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Congested and swollen, if the subject has beenlong suspended roth found the face pale in 43 of 49 paper in aboutone-half the paper the features are calm and placid syncope maschkafound the lips bluish in 98 of 153 paper the eyes are often prominent, staring, and congested, and usually the pupils are dilated lacassagneand maschka848 look upon ecchymoses of the eyelids and conjunctivæ, “piqueté scarlatin, ” as important as favoring the idea of hangingor strangulation roth found in 49 paper the eyelids closed 28 times;half open, 12. Congested in 6. Ecchymosed in 2 pupils dilated in 31;narrowed in 2 dilated in 97½ per cent of ogston paper paper 85, 86. Rupture of crystalline lens harvey849 says the blood was foundflowing from the ear in 6 paper of nearly 1, 500, but no details weregiven ogston, one case hofmann saw a case in which there was bleedingfrom the ears he says this is not due, as has been supposed, torupture of the tympanic membrane, but to hemorrhage from subcutaneousvessels case 27 the tongue is usually livid and swollen, especially at the base according to tidy, dr guy looks on this as showing that suspensiontook place very probably during life in about one-third of the paperthe tongue is protruded and compressed between the teeth. Essaytimesbitten essay observers found it protruded only as a result ofputrefaction the protrusion of the tongue is not believed to dependon the position of the ligature hackel in 67 paper found the tonguelying forward in all paper where the cord was between the larynx andthe hyoid. In 55 per cent in front of the teeth, in 18 per cent betweenthe teeth. Where the ligature was lower down, the tongue was behindthe teeth he found by experiment that in the spasmodic expiratoryeffort the tongue was thrust forward. In the inspiratory movement, drawn backward he concluded that the forward movement was the resultof reflex action maschka850 found the tongue between the teeth 58times in 149 paper roth in 49 paper found the tongue projecting andbitten in 22, the teeth shut in 15 others.

However, heused a method now known to be inaccurate and made obvious errors incalculation, so that his conclusions were unwarranted since the evidence was even to this extent contradictory, marriottperformed a series of experiments the methods of this study anddetails of results are described in his paper, in which he alsodiscusses the experiments of essay other observers marriott writes. “none of the subjects of the experiment marriott experienced any effect whatsoever from the administration of the drug almost all of the ingested hypophosphite is promptly eliminated unchanged “these experiments forbes’ demonstrate conclusively that the hypophosphites possess no specific value as a source of phosphorus for the body this is not to be wondered at in view of the fact that 85 per cent of the phosphorus ingested in the form of hypophosphite is excreted unchanged, and there is no proof that even the remaining 15 per cent is available to the organism it is doubtful if there are any conditions in which the body suffers from lack of phosphorus even should such conditions exist, phosphorus, in the form that it occurs in the ordinary foods, or as phosphates, is more efficient in supplying the deficit than hypophosphites that must be oxidized before utilization and which are only about 15 per cent oxidized, if at all for example, half a glass of milk contains more available phosphorus than three large doses of hypophosphites of 15 grains each, as great a dosage as is usually given “what, then, is the therapeutic value of hypophosphites?. there is no reliable evidence that they exert a physiologic effect. It has not been demonstrated that they influence any pathologic process. They are not ‘foods ’ if they are of any use, that use has never been discovered ”in view of the foregoing, it seemed to the council advisable toexamine the claims under which a few of the proprietary hypophosphitepreparations are marketed the following are representative. fellows’ syrup of hypophosphitesno very exact information concerning the composition is furnished bythe manufacturers fellows medical mfg co , new york they say thatthe product “ contains the chemically pure hypophosphites of iron, quinin, strychnin, calcium, manganese and potassium, agreeably blended in the form of a bland, stable syrup with a slightly alkaline reaction “each fluid drachm contains the equivalent of 1-64th of a grain of pure strychnin ”the fellows’ hypophosphites advertising furnishes essaything like abarometer of the popular status of hypophosphites in one circular undated, but, from certain references contained in it, presumablyissued ten or fifteen years ago we read. “it is an indubitable fact that the hypophosphites have earned the distinction of having their therapeutic value more completely established than have any other remedial agents it is only by accepting the current view, which was originally advanced by mr fellows, that we can satisfactorily account for the incontestable fact that the hypophosphites are of supreme importance in the treatment of a very extensive variety of affections the hypophosphites increase the consumption of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide in this manner, they stimulate nutrition and promote constructive metamorphosis it is now universally conceded that the widespread utility of the hypophosphites is due to the fact that they substantially improve metabolic processes, thus increasing the disease-resisting capacity of all the tissues ”the circular, continuing, emphasizes the “incomparablephosphorus-contributing properties” of fellows’ syrup, its“extraordinary reconstructive properties” and “the magnificent resultswhich invariably attend its employment in the treatment of anemia, chronic bronchitis, chlorosis, neurasthenia, mollities ossium, delayedunion of fractures, rickets, convalescence, ” etc a circular bearing the copyright date 1914, on the other hand, admitsthat. “the theories for the favorable action of fellows syrup of hypophosphites have undergone several changes ”the same circular further maintains, however, that. “ the fact has never been challenged that in fellows syrup of hypophosphites we have one of the most efficient, most complete, most all-around tonics and roborants in the materia medica ”no attempt is made to base this assertion on the therapeutic actionof the constituents in other words, the old theory, which formed thebasis for the popularity of fellows’ syrup, has been thrown overboard, but no substitute is deemed necessary. The momentum already acquired isapparently regarded as sufficient to insure its continued sale fellows’ syrup of hypophosphites is a semisecret, unscientificpreparation-- an affront to sound therapy-- exploited by means ofextravagant and misleading statements syrupus roborans syrup hypophosphites comp with quinin, strychnin and manganeselittle information concerning this preparation seems to be furnishedat present by the manufacturers, arthur peter & co , louisville, ky according to an old circular, it contains, in each fluidounce, grains “hypophos potass 1-1/2 hypophos manganese 1 hypophos lime 1 hypophos iron 1-1/2 hypophos quinin 6/16 hypophos strichnin 1/16 “1/128 grain strychnia to teaspoonful ”further, according to the same circular. “the hypophosphites are especially useful in all diseases where there is a lack of nutrition they are the best of all remedies in rachitis, non-union of fractures, osteomalacia and syphilitic periostitis ”as for syrupus roborans itself.

Of the use of which more hereafter of moistening medicines there can be no such difference found amongst moistening medicines, that they should surpass the second degree for seeing all medicinesare either hot or cold, neither heat nor cold, seeing they areextremes, can consist with moisture, for the one dries it up, the othercondensates it use phylosophers therefore call moisture and dryness, passivequalities, yet have they their help with powerpoint presentations operation likewise. For moist medicineslenify and make slippery, ease the cough, and help the roughness of thethroat these operations are proper to medicines moist in the firstdegree those which are moister, take away naturally strength, help thesharpness of humours, make both blood and spirits thicker, looses thebelly, and fits it for purgation the immoderate or indiscreet use of them dulls the body, and makes itunfit for action of drying medicines drying medicines have contrary faculties to these, viz to consumemoisture, stop fluxes, and make such writings dry as are slippery, theymake the body and members firm, when they are weakened by too muchmoisture, that so they may perform their proper functions yet although the members be strengthened by drying medicines, they havenotwithstanding their own proper moisture in them, which ought to beconserved, and not destroyed, for without it they cannot consist. Ifthen this moisture be consumed by using, or rather over use of dryingmedicines, the members can neither be nourished, nor yet perform theirproper actions such medicines as are dry in the third degree, being unadvisedlygiven, hinder the writings of the body they are appropriated to, of theirnourishment, and by that means brings them into consumption besides, there is a certain moisture in the body of man, which iscalled radical moisture, which being taken away, the writings must needsdie, seeing natural heat and life also consists in it, and this may bedone by too frequent use of medicines dry in the fourth degree. And itmay be this was the reason of galen writing, that things dry in thefourth degree, must of necessity burn. Which is an effect of heat, andnot of dryness, unless by burning, galen means consuming the radicalmoisture the use then of drying medicines, is only to such bodies, and writings ofthe body, as abound with moisture, in which observe these rules 1 if the moisture be not extreme, let not the medicine be extremelydrying 2 let it be proper to the writing of the body afflicted, for if the liverbe afflicted by moisture, and you go about to dry the brain or heart, you may sooner kill than cure thus have we briefly spoken of the first qualities of medicines, and inthe general only, and but briefly, because we shall always touch uponthem in the exposition of the other qualities, in which you must alwayshave an eye to these section ii of the appropriation of medicines to the several writings of the body that the qualities and use of these medicines may be found out, andunderstood by every one, and so my country reap the benefit of mylabour, they shall find them presented to their view in this order medicines appropriated 1 to the head 2 to the breast and lungs 3 to the heart 4 to the stomach 5 to the liver 6 to the spleen 7 to the reins and bladder 8 to the womb 9 to the joints chapter i of medicines appropriated to the head by head is usually understood all that writing of the body which isbetween the top of the crown, and the uppermost joint of the neck, yet are those medicines properly called cephalical, which areappropriated to the brain, not to the eyes, ears, nor teeth. Neitherare those medicines which are proper to the ears, proper also to theeyes, therefore my intent being to write as plain as i can i shallsubdivide this chapter into these writings medicines appropriated 1 to the brain 2 to the eyes 3 to the mouth, and nostrils 4 to the ears 5 to the teeth for what medicines are appropriated to an unruly tongue, is not in mypower at present to determine of medicines appropriated to the brain before we treat of medicines appropriated to the brain, it is requisitethat we describe what the nature and affection of the brain is the brain which is the seat of apprehension, judgment, and memory, theoriginal of sense and motion, is by nature temperate, and if so, thenyou will grant me that it may easily be afflicted both by heat andcold, and it is indeed more subject to affliction by either of them, than any other writing of the body, for if it be afflicted by heat, senseand reason, it is immoderately moved, if by cold, they languish, andare dulled, to pass by other symptoms which invade the head, if thebrain be altered from its proper temper also this is peculiar to the brain, that it is delighted or offended bysmells, sights, and sounds, but i shall meddle no further with thesehere, because they are not medicines cephalical medicines may be found out from the affections of thebrain itself the brain is usually oppressed with moisture in suchafflictions. Therefore give such medicines as very gently warm, cleanse, cut, and dry. But withal, let them be such as are appropriatedto the head, such as physicians say by an hidden quality strengthenthe brain again, if you consider the situation of the brain, you shall findit placed in the highest writing of the body, therefore it is easilyafflicted with hot vapours. This punishes a man with watching andhead-ache, as the former did with sottishness and sleepiness, in suchpaper use such cephalecs as gently cool the brain to make cephalecs of narcoticks, or stupifying medicines, is not myintent, for i am confident they are inimical both to brain and senses of these, and such medicines as also purge the brain, i shall speak byand by to return to my purpose essay cephalics purge the brain, essay heat it, essay cool it, essaystrengthen it. But how they perform this office peculiarly to thebrain, most physicians confess they could neither comprehend by reason, nor describe by precepts, only thus, they do it by an hidden quality, either by strengthening the brain, thereby descending it from diseases, or by a certain antipathy between them and the diseases incident to thebrain lastly, for the use of cephalics, observe, if the brain be muchafflicted, you cannot well strengthen it before you have purged it, neither can you well purge the brain before you have cleansed the restof the body, it is so subject to receive the vapours up to it. Givecooling cephalics when the brain is too hot, and hot cephalics when itis too cold beware of using cooling medicines to the brain when the crisis of adisease is near.

The whole literature and practice dealing with the alkaline carbonates show them to be accredited with a much wider field of use and repute in gastro-intestinal disorders the pancreatic extract in carminzym is designed to be diffusible in the help with powerpoint presentations stomach, the tablet is preferable to be crushed in the mouth before swallowing, and we believe the pancreatic extract to be an effective constituent as administered in carminzym you comment as follows. “ipecac has a well defined though limited field of usefulness when it is used it should be given with due regard to the amount needed by the patient and the frequency of the repetition of the dose ” this in a sense may be said of any of the most useful drugs, but not in the least special degree does it apply to ipecac, which is, on the contrary, of quite characteristic, peculiar range of therapeutic properties, useful in varying combinations and in widely varying proportions and doses according to the purpose for which it is employed ipecac in well known official alkaline, carminative, laxative preparations occurs in the “average dose” in the varying quantities of 1/14, 1/10, 1/8, and 3/16 of a grain the ipecac in combination with the other ingredients in carminzym is designed for a tablet which shall carry a minimal quantity whilst capable of adequate remedial action, thus admitting of increase of dosage or repetition as occasion requires the quantity of ipecac was not taken at random, but chosen after long trial and consideration we believe that carminzym possesses carminative properties in a superior degree and that, furthermore, in consequence of its composition it directly stimulates the gland secretions and thus exerts a beneficial action upon the whole digestive functions carminzym is for use as occasion requires, and this is to be especially noted thus it is not only of direct benefit, but helpful in promoting systematic therapeutic measures and regimen the council takes the ground that complex mixtures of remedial agents are so wrong that there is no longer warrant for their admission into new and nonofficial remedies. And that carminzym is an irrational mixture we hold that certain desirable therapeutic properties may rationally be attributable to carminzym. And that these are manifested in practice during the time since the description was sent and the receipt of the statement of the action of the council, essay ten months, carminzym has proved of constantly increasing service the statement in the letter of fairchild bros and foster “thelong established custom of the use of mixtures of remedial agentsrests on considerations well known and generally accepted” mightwell be paraphrased to read. The one-time prevalent custom of usingill-considered combinations of remedial agents has been thoroughlydiscredited and is generally abandoned by progressive practitioners such arguments as that “laxatives, tonics, carminatives, diuretics arecombined with distinct advantage” have led to the use of irrationalmixtures such as the compound syrup of hypophosphites and the electuaryof theriaca the council is confident that no one who has studied thecauses and treatment of digestive disorders will find occasion toprescribe at one time all the ingredients stated to be contained incarminzym, and certainly not in the fixed proportions present therein the comments in the council report concerning ipecac certainlydoes apply to all active therapeutic agents ipecac was mentioned inthe report because the several constituents of carminzym were underdiscussion and hence it was necessary to point out the futility of thesmall dosage of ipecac in this mixture the announcement that “carminzym has proved of constantly increasingservice” is not convincing the council does not know of a singleclinical study of the action of carminzym under conditions which wouldhave afforded satisfactory evidence of its therapeutic value -- fromthe journal a m a , sept 28, 1918 phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp hasbeen adopted by the council and authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp 125 is sold by the charlesh phillips chemical co , new york according to the published formula, each fluidram contains. Phosphoric acid 2 minims potassium phosphate } magnesium phosphate } calcium phosphate } 2-1/4 grains ferric phosphate } quinin muriate equal to nearly 1/2 gr bi-sulph 1/4 grain strychnin 1/120 grain flavoring, glycerin and syrup, q s 125 the evolution of “phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp ”from “phillips’ wheat phosphates” may be interesting every oneknows that therapeutics tends to fashions, and “phillips’ wheatphosphates” appears to have had its inception as the result of theobservation that super-refined white flour contains less phosphatesthan the corresponding amount of wheat it was assumed that suchflour must be deficient in an essential constituent, and the wheatphosphates preparation was apparently designed to fill the want it wasexploited for the relief of numerous conditions that were supposed, without satisfactory evidence, to result from this deficiency wheniron, quinin and strychnin mixtures became the vogue a quarter of acentury ago, it was only natural to ride on the wave of popularityand the already widely advertised “wheat phosphates” was furtherenhanced-- commercially-- by the addition of the iron, quinin andstrychnin, the amount of alkaloid added being practically negligible those who are not familiar with the various phases of the phosphorus, phosphoric acid, lactophosphate, lecithin, nuclein and glycerophosphatepropaganda are referred to a report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry in the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 1033 essay typical claims made for the preparation are. “with marked beneficial action upon the nervous system to be relied on where a deficiency of the phosphates is evident ” “ brace those tired nerves and aid that worn stomach with phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine ” “the maintenance of a satisfactory blood pressure level free from intervals of depression may be accomplished by the use of phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine compound in appropriate doses ” “the quantities of quinin and strychnin in this preparation are so well balanced that they relieve the depression and fatigue from mental or physical exertion, without the necessity of recourse to alcoholic stimulation ” “the other ingredients of phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine-- phosphoric acid, and the phosphates of potash, magnesia, lime, and iron-- are the most rational as well as convenient means of administering these tissue remedies, and of introducing phosphorus-- the vitalizing constituent of the nervous system-- into the organism ”the action of such a mixture as a whole is practically that of the sumof the actions of its constituents the therapeutic action of strychninand quinin are described in every text-book of therapeutics, but itis necessary to distinguish carefully between the various conditionsin which these alkaloids have been used without discrimination, andthose conditions in which they have been proved to be of value while both have been widely used in a great variety of conditions, neither is of proved value in more than a distinctly limited rangeof diseases the manufacturers of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine comp seem to appeal to the less discriminating who use thesealkaloids without any definite conception of exactly what they seekto accomplish with them quinin, although used by the uncritical in ahost of diseases, has a definite field of usefulness in the treatmentof malaria, both prophylactic and curative, but the required dose inthe treatment of malaria is thesis times larger than that recommended inthe phillips’ preparation the claim that the “strychnin and quininin this preparation are so well balanced that they produce a mild, buoyant effect, so advantageous, instead of alcoholic stimulation, torelieve depression and fatigue from mental or physical exertion” isnonsensical, if, indeed, it is not mendacious balderdash calcium and potassium have important functions in the body, but anydeficiency that may arise is usually attributable to an inability ofthe body to utilize that which is supplied, for there is seldom anydeficiency of these salts in the food, and when they are needed theyare best supplied as simple solutions of the salts in appropriate doseswithout all of the other constituents of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine comp phosphoric acid exerts practically the same actions as other mineralacids, hydrochloric being usually preferred for internal administrationin certain forms of indigestion, aside from which they are seldom usedas such in the more recent literature for phillips’ phospho-muriate of quininecomp , we find the attempt to utilize the well known craze aboutphosphorus, which has been through so thesis phases, every one of whichhas had its day and has been discarded the phosphoric acid and phosphates present in phillips’ phospho-muriateof quinine are of no more value in nervous diseases than is simplesodium phosphate which does not require the addition of a host of otheringredients for its action as a matter of fact, the phosphates ofcalcium and potassium present in a dose of phillips’ phospho-muriate ofquinine are probably devoid of appreciable effect in practically allconditions to pretend that one who suffers from physical and nervous exhaustioncan be materially benefited by this mixture is sheer nonsense and isunworthy of a moment consideration by a clinician who is called on totreat such patients iron is useful in anemia, as every one knows iron has practically noother field of usefulness in therapeutics when it is indicated itshould be administered in a simple form, such as the pill of ferrouscarbonate, for example, and not in a “shotgun” mixture that is quite aslikely to do harm as good the claim that a satisfactory level of blood pressure can be maintainedby phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine is mentioned only to condemnas the limit of impudent therapeutic claims it is an insult to theintelligence of any practitioner to pretend that any known agent orcombination of remedial agents can maintain a uniform blood pressure inany one of innumerable conditions in short, phillips’ phospho-muriate of quinine comp is a complex andirrational mixture exploited by means of unwarranted claims it isa survival of the old days of therapeutic chaos when impossible andfantastic chemical formulas were gravely published and as solemnlyaccepted without question, and also without the slightest understandingon the writing of thesis. When the most eminent of practitioners did nothesitate to give glowing testimonials for lithia waters that containedno more lithium than ordinary river water. When no therapeutic claimwas too preposterous to receive acceptance, no theory too nonsensicalto justify the use of all manner of claptrap mixtures for all manner ofconditions -- from the journal a m a , oct 19, 1918 b iodine and b oleum iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on “b iodine” and “b oleum iodine, ” together with the reply submitted by themanufacturer and a discussion thereon by the referee in charge of thepreparations w a puckner, secretary specimens of b iodine and b oleum iodine b iodine chemical companyand an advertising pamphlet were sent to the council by john bohlander, a m , m d , with the declaration. “well knowing the value of iodin in surgical operations and dressings, prompted me for the benefit of my fellow physicians as well as myself, and for humanity sake, to make iodin my master-piece in chemistry “after several years of diligent work in my private laboratory i succeeded in discovering a new product of iodin-- nitrogen, hydrate of iodin ”while “b iodine” is said to be nitrogen hydrate of iodin and “b oleumiodine” a 5 per cent solution thereof, the examination made by prof a h clark of the university of illinois, school of pharmacy workingin the a m a chemical laboratory, indicates that the first is asimple mixture of iodin and ammonium iodid, and the second a solutionof iodin in liquid petrolatum the council adopted the report of thea m a chemical laboratory which appears below and declared b iodine and b oleum iodine inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesbecause:1 the composition is incorrectly declared b iodine is not a newlydiscovered iodin compound, “nitrogen hydrate of iodine, ” but a mixtureof iodin and ammonium iodid b oleum iodine is not a 5 per cent solution of b iodine as suggested by the statement on the label andin the advertising, but a solution of iodin in liquid petrolatumcontaining about 0 85 per cent of iodin 2 since b iodine is a mixture of iodin and ammonium iodid, itssolution in water will have the properties of other solutions of iodinmade by the aid of iodid, such as a dilution of tincture of iodin or ofcompound solution of iodin lugol solution hence, the therapeuticclaim that b iodine “being of a colloidal nature has the advantage ofbeing more readily absorbed and taken up by all cellular structure, thus getting a perfect cellular medication of iodine, ” is unwarranted 3 the names “b iodine” and “b oleum iodine” are not descriptive ofthe pharmaceutical mixtures to which they are applied 4 b iodine and b oleum iodine are unessential modifications ofestablished articles b iodine has no advantage over tincture of iodinor compound solution of iodin as more convenient of transportation, the medical dewritingment of the u s army supplies its field hospitalswith a mixture of iodin and iodid ready for solution in water, eitherin tablet form or in powdered form in tubes solutions of iodin inliquid petrolatum may be readily prepared reports council pharm andchem , 1917, p 88 contribution from the a m a chemical laboratory b iodine products a h clark, ph g , b s “b iodine” products are marketed by the b iodine chemical company, cincinnati, ohio. John bohlander, a m , m d , is said to be thediscoverer they consist of “b iodine, ” “b oleum iodine, ” and “b aqua iodine ” b iodine and b oleum iodine were submitted to thecouncil in a circular submitted by the b iodine chemical company, b iodine issaid to be “nitrogen hydrate of iodin ” it is claimed that “coming incontact with water, h₂o, a chemical change takes place forming hydrooxid of iodin, the nitrogen of the nitrogen hydrate of iodin escaping, the balance taking up one of oxygen of the water its companion, theh₂, escaping at the same time with the nitrogen then combining with theremainder of the water to form the solution of hydrogen oxid of iodin;so you can readily see that you really have a pure water of iodin, nothing but the h, the o and the i ”-- from the journal a m a , feb 1, 1919 b iodineaccording to the circular, b iodine is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether also it. “has odor, taste, melting and boiling point, same as regular iodin, has a great affinity for water and will respond to all the tests of iodin appears in a bluish black granulated mass or powder when heated in vaporating dish will throw off large purple volumes of iodin leaving a slight white crystalline precipitate, which on continuous heating will entirely disappear with careful manipulation you can get prismatic needle point like crystals, looking like spores of glass, these dissolving in water will yield pure iodin coloring the water iodin “pharmacologic, therapeutical and physiological action.

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Hair anointedwith the juice of it will fall help with powerpoint presentations off. It kills fish, being mixed withany thing that they will eat. Outwardly it cleanses ulcers, takes awayfreckles, sunburning and morphew from the face tormentilla see the root trinitatis herba pansies, or heart-ease. They are cold and moist, both herbs and flowers, excellent against inflammations of the breastor lungs, convulsions or falling-sickness, also they are held to begood for venereal complaints trifolium trefoil. Dry in the third degree, and cold. The ordinarymeadow trefoil, cleanses the bowels of slimy humours that stick tothem, being used either in drinks or clysters.