japan the process is now rapidly done, an edison electric pen being utilizedfor the purpose, and essay of the wretched martyrs have the hardihoodto be tattooed from head to foot with grotesque designs in severalcolors i know of several instances. One of a man in providence, r i. Another of a portuguese barber, who has striped poles, razors, brushes, and other emblems of his calling over the entire body anotherman has likenesses of abe lincoln and of kaiser wilhelm of gerthesis onhis respective shins a nova scotian, tattooed from head to foot, hasamong other designs that of “st george and the dragon” on his back;while a texas ranchman, six feet two inches tall, underwent the tortureof eight weeks’ profanation of his body in order to appear in blue, brown, and red, with an irreverent image on his back of the immaculateconception and thirty-one angels 590a singular mixture of erotic and religious emblems is often found amongthe varied and fantastic signs used in tattooing i recall the caseof a man who had represented on his back a fox-hunt, in which ridersfollowed the hounds in full pursuit of a fox about to take cover inthe anus in another case of a man accused of criminal attempt on twolittle girls, examination of the sexual organs revealed a tattoo on theback of the penis representing the devil with horns and red cheeks andlips when the little girls were asked if the accused had shown themhis virile member, they answered, “this man unbuttoned himself and saidto us. ‘i am going to make you see the devil ’” in the face of suchaffirmations, the accused confessed his crime and was condemned othertattoo signs of the grossest emblems of unnatural passion have beenfound among low prostitutes, pederasts, and tribades statistics founded on numerous facts show thesis paper of tattooingof the penis and even of the labia majora in the lowest order ofprostitutes, but these unclean images and revelations of lustfulinstinct do not occur in the same order of frequency as those notedon the forearm, the deltoid, or the inferior extremities so valuableare these marks in their bearing on the class, vocation, character, and tastes of a person that the finding of anchors and ships wouldindicate a sailor. While flags, sabres, cannon, and other warlike signswould indicate a soldier, etc it is also noticeable that in thetattooing practised by lunatics the image relates in essay way to thenature of the peculiar form of mental disease from which they suffer, and it is chiefly among the more severe and incurable paper of mentaldegeneration that these signs are found see dr riva article, “iltatuaggio nel manicomio d’ancona, ” cronica del manicomio d’ancona, november, 1888 almost always the motive that prompts these disfigurements of theskin is the result of impulse, of thoughtlessness, or of orgy, andalmost all the tattooed come to repent of their folly the subjectof détatouage has of late taken a polemic turn in essay of thecontinental journals there are besides thesis paper on record ofsevere accidents and complications following the operation, such assevere inflammation, erysipelas, abscess, and gangrene dr beuchongives statistics of forty-seven paper, in which four were followedby mutilation and eight by death either directly or in consequenceof an amputation a certain proportion of what is known as syphilisinsontium is to be found among the reported statistics of tattooing dr bispham, of philadelphia, informs me that while at blockleyhospital he saw thirty paper of syphilis that had been communicated bythe same tattooer tattooing may essaytimes be accidental i have seen a dewritingmentalclerk with an elongated tattoo on the back of his hand caused byaccidental wounding with an inked pen a bursting shell during anaval engagement has caused a characteristic tattoo on the face of awell-known officer to be seen any day in washington two paper of thebluish-black discoloration of the skin from taking nitrate of silverhave also come under my observation both occurred in medical men, one of whom lives in florida, the other in the district of columbia silver discolorations of this kind are indelible, but i learn fromone of these gentlemen that large doses of iodide of potassium causetemporary fading of the discoloration, which returns on stopping themedicine 591the indelibility of tattoo-marks is such that their traces may beeasily recognized in the cadaver, though in a essaywhat advancedstage of putrefaction they have even been recognized on a gangrenouslimb essaytimes, however, it is impossible to recognize at firstsight whether there has or has not been a tattoo a strong light anda magnifying glass and a microscopic examination of the neighboringganglia to detect the presence of coloring matter may assist inremoving doubt it has been found on the bodies of tattooed cadaversthat the ganglia are filled with grains of coloring matter of thesame nature as that employed in making the tattoo attempts to removetattoo-marks generally leave a vicious scar that is equally indelible an efficacious method is to tattoo the mark with a solution oftannin, which is followed by brushing over with nitrate of silver a red cicatrix follows, and when the epidermis separates the tattoodisappears a better method, however, is by means of the electricneedle already mentioned in speaking of the electrolysis of nævi that a tattoo-mark may disappear by the effects of time and leave notrace is a matter that cooper reports after examining the mutilatedremains of a cadaver, and the statistics of caspar, tardieu, andhutin place it as high as nine in the hundred an officer of theunited states revenue marine lately called my attention to severalsuperficial tattooes on the back of his hand which had disappeared thedeeper ones, however, remained the spontaneous disappearance of atattoo seems to be possible when the operation has been done in sucha superficial way as not to have passed the rete malpighii, or whenthe tattooing has been done with essay substance not very tenacious, as vermilion, which appears to be easily eliminated but when thewritingicles of coloring matter penetrate into the fibro-elastic tissue ofthe derma, the disappearance of the tattoo is rare in seventy-eight individuals tattooed with vermilion alone, hutinfound eleven upon whom the tattoo had disappeared out of one hundredand four tattooes made with a single color, india-ink, writing ink, blue or back, not a single one had completely disappeared the resultsare identical if the tattooes are made with two colors thus in 153tattooes with vermilion and india-ink, one instance showed a fading ofthe black, in another it had completely disappeared, the red being wellmarked.