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Helps head-ache, the forehead being rubbed with it moschelæum, or, oil of musk college take two nutmegs, musk one dram, indian leaf or mace, spikenard, costus, mastich, of each six drams, styrax calamitis, cassialignea, myrrh, saffron, cinnamon, cloves, carpobalsamum or cubebs, bdellium, of each two drams, pure oil three pounds, wine three ounces, bruise them as you ought to do, mix them, and let them boil easily, till the wine be consumed, the musk being mixed according to art afterit is strained culpeper it is exceeding good against all diseases of cold, especially those of the stomach, it helps diseases of the sides, theybeing anointed with it, the stranguary, cholic, and vices of thenerves, and afflictions of the reins oleum nardinum or, oil of nard college take of spikenard three ounces, marjoram two ounces, woodof aloes, calamus aromaticus, elecampane, cypress, bay leaves, indianleaf or mace, squinanth, cardamoms, of each one ounce and a half, bruise them all grossly, and steep them in water and wine, of eachfourteen ounces, oil of sesamin, or oil of olives, four pounds andan half, for one day. Then perfect the oil by boiling it gently in adouble vessel oleum populeum nicholaus college take of fresh poplar buds three pounds, wine four pounds, common oil seven pounds two ounces, beat the poplar buds very well, then steep them seven days in the oil and wine, then boil them in adouble vessel till the wine be consumed, if you infuse fresh buds onceor twice before you boil it, the medicine will be the stronger, thenpress out the oil and keep it culpeper it is a fine cool oil, but the ointment called by thatname which follows hereafter is far better ointments more simple unguentum album, or, white ointment college take of oil of roses nine ounces, ceruss washed inrose-water and diligently sifted, three ounces, white wax two ounces, after the wax is melted in the oil, put in the ceruss, and make itinto an ointment according to art, add two drams of camphire, madeinto powder with a few drops of oil of sweet almonds, so will it becamphorated culpeper it is a fine cooling, drying ointment, eases pains, anditching in wounds and ulcers, and is an hundred times better withcamphire than without it unguentum egyptiacum college take of verdigris finely powdered, five writings, honeyfourteen writings, sharp vinegar seven writings, boil them to a justthickness, and a reddish colour culpeper it cleanses filthy ulcers and fistulas forcibly, and notwithout pain, it takes away dead and proud flesh, and dries unguentum anodynum or, an ointment to ease pain college take of oil of white lilies, six ounces, oil of dill, andchamomel, of each two ounces, oil of sweet almonds one ounce, duckgrease, and hen grease, of each two ounces, white wax three ounces, mix them according to art culpeper its use is to assuage pains in any writing of the body, especially such as come by inflammations, whether in wounds or tumours, and for that it is admirable unguentum ex apio or, ointment of smallage college take of the juice of smallage one pound, honey nine ounces, wheat flower three ounces, boil them to a just thickness culpeper it is a very fine, and very gentle cleanser of wounds andulcers liniment of gum elemi college take of gum elemi, turpentine of the fir-tree, of each oneounce and an half, old sheep suet cleansed two ounces, old hoggrease cleansed one ounce. Mix them, and make them into an ointmentaccording to art culpeper it gently cleanses and fills up an ulcer with flesh, itbeing of a mild nature, and friendly to the body unguentum aureum college take of yellow wax half a pound, common oil two pounds, turpentine two ounces, pine rozin, colophonia, of each one ounce and anhalf, frankincense, mastich, of each one ounce, saffron one dram, firstmelt the wax in the oil, then the turpentine being added, let them boiltogether. Having done boiling, put in the rest in fine powder, letthe saffron be the last and by diligent stirring, make them into anointment according to art basilicon, the greater college take of white wax, pine rozin, heifer suet, greek pitch, turpentine, olibanum, myrrh, of each one ounce, oil five ounces, powder the olibanum and myrrh, and the rest being melted, make it intoan ointment according to art basilicon, the less college take of yellow wax, fat rozin, greek pitch, of each half apound, oil nine ounces.

By twisting a rope several timesaround the neck and then tying help my homework it the coils may continue to compresseven after death. By tightening the cord with a stick or other firmsubstance. By tightening the cords or knots by means of the hands orfeet or essay portion of the lower limbs. By the use of a woollen garterpassed twice around the neck and secured in front by two simple knots, strongly tied one to another it is difficult to simulate suicide. Requires great skill andpremeditation on the writing of a murderer “the attitude of the body, the condition of the dress, the means of strangulation, the presenceof marks of violence or of blood on the person of the deceased, on hisclothes or the furniture of the room, or both, rope or ligature, arecircumstances from which, if observed at the time, important medicalinferences may be drawn ” the assassin either does too little or toomuch taylor795 cites a number of paper of simulation strangulation is generally homicidal the marks of fingers or of aligature on the neck suggest homicide this is true even if the markis slight. Because infants and weakly persons may be strangled bythe pressure of the hands on the throat even a strong man, suddenlyassaulted, may lose his presence of mind and, with that, his power ofresistance. With approaching insensibility his strength still furtherdiminishes this is true even if his assailant is the less powerful itrequires more address to place a ligature on the neck than to stranglewith the hand a victim may be made insensible by drugs or blows and then strangled bya small amount of compression. Or suffocation by gags and strangulationmay both be attempted the importance of considering the position and number of the knots in acord is mentioned under suicidal strangulation in homicide, in addition to the marks on the neck, there is likely tobe evidence of a struggle and marks of violence elsewhere on the body it is important, therefore, to notice any evidence of such a struggle the nature of the cord may assist in identifying the assailant it must be remembered that homicidal strangulation may be committedwithout disturbing noise even when other persons are near simulation - false accusations of homicidal strangulation are on record tardieu796 states that a distinguished young woman for essay political purpose was found one evening at the door of her room apparently in great trouble and unable to speak she first indicated by gestures and then by writing that she had been assaulted by a man who tried to strangle her with his hand, and also struck her twice in the breast with a dagger she was absolutely mute did not even attempt to speak quite contrary to what is always observed in unfinished homicidal strangulation on examination by tardieu, no sign of attempt to strangle was found, and the so-called dagger-openings in her dress and corset did not correspond in position she confessed that she had attempted deception the celebrated roux-armand797 case was another instance of attempted deception a servant named roux was found on the ground in the cellar of his employer armand. His hands and legs were tied and there was a cord around his neck he was writingly asphyxiated, but after removal of the ligature from his neck he rapidly recovered, except that he was weak and voiceless he stated by gestures that he had been struck by his employer on the back of the head with a stick and then bound as described the next day he could speak armand was imprisoned tardieu examined carefully into the case and the results may be stated as follows. The asphyxia was incipient, else he could not have so rapidly recovered the cord around his neck had not been tied simply wound around several times. The mark was slight and there was no ecchymosis although the legs and hands were tied, the hands behind the back, there was no doubt but that roux could and did tie them himself he had stated that he had been eleven hours in the cellar, in the situation in which he was found this could not be true, for a very much shorter time, an hour probably at the furthest, would have caused death, in view of the condition of asphyxia in which he was found again, if his limbs had been bound for so long, they would have been swollen and discolored. But they were not again, if the ligature had been around his neck so long as he said, the impression of it would have been more marked again, if his stertorous breathing had lasted long it would have been heard by neighbors the injury on the back of the head, said to be due to a blow, was believed by tardieu to be due to dragging him on the ground he further had stated that when he received the blow on the head he became unconscious, and yet he also described how armand bound him after knocking him down again, he had made no outcry.

Causing paralysis a combinationof numbers 1 and 2 is usually found in suicidal hanging. And probablyall of them in homicidal and judicial hanging the more protected theair-passages are from pressure the greater writing will coma or syncopehave in the cause of death mackenzie, 802 as the result of examination of 130 suicidal hangings, says that 119 died of asphyxia, 8 of asphyxia and apoplexy, 2 ofsyncope, and 1 of apoplexy alone coutagne803 thinks œdema of thelungs, “œdema carminé, ” has an important writing in causing death the following conditions tend to produce asphyxia. A tight ligature, or a loose ligature above the hyoid bone to produce coma, a looseligature pressing against the hyoid bone or larynx, especially acretified larynx to both asphyxia and congestion of brain, a ligaturejust beneath the lower jaw, or around lower writing of neck hofmann804 states that when the ligature is placed between the larynxand hyoid bone, the base of the tongue is pushed upward against theposterior wall of the pharynx, completely stopping respiration andcausing asphyxia taylor805 states that if the rope presses on orabove the larynx, the air-passages are not so completely closed aswhen pressure is below the larynx in the latter case death would beimmediate. In the former a slight amount of respiration might continue the instantaneous loss of consciousness is due, not to asphyxia alone, but to compression of the large vessels, especially the carotids, against the transverse processes of the vertebræ, causing rupture ofthe middle and inner coats, and at the same time compression of thejugular veins and pneumogastric nerves immediate unconsciousness willalmost certainly follow compression of the pneumogastrics he alsobelieves that the loss of consciousness and of power of self-helpoccur at the moment that the noose is tightened around the neck thereis no record of any one who attempted suicide by hanging seeking torecover himself, although no doubt essay would have done so if thespeedy unconsciousness had not prevented hofmann mentions the case ofa man who was found hanging, and with a loaded revolver in his hand, apparently having intended to shoot as well as hang himself, but lostconsciousness before he had time to discharge the revolver accordingto him the causes of death are three. Occlusion of the air-passages, interruption of passage of blood to brain, and compression ofpneumogastric nerves von buhl806 experimented on cadavers and concluded that in hanging, the epiglottis and arytenoids are pressed over the glottis, and thetongue and the œsophagus against the vertebræ, causing death byapnœa when the trachea was isolated from the vessels and tied, theair-passages below became dilated and the lungs emphysematous andanæmic the heart continued to beat and blood to circulate the vertebral arteries being much smaller than the carotids, thecirculatory disturbance in the brain is not adjusted with sufficientpromptness compression of the pneumogastrics, according towaller, 807 has caused subjects to fall to the ground as if struck bylightning he holds that the unconsciousness in hanging is the resultof the compression of the pneumogastric nerves and not of the arteries thanhöfer808 knew a student who had acquired a certain dexterity incompressing these nerves one day he compressed the two nerves, hispulse stopped and he became unconscious thanhöfer809 tried bilateralcompression of pneumogastrics in a young man sentenced to be executed the pulse fell at once and the heart soon stopped. The eyes were fixedand glassy it was essay time before he regained consciousness and fortwo days there was malaise hofmann says that the compression irritates and, in a higher degree, paralyzes the pneumogastric nerves and causes disturbance of the actionof the heart faure810 denies that the constriction of the vessels of the neck hasany effect in the production of symptoms811 coutagne believes that the pressure on the pneumogastric nerve is a factor in causing death he hung two dogs. In one the pneumogastric nerves were dissected out and placed in front of the ligature. This dog no 1 lived a quarter of an hour and died of pure asphyxia with efforts at inspiration continued to the end the other dog no 2, in which the nerves were compressed, died in five minutes in both, the abdominal organs were congested and the cavities of the heart were full the lungs of the first were dry and uniformly red. Of the second were resisting, crepitant, and quite œdematous no subpleural ecchymoses in either the experiments on animals by corin812 led him to conclude that pressure on the pneumogastrics caused increased frequency of the heart-beat and slowing of respiration pellier813 considers the subject quite fully it would appear that the pressure on the pneumogastrics disposes to stop the action of the heart and cause rapid, perhaps instant death the pressure on the carotids causes cerebral anæmia and is then only a secondary cause levy814 does not think the action of the pneumogastrics is sufficiently well known tidy states that a dog lived for three hours suspended by a rope placedabove an opening in the windpipe. And that smith815 mentions the caseof a criminal who was hung. Chovet tried to save the man by making anopening in the trachea before the execution and introducing a smalltube the man was alive forty-five minutes after the drop, but couldnot be resuscitated, although the surgeon bled him in a small proportion of paper of hanging, homicidal and judicial, death occurs by dislocation of the spine this is said to have beenfirst noticed by the celebrated louis, who states that the parisexecutioner was in the habit of giving a violent rotary movement tothe body of the convict as the trap was sprung, causing a dislocationof the odontoid process and compression of the cord and almost instantdeath taylor816 says that for dislocation the body must be heavy andthe fall long and sudden devergie817 found this to occur in abouttwo per cent of paper it is said that the paris hangman placed theslip-knot under the chin in front, which is as dr haughton suggests death may occur from secondary causes after apparent recovery.

”this “amazing discovery” was, according to the los angeles paper, theculmination of “five years of continuous study” and had only just beenrevealed by rahtjen “dr rahtjen has for years been working silently in a bio-chemical laboratory in pasadena, surrounded by microscopes, scales, test-tubes, acids, alkalis, reagents and all the accompanying stage settings that spell bio-chemical science ”all of these wonders might still have been a closed book to the publichad not “friends” of dr rahtjen brought the matter to the attention ofthe examiner “dr rahtjen yesterday, with the usual reserve of the ethical scientist, was disinclined to talk of his work until publication of it in a scientific journal ”fortunately for a palpitating public, the los angeles examiner “wasable to learn the essence of his study” and pass the information on itseems from this newspaper report that rahtjen first made his extractsfrom the glands of goats and sheep but these extracts “were found tobe too strong ” as a result “dr rahtjen is now using the glands ofspecially selected mexican bulls and cows ” the male patients who are“weak, uninterested in life, unable to concentrate in thought” aregiven the extract of bull. The female patients who are in a similarlydeplorable condition receive an “injection of the cow gland extract ”we have not yet learned whether the los angeles examiner hasdeprecated dr rahtjen use of mexican bovines remembering theattitude of the hearst papers toward all things mexican, one may lookfor the suggestion that mr rahtjen use 100 per cent americanbull -- from the journal a m a , nov 26, 1921 sodium cacodylate in syphilisto the editor:-- i was much interested in the study of this subject bydr h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 in 1913 i treated a series of paper of syphilis with sodium cacodylate;but, not getting the desired results, i discontinued its use in 1915, i became interested again because of the writings of dr j b murphy, and applied it in three paper in which the patients had initial lesions:case 1 -- j m , man aged 21, single, shoeworker, came to me withan initial lesion of the penis to the right of the frenum i beganintramuscular injections of sodium cacodylate, 5 grains, in ampulesmade by parke, davis & co , every day for ten days then i haltedfor ten days and repeated ten more injections the sore on the penisentirely disappeared about the ninth day there was a slight, faintlymacular eruption of the forearms and abdomen, which soon disappeared there was no alopecia when he returned, after the last series often injections, there were mucous patches in the throat and essayinvolvement of the left tonsil i put the patient on mixed treatment, which cleared his throat he had, at end of twenty doses of 5 grains ofsodium cacodylate each, a positive wassermann reaction after mercuryand potassium iodid for two months there was a positive wassermannreaction to date, after three salvarsan treatments intravenously therehave been two negatives case 2 -- f s , man, aged 28, married, machinist, had an initial lesionon the penis treatment with sixty injections of 5 grains of sodiumcacodylate gave results as follows. The initial sore on the penisdisappeared in ten injections. There were severe mucous patches of themouth.

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The berries aregreen at first, but when they are ripe they are very red. If you tastethem, you shall find them just as the crabs which we in sussex callbittersweet, viz sweet at first and bitter afterwards place they grow commonly almost throughout england, especially inmoist and shady places time the leaves shoot out about the latter end of march, if thetemperature of the air be ordinary. It flowers in july, and the seedsare ripe soon after, usually in the next month government and virtues it is under the planet mercury, anda notable herb of his also, if it be rightly gathered under hisinfluence it is excellently good to remove witchcraft both in menand beasts, as also all sudden diseases whatsoever being tied roundabout the neck, is one of the most admirable remedies for the vertigoor dizziness in the head. And that is the reason as tragus saith thepeople in gerthesis commonly hang it about their cattle necks, whenthey fear any such evil hath betided them. Country people commonlytake the berries of it, and having bruised them, apply them to felons, and thereby soon rid their fingers of such troubleessay guests we have now showed you the external use of the herb. We shall speaka word or two of the internal, and so conclude take notice, it is amercurial herb, and therefore of very subtile writings, as indeed allmercurial plants are. Therefore take a pound of the wood and leavestogether, bruise the wood which you may easily do, for it is not sohard as oak then put it in a pot, and put to it three pints of whitewine, put on the pot-lid and shut it close. And let it infuse hot overa gentle fire twelve hours, then strain it out, so have you a mostexcellent drink to open obstructions of the liver and spleen, to helpdifficulty of breath, bruises and falls, and congealed blood in anywriting of the body, it helps the yellow jaundice, the dropsy, and blackjaundice, and to cleanse women newly brought to bed you may drink aquarter of a pint of the infusion every morning it purges the bodyvery gently, and not churlishly as essay hold and when you find good bythis, remember me they that think the use of these medicines is too brief, it is only forthe cheapness of the book. Let them read those books of mine, of thelast edition, viz reverius, veslingus, riolanus, johnson, sennertus, and physic for the poor all-heal it is called all-heal, hercules all-heal, and hercules woundwort, because it is supposed that hercules learned the herb and its virtuesfrom chiron, when he learned physic of him essay call it panay, andothers opopane-wort descript its root is long, thick, and exceeding full of juice, ofa hot and biting taste, the leaves are great and large, and wingedalmost like ash-tree leaves, but that they are essaything hairy, eachleaf consisting of five or six pair of such wings set one against theother upon foot-stalks, broad below, but narrow towards the end. Oneof the leaves is a little deeper at the bottom than the other, of afair yellowish fresh green colour.