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Not exorcism, but the exorcist only in thosepaper in which the disease, as in numerous paper of the second century, had become epidemic and almost common, did ordinary and conventionalmeans avail the exorcist became a mesmerizer, possibly a deceiveddeceiver but when strong individuality is deceived concerning its ownpersonality by the demon of terror, and the soul is actually shaken bythe power of darkness which possesses it, and from which it purposes toescape, a powerful and holy will alone can interfere from the outsideworld to deliver the shackled will in essay paper we find traces of aphenomenon which in modern times, for want of essay better name, hasbeen called ‘suggestion’. But the prophet suggests in a differentmanner than does the professional exorcist ”besides these official christian exorcists, a great multitude of otherpersons carried on the trade of conjurer of demons the sorcerers andmagicians who plied their nefarious trade for the cure of the possessedand for those suffering from other diseases, worked with various kindsof mystic signs and ceremonies, and they certainly did an excellentbusiness, for he who humors the superstition and the stupidity of manalways prospers modern quackery illustrates this most strikingly but, besides these healers, there existed numerous other conjurers ofdemons and medical wonder-workers who plied their trade not for thesake of contemptible mammon, but solely for ethical reasons these werethe members of the various theosophico-philosophical sects, who wereactive during the first christian centuries and have been exhaustivelydescribed on the previous pages altho christians were eager to exalt their exorcists, who worked onlywith prayer and the invocation of christ, above all practises ofsorcery, they were not able, in the long run, to prevent christiandogmas from being confounded with and corrupted by those of philosophy under the influence of saturninus, basilides, and carpocrates, thevarious philosophical vagaries concerning accessory, intermediary, andinferior gods, and their influences upon the fate of man, corruptedthe pure and simple teachings of christ that error against which paulhad so impressively cautioned the early christian communities in hisepistle to the colossians, chapter ii , verse 8 “beware lest any manspoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition ofmen, after the rudiments of the world, and not after christ”, had, nevertheless, made its appearance at last, and the adulteration ofpure gospel by philosophical speculations and fantastic views began togrow more complete from the third century on this was the foundationof the religio-mystic system which, during the middle ages, and evenbeyond the period of the renaissance, oppressed humanity like asuffocating nightmare, and not only checked progress, but also filledeach branch of human knowledge with the most frightful superstition andthe crassest mysticism this was the case also in medicine. In fact, this branch of science has probably suffered most from the alliance ofchristianity with the fantastic doctrines of philosophical schools the ancient doctrine of demons passed under the influence of christianmysticism through certain changes and transitions, especially in itsrelation to the bodily condition of individuals the variations in thisdoctrine were naturally most plainly evidenced in the medical views ofthe day it was believed that every human being from birth was allotteda good and an evil demon the good spirit held his hand protectinglyover his human charge, whereas the evil demon only waited his chance toinflict injury upon man, forming especially the determining principlein the etiology of disease it is true, the evil spirits apparentlywere no longer allowed to have such full sway over the health ofhumanity as they formerly had god now utilized them principally asexecutors of punishments which he intended for mankind as a retributionfor various forms of delinquency thus the church father, anastasius sprengel, vol ii , page 210, tells us that the reason why so thesislepers and cripples were found among christians was that god, enragedat the luxury of the members of the community, had sent the evil demonof disease among them the wrath of god from that time until late inmodern times has been considered a fully efficacious principle ofpathology. In fact, there are numbers of people even to-day who believethat not natural, but supernatural and unearthly, factors are active inthe bodily ailments of mankind the idea of good and evil demons, however, now assumed a specificallychristian character which, it is true, greatly resembled the ancientbabylonian notion, excepting that the good demons were replaced byangels and saints, whereas the evil spirits were embodied in the devil both, saints as well as devils, were thenceforth destined to play awriting in the domain of medicine it is true, the general recognitionwhich they enjoyed during the middle ages and a considerable periodof modern times has probably now passed away, but there still existnumerous classes of our people in whom the medical rôle of saints aswell as devils is most willingly acknowledged we have referred elsewhere to the therapeutic accomplishments ofthe saints during the middle ages we will here only dwell upon theinfluence which the devil, the christian successor of the ancientevil spirit, has exerted upon the medical views of all classes of thepeople this influence was very great the devil and his subordinateinfernal spirits were considered the “disturbers of peace” in thehealth of humanity disease in its various forms was their work;they resolved to inflict it either from inherent villainy or asincited by various magical arts of evil men it was especially thelatter form of diabolical activity that, during the entire middleages and during a considerable writing of modern times, was acceptedas uncontestedly authentic, and the imagination of mankind at thatperiod was inexhaustible in inventing the greatest variety of infamousactions which the devil was able to perform either of his own accordor as summoned by incantations any one desiring to acquaint himselfthoroughly with these delusive ideas should read the work of the friarcæsarius, who lived about 1225, in the rhenish-cistercian monasteryof heisterbach naturally, we are only interested in the medical actswhich the devil was always ready to perform according to the historyof medical superstition, the devil, who was invoked by various spellsor appeared of his own volition, was able to influence each individualbodily organ in a manner most disagreeable to the possessor of thesame neither were the prince of hell and his hosts always satisfiedto tease and to plague an individual being, but very frequently theycarried on this business wholesale they threw themselves upon theentire population of a country, and caused sickness in all who crossedtheir path the great epidemic of st vitus dance of the fourteenthcentury, for instance, was considered to be the work of the devil, andthe clergy busied themselves in driving out this devil pest by meansof sprinkling holy water and by the utterance of conjuring formulas the sexual life of men as well as of women offered an especiallyfruitful field for the activity of the devil and of his infernalcompanions thus, it was a favorite trick of the ruler of hell and ofhis subordinate demons to assume the shape of the husband or loverof this or that female, and, under this mask, to assume rights whichshould be permitted only to the husband the infernal spirit thatplayed this rôle was called incubus thus, for instance, hinkmer tellsus of a nun who was mischievously claimed by such an infernal paramour, and who could be relieved of him only by priestly aid but hell alsocontained female constituents who played the same rôle for the maleas did incubus for women such a wanton woman of hell was calledstriga or lamia compare hansen, pages 14 and 72 these amorous femalefriends of hell did not even stop when they met eminent saints in theconvent of st benedetto, near the italian town of subiaco, a rose-bushis shown even to-day into which the naked st benedict threw himself inorder to resist the unholy temptation and every one is sufficientlyacquainted with the troubles which st anthony of padua had with theseinfernal women however, we physicians know well enough the causeof these temptations they may surely and actually have approachedthe nun of whom hinkmer reports, also st benedict and st anthony;however, they were not the devil prostitutes, but the expressions ofsuppressed and disregarded impulses of nature which, in the form ofvoluptuous imaginations, appeared before the eyes of persons removedfrom terrestrial gratifications. For nature does not even exempt asaint, and the ancient saying, “naturam expellas furc, tamen usquerecurret, ” applies to them as well as to any other mortal finally these liberties which the devil and his infernal host were saidto take as regards matters pertaining to love, assumed general andquite serious forms. In fact, they gave rise to delicately contrivedlegal questions namely, the idea had suggested itself that thedevil was able not only to call forth promiscuous love between menand women, but that essaytimes he derived a writingicular enjoyment if hecould manage to prevent a marriage that had already been consummatedby rendering the husband impotent maleficium was the technical termfor such an event, equally saddening to husband as to wife, and thetheologians, philosophers, and jurists of the middle ages have writtenthe most learned commentaries regarding the legal consequences of thisimpotentia ex maleficio it was disputed whether or not this form ofimpotence would constitute a legal cause for dissolution of marriagewhich, after all, was a divine institution.

Both leaves and stalksare hoary, the flowers of a pale yellow colour. It is altogether likethe common wormwood, save only in bigness, for it is smaller. In taste, for it is not so bitter. In smell, for it is spicy place it grows upon the tops of the mountains it seems ’tisaspiring there ’tis natural, but usually nursed up in gardens for theuse of the apothecaries in london time all wormwoods usually flower in august, a little sooner orlater government and virtues will you give me leave to be critical alittle?. i must take leave wormwood is an herb of mars, and if pontanussay otherwise, he is beside the bridge. I prove it thus. What delightsin martial places, is a martial herb. But wormwood delights in martialplaces for about forges and iron works you may gather a cart-loadof it, ergo, it is a martial herb it is hot and dry in the firstdegree, viz just as hot as your blood, and no hotter it remedies theevils choler can inflict on the body of man by sympathy it helpsthe evils venus and the wanton boy produce, by antipathy. And it dothessaything else besides it cleanses the body of choler who dares saymars doth no good?. it provokes urine, helps surfeits, or swellingsin the belly. It causes appetite to meat, because mars rules theattractive faculty in man. The sun never shone upon a better herb forthe yellow jaundice than this. Why should men cry out so much uponmars for an infortunate, or saturn either?. did god make creatures todo the creation a mischief?. this herb testifies, that mars is willingto cure all diseases he causes.

“calcium and strontium disalicylate, 5 grs. Resin guaiac, 1/2 gr. Digitalis, 1/4 gr. Cochium colchicum?. seed, 1/4 gr. Squill, 1/4 gr. Cascarin, 1/16 gr with aromatics ”“pulvoids calcylates compound sugar coated orange color”is advertised medical times, january, 1919 as being“analgesic-antipyretic and diuretic, ” and is included in thepreparations designated by the advertiser as “approved remedies forlagrippe and ‘flu ’” the claim that “their tolerance is remarkable”refers not to the physicians who tolerate such products, but to thealleged fact that pulvoids calcylates are tolerated remarkably well the advertisement continues. “may be given persistently and continuously without gastric disturbances ” “they are uniformly efficient more certain in effect than the ordinary salicylates ”it would be difficult to find an advertisement of equal lengthcontaining a greater number of misleading or directly false statementsthan are found in this one the journal april 22, 1916, p 1307 hascalled attention to the lack of justification for this absurd mixtureof drugs and has discussed the preparation with especial reference toits use in acute rheumatism, in which the salicylates occupy a specialfield the advertisement just quoted mentions la grippe and “flu” orinfluenza as special fields of usefulness for this preparation this, apparently, is merely an attempt to spread the sail for any breeze salicylates have a field of usefulness in influenza in that theyoften afford relief from pain there is no reason to suppose that amixture containing calcium and strontium salicylates-- the “calcium andstrontium disalicylate” of pulvoids calcylates is probably a mixtureof calcium and strontium salicylate127-- has any greater salicyliceffect than an equal amount of sodium salicylate on the other hand, itis worse than useless to give colchicum, squill and digitalis for therelief of such pains 127 see report, the journal, sept 9, 1916, p 827 should cardiac dilatation develop, and digitalis medication berequired it would be impossible to adjust the dose of such a mixturewith special reference to the digitalis action, which alone would beindicated for that condition no educated physician at present wouldthink of giving resin of guaiac merely because his patient requireddigitalis, nor would he administer “cascarin, ” whatever that may be, infixed doses, every time he gave a dose of salicylate it is impossible to recognize the several effects induced by thistherapeutic omneity, and the medical profession should consider it aninsult to be offered mixtures such as pulvoids calcylates compound pulvoids calcylates compound is, per se, of no great importance. It isone of a type it has been selected as one of the utterly irrationaland therefore potentially dangerous mixtures, that may be found bythe score or the hundred in the catalogues of practically everypharmaceutical manufacturing firm in the united states -- from thejournal a m a , june 14, 1919 proteogens of the wm s merrell company report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the statementwhich appears below, declaring proteogen no 1 plantex for cancer, proteogen no 2 for rheumatism, proteogen no 3 for tuberculosis, proteogen no 4 for hay fever and bronchial asthma, proteogen no 5for dermatoses, proteogen no 6 for chlorosis, proteogen no 7 forsecondary anemia, proteogen no 8 for pernicious anemia, proteogenno 9 for goitre, proteogen no 10 for syphilis, proteogen no 11for gonorrhea, and proteogen no 12 for influenza and pneumoniainadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because theircomposition is secret. Because the therapeutic claims made for themare unwarranted. And because the secrecy and complexity of theircomposition makes the use of these preparations irrational the council took up the consideration of the merrell proteogens becauseof inquiries received, and on january 27 invited the merrell companyto aid in the proposed investigation by submitting information inregard to the composition of the preparations, submitting the currentadvertising, and presenting evidence for the claims that were madefor the preparations while the merrell company agreed to submit therequested information, this had not been received at the time thereport of the referee to whom the products had been assigned referee1, was adopted this report was sent to the company on april 4 inreply the merrell company protested against the conclusions of thereport and submitted considerable material in an attempt to supportthe claims made for the products this material was examined by thefirst referee and then transmitted to a second referee referee 2 forconsideration the second referee concluded that the matter submittedoffered no evidence that would justify the council in modifying thereport first adopted, and hence recommended that its publication beauthorized in accordance with this recommendation report of referee 2 thecouncil authorized the publication of the reports of both the first andsecond referees w a puckner, secretary report of first referee on proteogens“proteogens, ” according to the william s merrell co , are “polyvalentproteins of non-toxic plant origin ” the subject of proteogens canbest be approached by recalling the history of “autolysin, ” analleged remedy for cancer, originated by a s horowitz, ph d thiswas exploited essay years ago, and was finally shown to be worthless proteogens are said to be prepared “under the personal supervision ofthe originator, dr a s horowitz ” the composition of the differentproteogens is essentially secret the assertion was made at one time, but is not found in the present advertising matter, that plantex-- nowcalled “proteogen no 1”-- is similar to autolysin now the proteogensare said to be “prepared by a special process employing variouscombinations of plants ” further. The biologic principles present are chlorophyll, chromoplast, lipoids and vitamines.

10 c c secretin control, beginning of experiment 21 10 c c secretin, after thirty minutes incubation with 1 c c boiled gastric juice 27 10 c c secretin, after thirty minutes incubation with 1 c c fresh gastric juice 11 10 c c secretin control, end of experiment 18the findings of lalou, confirmed by us, explain the anomaly that hasled delezenne88 to put forward the antisecretin theory 88 delezenne and pozerski. Jour de physiol , 14:540, 1912 secretin has no action when given by mouthit is a constant claim that so thesis and complex are the factorsconcerned in physiologic processes, that it is not unusual for clinicaldeductions to establish themselves in the face of a priori laboratorydicta we considered it desirable, therefore, to test the action ofsecretin, orally administered, in the most direct manner, and the onefreest from possible criticism with this in view, we performed aseries of experiments on normal unanesthetized dogs having permanentpancreatic fistulas method -- in the operations for permanent pancreatic fistulas wefollowed closely the technic developed by pawlow, 89 and withexcellent results the dogs maintain themselves in splendid conditionif proper care is taken this consists in feeding them only with breadand milk, and giving sodium bicarbonate daily the dogs were giventhis treatment in the evening so that experimental procedure might becarried on in the day with empty stomach under constant conditions freshly prepared secretin in large quantities was given by stomachtube to these dogs, and the response of the pancreas studied andcompared with the response obtained from control preparations the samepreparation was generally not given on consecutive days 89 pawlow. Ergeb de physiol , o , p 266, 1902 table 4 -- detail of typical experimentsdogs with pancreatic fistulas, showing that secretin given by mouth hasno action on the pancreas | rate of secretion of pancreatic | juice in c c per hr -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- | continuous | continuous | secretion | secretion material fed by stomach tube | before feeding | after feeding |-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- |first|second|third|first|second|third |hour | hour |hour |hour | hour |hour -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 150 c c active secretin, | | | | | | slightly acid | 6 5| 3 6 | 3 9 | 20 0| 6 0 | 8 0 150 c c active secretin, | | | | | | slightly alkaline | 13 0| 11 0 | 5 0 | 23 0| 26 0 | 12 0 150 c c secretin passed | | | | | | through berkefeld | 7 8| 7 5 | 7 4 | 23 0| 13 0 | 11 0 150 c c extract of colon | 11 6| 12 0 |11 4 | 30 0| 19 6 | 14 8 150 c c extract of gastric | | | | | | mucosa | 10 0| 7 0 | 8 0 | 23 0| 7 5 | 4 0 150 c c extract of muscle | 6 9| 11 0 | 6 4 | 35 0| 5 0 | 7 0 150 c c 0 4% hcl | | | | | | diluted to 250 c c | 6 0| 8 0 | 4 0 | 33 0| 36 0 | 17 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -results -- we have data from six dogs with a total of seventy-sixexperiments as shown in table 4, the administration of secretin causesan increase in the flow of pancreatic juice, but the administrationof inert substances as extracts of colon, gastric mucosa or musclecauses a like increase the activity of the secretin may be reduced toa low value by exposure to sunlight, or filtering through a berkefeldfilter, yet the response of the pancreas is not correspondinglyreduced the secretion that occurs in the control paper, every onewill admit, is but secondary to the production of gastric juice withits accompanying hydrochloric acid, that is, excited by virtue of theextractives and water in the preparations such, we can prove, is theonly action of secretin a mixture of gelatin, peptone and salt water, the chief incidental constituents of a secretin preparation, gives asstriking results as ever obtained from secretin administration yetthe objection may be made that the response of the pancreas that isdue to the incidental constituents of secretin is maximal, and thatthe secretin consequently has no opportunity to display its writingicularpotency but, as inspection of the accompanying tables illustrate, the administration of hydrochloric acid shows that the response is byno means maximal let us cite a striking experiment for three hoursbefore the administration of hydrochloric acid, the secretion in cubiccentimeters was respectively 29 4, 11 75 and 35 4 c c. For the threehours after, respectively 88 0, 49 0 and 40 5 c c illustration. Fig 1 -- tracings reduced two-thirds showing failureof secretogen, elixir secretogen, and duodenin to stimulate the flow ofpancreatic juice even when administered intravenously in amounts threetimes greater than that recommended to be given by mouth dog. Lightether anesthesia. Cannula in the pancreatic duct. A, carotid bloodpressure. B, flow of pancreatic juice in drops. C, signal showingwhere the intravenous injections were made tracing a. Reading fromleft to right, the five intravenous injections are.

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At first help on research paper it ispale, afterward livid. Congested and swollen, if the subject has beenlong suspended roth found the face pale in 43 of 49 paper in aboutone-half the paper the features are calm and placid syncope maschkafound the lips bluish in 98 of 153 paper the eyes are often prominent, staring, and congested, and usually the pupils are dilated lacassagneand maschka848 look upon ecchymoses of the eyelids and conjunctivæ, “piqueté scarlatin, ” as important as favoring the idea of hangingor strangulation roth found in 49 paper the eyelids closed 28 times;half open, 12. Congested in 6. Ecchymosed in 2 pupils dilated in 31;narrowed in 2 dilated in 97½ per cent of ogston paper paper 85, 86.