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The root grows wonderfully long, even to eight orten feet in length, set with rings and circles towards the upper writing, cut help with biology homework smooth and without joints down lower, brownish on the outside, andvery white within, with a pith in the middle. Of a pleasant taste, butmuch more, being artificially preserved, and candied with sugar place it is found about the sea coast in almost every county ofthis land which borders upon the sea time it flowers in the end of summer, and gives ripe seed within amonth after government and virtues the plant is venereal, and breeds seedexceedingly, and strengthens the spirit procreative. It is hot andmoist, and under the celestial balance the decoction of the roothereof in wine, is very effectual to open obstructions of the spleenand liver, and helps yellow jaundice, dropsy, pains of the loins, andwind cholic, provokes urine, and expels the stone, procures womencourses the continued use of the decoction for fifteen days, takenfasting, and next to bedward, doth help the stranguary, the difficultyand stoppage of urine, and the stone, as well as all defects of thereins and kidneys. And if the said drink be continued longer, it issaid that it cures the stone. It is found good against the frenchpox the roots bruised and applied outwardly, help the kernels ofthe throat, commonly called the king evil.

Fingers clinched help with biology homework. Meningeal vessels engorged;lungs tubercular, congested. Right heart contained a little coagulatedblood 8 ibid - sex and age not given found hanging on a tree. Usualsigns. Odontoid process fractured. Rope in a double noose without knot, a common dooree, such as is used for drawing water 9 ibid , p 32 - man, age 50 face livid, eyes red and protruding;teeth clinched. Lower jaw retracted. Tongue behind the teeth. Hands andfeet contracted. Anus covered with fæcal matter. Circular depressedmark of cord around neck, hard as parchment, slightly ecchymosed alongedges. Essay infiltration of blood in connective tissue beneath thecord. Essay tearing of soft writings. Laryngeal cartilage displaced brainand membranes congested right cavities of heart distended with darkblood trachea congested 10 hurpy.

In others, selenium compounds have been used, while in a third set help with biology homework of observationsthe therapeutic agent represents an attempt to combine the virtues ofthese two types of therapy by employing selenium in colloidal form asan example of the first class, may be cited the cuprase of gaube dugers;269 of the second, the seleniovanadic ointment of roemer and thesulpho-selene of walker. Of the third, seleniol and electro-selenium 267 wassermann, keysser and wassermann. Deutsch med wchnschr 37:2389, 1911 wassermann and hansemann. Berl klin wchnschr 49:4, 1912 268 neuberg and caspari. Deutsch med wchnschr 38:375, 1912 neuberg, caspari and löhe. Berl klin wchnschr 49:1405, 1912 269 gers, gaube du. La cuprase et le cancer, paris, 1913 inasmuch as this new type of cancer therapy derives its origin, its justification and its support, in very large measure, from thelaboratory results obtained in animals, it is a matter of considerableimportance to examine those results with care, in order to determinewhether they furnish a satisfactory basis for human therapy, andwhether they justify the hopes to which they have given rise it is safe to assert that the application of chemotherapy to thetreatment of tumors practically dates from the publications ofwassermann he stated the principle that a rational therapy of tumorsmust be based on constitutional treatment it appears evident thatlocal treatment can have only local effects the lymphatic extensionsof tumorous growths, and the often unsuspected metastases in distantorgans must of necessity escape the effects of purely local treatment hence, wassermann reached the conclusion that all treatment of cancerwhich was to be effective, and not merely palliative, must be carriedto all writings of the body by means of the blood stream he thereforeintroduced the use of intravenous injections in the experimentaltherapy of rat and mouse tumors an accidental observation led himto believe that selenium was a substance possessing a high degree ofaffinity for tumor cells in order to insure the penetration of the tumor in the live animal bythis substance, however, he considered it essential to combine it withessay other highly diffusible substance this type of substance, whichwas to act as a carrier of the selenium, he described under the name“cytotrochin, ” from the greek word τροχιά {trochia}, meaning road forthis purpose he selected eosin the eosin and the selenium were thencombined by a method and in a form the details of which have neverbeen published all that we know of this preparation is contained inthe statement that it is very difficult to produce, and that it isextremely unstable and difficult to keep mice can be given amounts offrom 2 to 3 mg of this substance in solution wassermann experimentedwith mice inoculated with transplanted tumors of the types of carcinomaand sarcoma after from three to five intravenous injections of thedrug, he noted that the tumors become softer and fluctuate after stillfurther injections the fluid mass undergoes absorption, and the tumorgives the impression of an empty sac if it is possible to carry theinjections up to the number of ten or twelve, recovery ensues in suchcured animals there remain only the unabsorbed portions of the fibrouscapsule recurrences were not observed in the cured animals wassermannfurther stated that two spontaneous tumors in mice which had beentreated by this method presented favorable results wassermann original presentation gave few experimental details, andhas not been followed by the promised scientific report from hisarticle it is impossible to determine what proportion of his animalswere cured and what proportion failed to survive the treatment from alater paper by keysser270 we learn that by far the larger portion ofthe animals perished during the treatment in the stage of softening, so that a cure was accomplished in from only 3 to 5 per cent of theanimals this is a point of great importance, inasmuch as it furnishesan indication of the highly dangerous character of this mode oftreatment fatal results are attributed by keysser to the absorption oftoxic products from the tumor this contention, however, is supportedby no observations, and it is certainly equally fair to assume thatdeath results from the toxic effects of the compound a microscopicstudy of tumors taken from animals undergoing treatment was made byhansemann he found that the death of the cells was the result ofnuclear destruction 270 keysser. Wien klin wchnschr 26:1664, 1913 within a very few months after wassermann publication, neubergand caspari268 published a paper which was the first of a seriesof studies on the therapeutic effects of the heavy metals on theanimal tumors they used zinc, platinum, tin, selenium, copper, silver and cobalt in the form of certain complex organic compounds, the composition of which is not revealed owing to the fact thatintravenous injections of these compounds produced a specific effect onthe tumors, they are described as “tumoraffin” substances immediatelyafter the intravenous injection of these preparations, there followeda marked hyperemia of the tumor, whereas the remainder of the mousebody appeared markedly anemic the hyperemia was often attendedby hemorrhage into the tumor this first stage was succeeded byliquefaction and absorption followed by recovery in favorable paper the authors failed to state in what proportion of their experiments theanimals died, and in what proportion recovery ensued the second paper on this subject is by neuberg, caspari and löhe, 268in which further details are vouchsafed they state that with thecompounds used by them the toxic and the therapeutic doses approximatevery closely, from which it follows that the treatment, as with thewassermann method, results in a very high mortality smaller dosesproduce no therapeutic effect. On the contrary, they seem to act asa stimulus to the tumor, accelerating the normal rate of growth spontaneous tumors show similar effects, but no cures are recorded only in tumors in which autolysis is active intra vitam does themethod exert any effect consequently the benign primary tumors ofanimals, such as fibromas, are not influenced by it neuberg and caspari are to a great extent responsible for the colloidaltheory of treatment in tumors accepting the observations of petri andothers that the autolytic ferments in tumors are quantitatively greaterand qualitatively different from those present in the normal tissuesof the body, they venture the assumption that the process of recoveryin the experimental tumors of animals is due to the self-digestion ofthe tumor by these ferments ascoli and izar271 had shown that suchferments are materially stimulated by the presence of metals, and moreespecially of metals in colloidal form this contention is apparentlyin harmony with the well-established fact that certain colloidal metalsof themselves are capable of acting under certain circumstances asferments neuberg and caspari were at first of the belief that thecompounds produced by them circulate in colloidal form subsequentlythey stated that these compounds were crystalline substances, but theyassumed, under the influence of the theoretical consideration mentionedabove, that these substances are broken up in the tumor and thereundergo transformation into the colloid state 271 izar. Ztschr f immunitätsforsch , 1913 izar and basile. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 1312 in connection with the preceding observations there are certain otherexperimental results which require mention izar271 succeeded incuring rat tumors by means of injection of colloidal sulphur c lewin272 cured subcutaneous mouse tumors with various preparationsof gold werner and szécsi273 produced similar results througha combination of selenium-vanadium with cholin-borate. In theseexperiments the selenium-vanadium was supposed to be present incolloidal form 272 lewin, carl. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 147. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 541 273 werner and szécsi.

The old one with its additionof cotarnin would require a narcotic order on the other hand, therecommended dose of the cotarnin-free preparation is twenty-five tothirty-drops, whereas the product sold by bischoff and co is to begiven in doses of ten to fifteen drops-- that is, in the amount proposedfor the cotarnin-fortified product what justification is there for the claim that styptysate has beensubmitted to clinical tests by loewy, oppenheim and krummacher andfound to be a hemostatic par excellence and efficient even whereergot had failed to give satisfactory results?. loewy zentralblattfür gynäcologie 42:920, 1921 made essay pharmacologic tests onguinea-pigs with the cotarnin-containing preparation, but reported noclinical trials hans oppenheim medizinische klinik, aug 29, 1920, p 906 reported that he was agreeably surprised at the excellentresults vorzueglichem erfolg obtained with the drug but he did notassert that it is superior to ergot krummacher reported on thirteen paper of profuse menstruation inwhich the patients were treated with styptysate, using for a writing, the preparation containing cotarnin and for the other a preparationwithout cotarnin he reported as good results with the cotarnin-freepreparation in larger dosage, as with the cotarnin-containingpreparation in smaller dosage krummacher did not compare styptysatewith ergot essay of krummacher paper are quoted, with essaytypographical errors, in the bischoff circular on the assumption that the product discussed in german publicationsis the styptysate marketed in the united states, the best that can besaid for it is, that during a shortage of ergot it was used in placeof that established drug there is no evidence to warrant the use ofthis indefinite proprietary in place of the biologically standardizedfluidextract of ergot or other standardized ergot preparations styptysate ernst bischoff and co , inc is inadmissible to newand nonofficial remedies because its composition is semisecret andindefinite and there is no evidence that its uniformity and strengthis controlled rules 1 and 2. Further, it is inadmissible because thetherapeutic claims advanced for it are exaggerated and unwarranted rule 6 and because there is no evidence that it possesses anyadvantage over established drugs such as the biologically standardizedfluidextract of ergot or the definite ergot preparations admitted tonew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , feb 11, 1922 lipoidal substances horovitz not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportdeclaring lipoidal substances horovitz inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies because its composition is essentially secretand because the curative claims made for it are unsubstantiated and, therefore, unwarranted w a puckner, secretary in the advertising of the horovitz biochemic laboratories co a s horovitz, president we read. “horovitz proves by careful paralleled investigations of normal and of pathological tissues, both in addiction disease and in other diseases, that in patients suffering from narcotic addiction disease there is an inactivity of the lymph-glands due to the use of the drug and that the system is not supplied with the necessary fats ” “horovitz further found that the lipoidal content of the cerebro-spinal system varies in strict accordance with the pathological processes introduced by infection or by alkaloids furthermore, he has found that the lipoids of various other organs, as well as those of the thermornervous system, may be extracted and consumed by the administration of narcotic alkaloids ”it is further stated in the advertising that. “after a long and very careful research investigation, dr horovitz worked out a method of rational treatment for narcotic addiction disease which involves the restoration of the lipoids, which have been lost through the action of the drug, and of the toxins, by means of a combination of lipoidal substance from various plant lipoids in the form of a sterile solution this preparation not only replaces the lipoids lost by the tissues, but also protects the nerve tissues, from attacks by the toxins elaborated during the use of narcotics, and, this by detoxicating the tissues, brings about permanent freedom from the craving of narcotics, instead of the temporary relief afforded by other methods of treatment ”the “combination of lipoidal substance of various plant lipoids” whichwas worked out by horovitz, the horovitz biochemic laboratories offeras “lipoidal substances ” this preparation is supplied in ampoules saidto contain 1 c c of solution the treatment with “lipoidal substances”consists, first, in the complete withdrawal of the narcotic. Second, in free catharsis. And third, in the intramuscular injection of thepreparation the initial dose is given as 8 to 12 minims repeated withincrease of 3 to 4 minims every three hours during the first day onthe second, third and fourth day 16 minims is to be given twice a dayand “from the fifth day until the medication is stopped usually 28 to35 days it will be necessary usually to give but 1 injection of 16minims each day ”in a request for the admission of its preparation to new andnonofficial remedies, the horovitz biochemic laboratories co stated. “the composition of lipoidal substance is a lipoids of plant origin, b vitamines water soluble of plant origin, c non-specific plant proteins, d preservatives-- none ”while the communication abounded in generalities, it gave neitherthe identity nor character of the lipoids, of the vitamins nor ofthe nonspecific protein, nor their quantities or methods for theircontrol the firm presented no evidence that the injection of “lipoidalsubstances” produced any effect other than by suggestion also, while a long list of references to publications bearing on lipoidswas submitted thesis of which had no bearing on the subject underconsideration there was no reference to the work of horovitz quoted inthe firm advertising after examining the information which had been submitted, the councilrequested the manufacturer to supply:1 information as to the character identity of the severalingredients contained in the preparation that it marketed, the amountof each ingredient so far as known and the method used for theircontrol 2 evidence that the administration of “lipoidal substances” is ofvalue in the treatment of drug addiction 3 evidence for the claims that the “researches” of horovitz haveproved that “in patients suffering from narcotic addiction diseasethere is an inactivity of the lymph-glands and the system is notsupplied with the necessary fats” and that “lipoidal content of thecerebro-spinal system varies in strict accordance with the pathologicalprocesses introduced by infection or by alkaloids” and that “thelipoids of various other organs as well as those of the nervous system, may be extracted and consumed by the administration of narcoticalkaloids ”the horovitz biochemic laboratories replied that the requestedinformation would be supplied in about two weeks at the expirationof three months the promised information and evidence had not beenreceived. Neither had any reports to show the value of the treatmentcome to the attention of the council the council, accordingly, declared “lipoidal substances” horovitz biochemic laboratoriesinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because the composition isessentially secret and because the curative claims are unsubstantiatedand unwarranted -- from the journal a m a , feb 25, 1922 yeast preparations and vitamin b concentrates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following principles as a guide in theconsideration of yeast preparations and vitamin b concentrates for newand nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary 1 the claim that deficiency of vitamin b and diseases resultingtherefrom are common conditions in the united states is not at thistime supported by adequate acceptable evidence 2 the claim that yeast preparations or extracts are, in principleor in general, essentially more effective or more practical or moreavailable means of administering vitamins than the commonly availablevitamin-containing foods is not at this time supported by adequateacceptable evidence any claims for superiority made for such productsproposed for inclusion in new and nonofficial remedies must bepresented in detail and passed on specially by the council 3 the claim that therapy with yeast or yeast preparations has as yetmore than an experimental status is not at this time supported byadequate acceptable evidence preparations for which such claims are made, directly or by implicationor in one-sided quotations, in advertisements or letters or bysalesmen, cannot be admitted to or retained in new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , april 15, 1922 writing ii contributions from the a m a chemical laboratory foreword the chemical laboratory of the american medical associationthe chemical laboratory of the american medical association wasestablished in 1906 to assist the council on pharmacy and chemistry inthe investigation of proprietary remedies in accordance with the principle of its foundation, the laboratoryexamines and checks the claims made for the composition and chemicalproperties of the products under examination by the council, and whenthese are admitted to new and nonofficial remedies, it insures theestablishment of tests and standards whereby the identity and purity ofthese products may be controlled in addition, the laboratory suppliesinformation, secured by reference to chemical and pharmaceuticalliterature or by actual analytic work, in regard to proprietary andunofficial medicines, either for publication in the journal of theamerican medical association or through direct correspondence those portions of the laboratory activities which are of specialinterest to physicians and which were not included in the reports ofthe council on pharmacy and chemistry were included in the propagandafor reform in proprietary medicines, ninth edition 1916, so far asthey had been published up to the time when the edition was issued;those made during the last five years are included in writing ii of thisvolume for a detailed report of the laboratory work, the reader isreferred to the article that follows on “the work of the americanmedical association chemical laboratory ” those who are interestedin the analysis of drugs are referred to the reports of the chemicallaboratory issued annually for the details of the analyses which havebeen made by the laboratory the work of the american medical association chemical laboratorye w a puckner, phar d e read before the section on pharmacology and therapeutics at thesixty-seventh annual session of the american medical association, detroit, june, 1916 the american medical association chemical laboratory was establishednearly ten years ago-- in fall of 1906 the reason for its existencewas primarily the fact that the council on pharmacy and chemistryfound it difficult to secure from outside sources such help as itneeded in checking up the composition and properties of proprietarymedicines under investigation medical schools and similar institutionswere found ready to lend their assistance in pharmacologic andmedical investigations. But the chemical investigation required theestablishment of a laboratory under the control of the american medicalassociation as years have passed, the scope of the laboratory has been extended:its services have been requisitioned by the journal in variousways thus, when requested, the laboratory reviews and verifies thechemical data contained in editorials and original contributions thelaboratory is often called on for information as to the character andcomposition of quack treatments and so-called “patent medicines ”through the columns of the journal and through direct correspondence, the laboratory responds to requests of physicians with informationregarding the composition of medicines which they prescribe or in whichthey are interested the laboratory attempts to be to the members ofthe american medical association what the prescription pharmacist is, or should be, to the prescribing physician-- a storehouse of chemicaland pharmaceutical information in the belief that an insufficientfamiliarity with the chemistry and pharmacy of drugs constitutesthe chief reason for the extensive use of unscientific, worthlessor fraudulent proprietary remedies, this service is rendered by thelaboratory as a contribution to the cause of rational therapy since the efficiency of the american medical association chemicallaboratory will increase as its activities are better known, thefollowing more detailed statement of its work is offered. The laboratory and the councilas stated in the rules of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, it is“manifestly impossible for the council to investigate the compositionof every complex pharmaceutical mixture ”. “it can only give anunbiased judgment on the available evidence ” in line with this, thelaboratory does not undertake to prove the composition of constitutionof all new synthetics, nor does it attempt to determine the individualcomposition of proprietary mixtures it checks all claims that seemdoubtful, however, and uses its best endeavors to secure correction ofmisstatements with regard to proprietary remedies and improvement inthe quality of these products further, it reexamines, when this seemsdesirable, the products which have been admitted by the council to newand nonofficial remedies, and thus determines, from time to time, theirdependability the fact that no product admitted to new and nonofficialremedies has later been shown to be untrue to its claimed compositionis, it is believed, an indication that in this respect the laboratoryhas succeeded in performing the work for which it was primarily created in this connection the question may be asked, are thesis proprietarymedicines exploited to the medical profession with false claims inregard to their composition?. also it may be asked, has the number ofproprietaries marketed with false statements of composition decreasedsince the council and the laboratory began their work?. answering thelatter question first. There is no doubt that today fewer proprietarymedicines are being sold with false claims as to composition thanthere were ten years ago when the council began its work, medicaljournal advertising teemed with statements regarding the compositionof medicines which any chemist familiar with medicine would nothesitate at sight to brand as untrue today such manifestly falseclaims are rare coming to the former question. Thesis false statementsregarding the identity and composition of remedies have been made inignorance this is not surprising when it is remembered that the mostignorant may and do engage in the manufacture of medicine besidesignorance, however, an accommodating conscience on the writing of themanufacturer and a failure on the writing of the medical profession toappreciate the danger which lies in the use of medicines of unknowncomposition unquestionably have greatly encouraged the marketing offalsely declared medicines a glaring illustration of the ignoranceof manufacturers-- for it is hard to believe that any business concernwould deliberately court prosecution by the federal authorities throughfalse statements on labels-- is the fact that nearly thirty years agoa b lyons published a report147 pointing out that the proprietaryiodia was falsely declared as to composition and that in 1914 when thecouncil examined this preparation such incorrect declaration appearedon the label 148 that thesis physicians do not recognize the dangerto their patients and their reputation in the use of medicines, thecomposition of which they do not know, is illustrated by the fact, disclosed by inquiries sent to the laboratory, that physicians werefound willing to employ an arsenical preparation venarsen, advertisedfor intravenous use, although its promoters vouchsafed no informationin regard to the nature of the arsenic compound contained therein 147 lyons, a b. Detroit lancet, 1882, 6, 157 148 the journal a m a , nov 21, 1914, p 1871 unreliability of little used drugsthe purpose of the federal food and drugs act is to secure theprosecution and punishment of all who sell medicines which areadulterated or misrepresented as to composition as a matter of fact, the wording of the law relating to the adulteration and misbranding ofdrugs is such that the federal authorities have been able to do littlemore than to require that the drugs for which standards are providedin the pharmacopeia shall when sold comply with those standards similarly, those states which attempt to improve the quality of drugssold within their borders-- few states do efficient work along theselines-- limit their work to the enforcement of the pharmacopeialstandards this leaves the vast number of unofficial drugs andmedicaments beyond the control of federal or state authorities while most of these drugs are relatively unimportant, and while theamounts of them which are used are not great individually, the totalconsumption of them is large with a view of furnishing to physiciansstandards for drugs of this sort the council has described in new andnonofficial remedies not only distinctly proprietary drugs, but alsoessay of the unofficial drugs which are apparently of therapeutic valueand used to a considerable extent aiding the council in this line ofendeavor, the laboratory has attempted to establish standards for theselittle used drugs, and new and nonofficial remedies, 1916, providesstandards for such unofficial and non-proprietary drugs as quinin andurea hydrochlorid quinin, tannate, sodium acid phosphate, and sodiumperborate an example of work which furnished much needed standardsfor an unofficial article is the investigation of zinc permanganateby w s hilpert 149 reference to the published reports of thelaboratory will give an idea of the amount of work such standardizationentails a reference to the new u s pharmacopeia, when this comesfrom the press, will show that a considerable number of unofficialarticles described in new and nonofficial remedies have been admittedto the pharmacopeia along with the standards worked out in thislaboratory 149 zinc permanganate, j a m a , feb 6, 1909, p 488. Reportschem lab 2:15, 1909 while in a way the work done in connection with these less importantdrugs has attracted little attention from the medical profession, it has had an effect on pharmaceutical manufacturers in the past, pharmaceutical houses, ever anxious to market essaything new, on theslightest provocation have placed on the market, in the form of pills, powder, elixir, ampule, etc , every drug for which essay sort of medicalrecommendation could be found in marketing these dosage forms, themanufacturer has too often been little concerned about the quality ofthe drugs used 150 just at present, for instance, essay interest isbeing shown in iron cacodylate. But while manufacturers appear to bemost ready to take advantage of this interest by offering the drugin the form of ampules, etc , they have given little help toward theestablishment of standards for this arsenic compound manufacturers areever ready to sell drugs of all sorts, but in view of the small demandthey cannot or will not safeguard the identity and purity of suchdrugs a further illustration of the unreliability of unofficial drugsis the recent report by levy and rowntree151 showing not only thatthe various dosage forms of emetin hydrochlorid obtained from differentmanufacturers varied from manufacturer to manufacturer, but also thatthe product of the same manufacturer was variable and that the supplyfurnished by one pharmaceutical firm was so toxic as to make its usedangerous 150 the unreliability of unimportant medicaments, the journala m a , sept 28, 1912, p 1156 151 levy, r l , and rowntree, l g.

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Jour physiol 45:477, 1913 37 huston. Ann et bull soc roy de sc méd et nat 70:178, 1912 properties of secretinprosecretin -- secretin is soluble in water, yet a watery extract ofintestinal scrapings is without action, 32 even after being submittedto acid treatment 38 starling therefore holds that secretin existsin the intestinal mucosa in an inactive form, as “prosecretin ” thecontent of the intestine in prosecretin decreases from the duodenumdown, so that one is unable to demonstrate any prosecretin in the last2-1/2 feet of the ileum prosecretin is insoluble in water, acetone, absolute alcohol or ether secretin, on the other hand, is readilysoluble in water, normal salt solution and diluted alcohol 70 percent , but likewise insoluble in absolute alcohol and ether 38 starling. Lancet, london 2:433, 1905 preparation -- all of the more dissociated acids liberate secretinfrom intestinal mucosa on boiling their action is dependent onthe degree of dissociation, 39 carbonic and boric acids beinginactive 40 secretin can also be prepared with strong soaps from10 to 30 per cent sodium oleate, alcohol 70 per cent , 41 0 6 percent sodium chlorid36 the acid and soap in the duodenum producesecretion.