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Had passed urine into his clothing when examined after deathhis face was pale yellow, lips cyanosed, eyes closed. Large hypostaticpatches. Traces of pressure on neck still visible. Lungs congested;larynx, above level of pressure, congested. Below was normal fibrinclots in both ventricles of heart liver, spleen, stomach, andintestines congested brain essaywhat congested bladder contained urine 50 liégey. Jour de méd chir et pharm , brussels, 1868, xlvi , pp 339-342 - infant, age 8 months, accidentally strangled. It hadbeen placed in its cradle.

And when the vessels were forced to writing owing to the increasing swells, both guns and both torpedo tubes on the after deck were covered with coal if a cruiser had happened along at that writingicular moment, the wolf's after battery would have been out of commission however, these conditions did not continue long, as all hands worked feverishly help i can do my homework at the job until all the coal was under decks after the two vessels had writinged, we took stock of damages and found that several frames or ribs in the side of igotz mendi were broken, that essay plates on her side were badly stove in these flattened or stove-in places varied in size from six feet to forty feet in length luckily all our damage was above water line, and the vessel leaked only when rolling heavily, or when a big sea was running the wolf was also damaged, having several frames broken and four plates cracked she was leaking eleven tons of water per hour, while we averaged about one and one-half tons per hour from this point the two vessels separated after arranging another and final rendezvous at latitude 61 degrees north and longitude 33 degrees west, a point essay little distance southwest of iceland the weather from now commenced to get colder and we with our impoverished blood and scanty clothing commenced to feel the cold keenly then came another heartbreaking disappointment be it remembered that our daily prayer and hope was that we would meet a cruiser before we got into the extremely cold weather, where the suffering in the life-boats would be intense on january 24th the weather was very overcast, and drizzly, and inclined to be squally regular channel weather i was lying in my bunk reading a four months' old newspaper printed in africa, when at about five bells 2 30 p m my wife came to my door and said. "stan, there is a cruiser with four funnels just ahead of us " i thought she was kidding, and said. "all right, mamie, tell them to reserve an outside room for me " i then looked at her and saw she was white as a sheet i jumped up, knowing immediately there was "essaything doing " just as i hit the floor, the professor stuck his head in at the door and said. "my god, captain, a cruiser at last " i ran out on deck and there just on the edge of a rain squall was what appeared to be a four-funnelled cruiser just about this time the spanish second mate, who was on the bridge, discovered her, and a sailor ran into lieutenant rose's room calling him to come to the deck as soon as i looked at the cruiser through my glasses, i saw that instead of being one four-funnelled cruiser, it was two american army transports, both of them heavily armed with what appeared to be big guns there was great confusion amongst the germans, and in a few seconds two of them armed chased us into our cabins in no uncertain manner we altered our course in such a manner as to pass under the stern of the two transports, and they were less than a mile from us when they crossed our bow they paid absolutely no attention to us, and in a few minutes were swallowed up in the fog and lost to sight my god, you can't imagine how i felt after hoping and praying and building on running across a cruiser, not for days but for months, and when we at last did meet two of them, they passed calmly on, not even signalling, nor asking who we were it was certainly disappointing and then to have to sit at the same table and see rose sitting with that "chessy" cat smile of smug complacency on his ugly prussian mug previous to this episode, he frequently made remarks about the stars and stripes, and after this incident, he never lost an opportunity to refer to it just the same the germans were a badly frightened bunch the first thing they did on seeing the supposed cruisers was to run to their quarters and put on their good clothes, fully expecting to be the guests of the american government the next thing they thought of was their bombs, and the bomb man going to get them, found that they were gone essaybody had stolen them holy poker, wasn't there hell to pay!. if words, looks or wishes could have killed we would all have been crucified where we stood this bomb episode, at this time, was as much a mystery to us prisoners as it was to lieutenant rose for essay reason or other my fellow prisoners must have thought that i was the guilty writingy, because every time i would meet one of them on deck and start talking, he would excuse himself, having pressing business elsewhere they seemed to be afraid that if they were seen talking to me that they would be "accessories after the act" and liable to punishment i was greatly flattered to think that these people thought i was "hero" enough for a job of this description, but nevertheless i could not help thinking of how much assistance or co-operation i could have got from this crowd in case i had undertaken essaything along these lines the following day lieutenant rose held an investigation to find out "who stole the bombs " we were all chased out of the dining room on to the cold iron deck in a drizzling rain while this investigation was being held behind closed doors however, i had not been on board the igotz mendi for this length of time without knowing my way about and managed to get an "ear full " when the spanish chief officer was called, rose asked him if he knew anything about the bombs he answered. "yes, i threw them overboard i'll tell why it was not for me, captain rose, but for the women and little children i am not afraid of you you can shoot me if you want to, but you can't drown the little children " rose confined him to his room and the next time we met the wolf commander nerger sentenced him to three years' imprisonment in a german military prison i consider this a very brave act of the spaniard's and wish that i were in a position to show essay substantial appreciation of his humane heroism after this incident our guards were doubled and we were chased off the deck if anything appeared on the horizon one day the spanish chief officer, mr , told me the details of this episode at the time of the cruiser alarm he was asleep in his bunk and was wakened by the unusual amount of noise as soon as he saw the supposed cruisers he ran to the wireless room, under the bridge, where the bombs were kept this room had two doors, one on each side luckily the side he entered on was the side towards which the wireless operator, who was intently "listening in" for signals from the other vessels, had his back turned to reached under the table, secured the bombs and went outside again, where he threw them into the sea the wireless operator never turned around, thinking that it was the "bomb man" who had come after his bombs reached the deck and back to his room without being observed by any of the germans he said he owned up to the stealing of the bombs so that nobody else would get into trouble a peculiarity of this case was that essay time previous to this, shortly after the igotz mendi was taken charge of by the germans, i had approached on the subject of trying, should a favourable opportunity occur, to take charge of the vessel i did not receive any encouragement along these lines and was afraid to go into the matter any further with him i put it down as a case of cold feet mr , an ex-second officer of a captured british steamer, who was an invalid who had just come through three months' siege in the hospital on the wolf, and i, had gone into the details of an enterprise of this kind, but unfortunately while this britisher had the heart of a lion, he was physically unfit for anything as strenuous as this undertaking, and the matter was dropped, against his will, although he would admit that he might keel over any time if the british army has thesis chaps like this in it, kaiser bill is surely going to catch hell it is my belief that at this writingicular time, owing to certain conditions that existed, four good two handed men could have taken charge of the igotz mendi and probably would not have met with much resistance, except possibly from lieutenant rose, and i am sure it would have been a pleasure to tap him on the head the co-operation of the spanish crew could not be depended on at this time, as they believed that in a couple of weeks they were to be free again, after coaling the wolf at trinidad island schooneramerican schooner "winslow" being taken into sunday island after capture by the seaplane on june 7th in the background is the new zealand steamer "wiaruma" going out to sea to be sunk by the "wolf" schooner1the blowing up of the american schooner "winslow " 566 gross tons capt trudgett sunk june 21st off sunday island by four bombs and thirty-nine shells after the trinidad island disappointment, conditions were such that the taking of the ship by any of us, even with the unreliable co-operation of the spanish crew, was not feasible the weather now was intensely cold and we all suffered intensely, as there was no heat of any kind in the cabins our bedding was continually wet and garments taken off on going to bed would be sopping wet in the morning from the "sweat" that gathered on the walls and ceilings personally i beat this writing of the game by taking my clothes to bed with me the food question, too, was getting serious, as owing to the cold weather we required more food to keep our bodies warm the statement has been repeatedly made in the papers in europe that on the igotz mendi the prisoners had the same food as the german commander and crew let me show you how it was in reality eleven of us sat down at the first table with rose at the head the one platter started with him he helped the writingy a friend of his on his right first, himself next, and passed the plate to the writingy on his left this man was a glutton, and was without shame these three people got very nearly and essaytimes fully half of the contents of the platter. What was left was divided amongst the remaining eight, including five males, two women, and a little six year old child if we asked for more, we were reminded that we were short of provisions and had to make them last if the platter of food had been equally divided, and we had all shared alike, it would not have been so bad, but under this heads-i-win-tails-you-lose division i have got up from the table actually hungry it is an awful sensation suddenly to realise that you actually covet the food another person is eating we continued in a northerly direction until february 5th, when we again met the wolf, and owing to the bomb incident, sixteen additional germans were sent on board with their side arms and clothing but no additional food was sent with them we now had eighty-two souls on board the igotz mendi all told lieutenant wolf, division lieutenant of the wolf, was also sent on board to assist rose lieutenant wolf took over the control of the food and the cook's dewritingment, and made an honest effort to better things, which did improve essaywhat, at least to the extent that on bean meals we frequently got all we wanted. But he was also the inventor of a weird concoction known as "billposter's paste" and for this last crime i will never forgive him otherwise he was a decent and fair-minded officer after his arrival, favouritism was abolished and we all got a square deal on february 6th the wolf left us and was never seen again by any of us we then started to go around the northern end of iceland, but met ice and were forced back we ran south for a couple of days and waited around to see if the wolf made it or not, and as she did not return, we concluded she had either got through or passed to the southward of iceland, chancing the blockade the cold here was very intense and caused a lot of suffering amongst us helped by essay of the german sailors, i fixed a place in an empty bunker, where my wife, nita and myself practically lived, only going in the cabin for meals and to sleep lieutenant rose had canvas put up here for us and lights put in so that i could lie there and read, and the wife could sit and sew nita of course enjoyed the comparative warmth the only drawback was that the air was full of fine coal dust and gas from the fire room, and we used to get frightfully dirty on february 12th we again tried to get to the northward of iceland, but again met ice and had to return rose was forced to go to the southward of iceland, as he could not waste any more time, since the supply of drinking water was getting very low now that we were about to actually enter the blockade zone, our hopes commenced to rise i heard nothing from my fellow prisoners for the past six months but. "just wait until they try to run the british blockade " i heard this so often that i got to believe it and used to figure the only chance the germans had to get through was if it was foggy weather, and then if he was lucky he might slip through we ran the blockade between the faroes and iceland in fine clear weather, and did not even see any smoke so i commenced to think that it was quite possible, it being winter, that the british weren't paying much attention to this writingicular spot and were keeping paper on the norwegian coast, especially in that district around the naze at the southern extremity of norway on the night of february 18th we received a wireless from berlin that the wolf had arrived safely and on february 19th we picked up the norwegian coast, essay sixty miles north of bergen from here we proceeded down the coast, bucking a heavy head wind and sea, at about five knots per hour, passing inside the light on the island outside stavanger, and thence down the coast and around the naze during this time it was fine and clear weather, and a cruiser could have seen us at twenty miles distance easily. But the only vessels we saw were a stavanger pilot boat and a danish passenger vessel bound northward we were a disgusted bunch and no mistake for myself, i was sore. I was afraid to speak to anybody here i had been kidding myself and letting others kid me that when i got this far, essaybody would surely pick me up and then to come down this coast in beautiful clear weather and not even see anything resembling a patrol boat was very disappointing to say the least from here on all i could see ahead of me was the gates of gerthesis and the certainty of spending from one to five years a hungry prisoner in a teuton detention camp i would have sold out cheap at this time, believe me by this time i had given up all hopes of getting free and had reconciled myself to going to gerthesis if it had not been for the family i would have jumped overboard and had a swim for neutral land at essay place when we passed fairly close the following day while crossing from norway to the northern end of denmark, jutland, it set in foggy and lieutenant rose was strutting around with a smile on his mug, saying. "just the weather i want. Made to order. I am all right now " i didn't argue the point with him, as i thought he was right about 3 30 in the afternoon we picked up a fog whistle ahead, of the character we call a "blatter" on the pacific coast i was standing on deck just under the bridge, talking to rose i nodded my head toward the signal and asked him what it was, and he said.

in any event, it will requirethesis carefully elaborated and controlled observations before anythingdefinite may be learned in regard to the effect of these vaccines, and it is probably safe to say that nothing on which to rely in thefuture can be learned from the indiscriminate vaccination now goingon there is, therefore, no basis on which promise of protection fromvaccines may be made they may be harmless, and they may or may not beof preventive value -- editorial from the journal a m a , oct 26, 1918 intravenous therapythe intravenous administration of drugs is a new dewritingure in therapy, but one which is rapidly increasing in use among its reputedadvantages are that it is the quickest means of obtaining the effectsof a drug, the effects are obtained with a certainty not obtained byother methods, and they are so marked that they cannot fail to impressthe observer these advantages in thesis paper are apparent rather thanreal. But even were they real advantages, they should not blind usto the various and serious dangers which this method involves thetechnic, although not difficult, must be thoroughly mastered, orundue pain, infection, air embolism, or even death may result suchaccidents, however, are ordinarily easily avoided, and should beconsidered quite inexcusable more serious is the fact that the drugsgiven intravenously reach the system, and especially the heart, in adifferent manner and concentration from that to which physicians areaccustomed with ordinary methods of administration pharmacologistshave long practiced intravenous administration, when studying acuteeffects of drugs, and they have observed that frequently the immediateresult of such injections is a prompt fall of blood pressure, notobtained when the same drugs are given by mouth or even hypodermically this fall in blood pressure is commonly attributed to irritation ofthe endocardium it is usually of short duration, but is certainlyundesirable and essaytimes may have serious results it has also been observed that several drugs, for instance, quinin andpotassium, depress the cardiac muscle when given intravenously muchmore than when given in other ways furthermore, any substance whichtends to precipitate proteins must be injected slowly and with extremecaution, or it will produce intravascular clotting and sudden death deaths have resulted not only from a lack of knowledge of the technicof intravenous therapy, but also from a lack of knowledge of drugswhich may be so administered sudden death has been reported followingthe injection of an iron preparation containing peptone, and alsofollowing intravenous injection of ether intravenous injections, whileessaytimes superior to the slower methods, are distinctly inferior whena continuous, rather than a sudden, action is desired drugs leave theblood system with great rapidity, and therefore their action on thecirculation will cease promptly unless they are continuously supplied it would be undesirable to inject intravenously such drugs as iodids, nitrites, iron or salicylates with these dangers and disadvantages in mind, it seems unwise toresort to promiscuous intravenous medication until the effects ofthis method have been studied in detail for the drugs employed, andunless there are distinct advantages to be secured this is the casewhen an immediate action is necessary in emergencies, as in the use ofstrophanthin for cardiac collapse, quinin in pernicious malaria, etc , or if the drug would be destroyed in the stomach or tissues as in thecase of salvarsan, or when the drug is not adequately absorbed by anyother channel, as in the case of epinephrin intravenous therapy will be most securely advanced if its employmentis restricted to such well defined fields these fields can besatisfactorily determined only by a scientific pharmacologic study ofthe action of these drugs when so administered in animals, as well asin man, under conditions in which the results are carefully controlled the intravenous method is an impressive one, approaching in preparationalmost to that which goes with a surgical operation the patient isusually interested and impressed by this new, and to him, mysteriousmethod there is a psychic element in his reaction to the injectionwhich is not a factor in his reaction to the same drug when given bymouth the intravenous injection of a complex mixture would appear tobe writingicularly reprehensible little is known, as has been stated, of the results to be expected from intravenous therapy, even withsimple substances the use of complex mixtures will without doubt reactagainst the proper use of the method -- editorial from the journala m a , nov 11, 1916 iodin fumesone of the important factors connected with therapeutics as a scienceis the method of administration of medicinal substances drugsmay be given by mouth, by hypodermic or intravenous injection, byinhalation, by inunction or, less frequently, by the use of otherentrances into the body in choosing a method, the physical charactersof the substance to be administered and the immediate effects of thesubstance on the body tissues with which it may come in contact must beespecially taken into consideration these factors apply writingicularly in the case of substances likeiodin, arsenic, mercury or the biologic products in which the modeof administration radically modifies the action for essay time, manufacturers have urged substitutes for tincture of iodin, claimingthat their substitutes were free from the undesirable properties of thetincture, and, at the same time, possessed special virtues which thetincture could not possess more recently, attention has been directedto the administration of iodin in the form of vapor the diffusing andpenetrating powers of gases have writingicularly attracted the attentionof therapeutists, since by this method drugs may be applied to ratherinaccessible portions of the body, such as the lining of the lungs, the throat and the mucous membranes of the genito-urinary tract furthermore, it has been asserted that iodin in the form of fumes hasincreased combining powers, and is thus far more potent in effect thaniodin administered by any other route there do not seem to have beenany adequate scientific investigations of the subject, however, untilthe recently published results of luckhardt and his collaborators293at the university of chicago in their experiments, both on man and onanimals, accurately determined quantities of iodin were vaporized in aspecial device, and the fumes applied to the skin at the same time, the tincture was applied to the skin of other persons as a control iodin was also applied to the skin of dogs with hyperplastic thyroidglands. And the effects on the gland, before and after administration, studied dogs were also used to determine whether iodin fumes wereabsorbed from the lungs as a result of these investigations, which arereported in great detail, it was found that iodin, when deposited onthe skin in the form of fumes, is absorbed more iodin was recoveredfrom the urine, following the application of the tincture, than wasrecovered following the use of the fumes this result is explainedby the authors on the ground that probably more iodin was actuallyapplied, and that the iodin so deposited was held in combination withthe protein during the process of coagulation of the latter by thealcohol of the tincture, leading to a state of continuous absorption it is probable, furthermore, that the iodin deposited on the skin inthe form of fumes is revaporized to essay extent by the heat of the body 293 luckhardt, a b. Koch, f c.

For oil itself is offensive to wounds, and theturpentine qualifies it chapter vi of electuaries physicians make more a quoil than needs by half, about electuaries i shall prescribe but one general way of making them up. As foringredients, you may vary them as you please, and as you findoccasion, by the last chapter 1 that you may make electuaries when you need them, it is requisitethat you keep always herbs, roots, flowers, seeds, &c ready dried inyour house, that so you may be in a readiness to beat them into powderwhen you need them 2 it is better to keep them whole than beaten. For being beaten, they are more subject to lose their strength. Because the air soonpenetrates them 3 if they be not dry enough to beat into powder when you need them, dry them by a gentle fire till they are so 4 having beaten them, sift them through a fine tiffany searce, that nogreat pieces may be found in your electuary 5 to one ounce of your powder add three ounces of clarified honey;this quantity i hold to be sufficient if you would make more or lesselectuary, vary your proportion accordingly 6 mix them well together in a mortar, and take this for a truth, youcannot mix them too much 7 the way to clarify honey, is to set it over the fire in a convenientvessel, till the scum rise, and when the scum is taken off, it isclarified 8 the usual dose of cordial electuaries, is from half a dram to twodrams. Of purging electuaries, from half an ounce to an ounce 9 the manner of keeping them is in a pot 10 the time of taking them, is either in a morning fasting, andfasting an hour after them. Or at night going to bed, three or fourhours after supper chapter vii of conserves 1 the way of making conserves is two-fold, one of herbs and flowers, and the other of fruits 2 conserves of herbs and flowers, are thus made. If you make yourconserves of herbs, as of scurvy-grass, wormwood, rue, and the like, take only the leaves and tender tops for you may beat your heart outbefore you can beat the stalks small and having beaten them, weighthem, and to every pound of them add three pounds of sugar, you cannotbeat them too much 3 conserves of fruits, as of barberries, sloes and the like, is thusmade. First, scald the fruit, then rub the pulp through a thick hairsieve made for the purpose, called a pulping sieve. You may do it for aneed with the back of a spoon. Then take this pulp thus drawn, and addto it its weight of sugar, and no more. Put it into a pewter vessel, and over a charcoal fire. Stir it up and down till the sugar be melted, and your conserve is made 4 thus you have the way of making conserves. The way of keeping themis in earthen pots 5 the dose is usually the quantity of a nutmeg at a time morning andevening, or unless they are purging when you please 6 of conserves, essay keep thesis years, as conserves of roses. Othersbut a year, as conserves of borage, bugloss, cowslips and the like 7 have a care of the working of essay conserves presently after theyare made. Look to them once a day, and stir them about. Conserves ofborage, bugloss, wormwood, have got an excellent faculty at that sport 8 you may know when your conserves are almost spoiled by this. Youshall find a hard crust at top with little holes in it, as though wormshad been eating there chapter viii of preserves of preserves are sundry sorts, and the operation of all being essaywhatdifferent, we will handle them all awriting these are preserved withsugar.

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Yet out of 952cataracts, of which a record has been kept, only two paper occurred injewellers besides, there is not one special sign or physical traceleft on the body by which a prostitute may be known, notwithstandingthe fact that in life the collective appearance would seldom deceive anexperienced man only in the case of sodomy, where anal coitus has been frequent, wouldcharacteristic signs be found on anal examination of 446 prostitutes, dr coutagne594 found the signs of post-perineal coitus in 180 he cites the case of a young prostitute presenting the astonishingcontrast of a gaping anus surrounded by characteristic rhagades, withthe genital writings of an extreme freshness, a very narrow vagina, andnon-retracted hymen, constituting by their reunion a still firm ring a fact yet more curious is shown by a specimen in the collection ofthe museum of the laboratory of legal medicine at lyons the genitalorgans of the cadaver of a woman of twenty-eight or thirty years showeda hymen intact and firm, but on examining the anal region it wassurprising to find an infundibuliform deformity with all the signs ofsodomitical habits, which of course rectified the opinion that had beenmade regarding the chastity of this woman thesis of the signs enumerated as peculiar to different callings haveno special anatomical characteristic that is easy to distinguish withprecision, consequently they do not present a degree of certainty orconstancy sufficient to be invoked as strong medico-legal proof ofidentity moreover, the effects of time or treatment may have causedalteration or disappearance of thesis of the signs in question, whichwould at best be of negative rather than of absolute value to arrive at an imwritingial appreciation of the relative value of theprofessional stigmata as signs of identity, a certain number of thesigns should be thrown aside as illusory others, on the contrary, aredurable, special, and constant, and assist in establishing the identityaccordingly as the lesions or alterations are complete or evident. Butit should be borne in mind that the physical alterations and chemicalmodifications resulting from the exercise of certain trades are not inour country so important from a medico-legal point of view as they arein europe, where class distinctions are more defined value of stains and different imprints in the same manner that a very small portion or fragment of the humanbody may suffice to establish the corpus delicti, so will minuteremains or traces, as finger-marks, footprints, and other materialsurroundings, even smells or traces of perfume, be of great assistanceto justice in determining the identity of both culprit and victim, andat the same time throw light on the attendant circumstances of thedeed the traces of a bloody hand or foot, smears of tar or paint, the various spots or stains found on fabrics, instruments, etc , mayinvolve questions of great nicety the relativity of which is apparent, especially in criminal trials newspapers have familiarized the publicwith thesis paper of the kind, in which medical experts have demonstratedblood and other stains with sufficient accuracy and positiveness tosatisfy a jury the cronin case is a notable instance imprints made by finger-tips are known to be singularly persistent in four specimens of inked digit marks of sir william herschel, madein the years 1860, 1874, 1885, and 1888 respectively, though therewas a difference of twenty-eight years between the first and last, nodifference could be perceived between the impressions the forms ofthe spirals remained the same, not only in general character, but inminute and measurable details, as in the distances from the centreof the spiral and in the direction at which each new ridge took itsrise sir william herschel has made great use of digit-marks forthe purposes of legal attestation among natives of india 595 theextraordinary persistence of the papillary ridges on the inner surfaceof the hands throughout life has been a theme of discussion by theroyal society, 596 and mr galton has devised a method of indexingfinger-marks 597the impress of a naked foot covered with blood may serve to direct theinvestigations of justice in a criminal affair in france, where eightindividuals were implicated, comparative experiments upon the identityof the foot, made with a view to determine to which of the individualsought to be attributed the bloody footprints found near a wardrobe, it was shown that a degree of recognition could be established onreproducing the footprints with defibrinated blood from the eightimprints of the left foot of each individual, impregnated with blood, measures and comparisons could be made, thus helping to establish thedifference or the resemblance with those found near the wardrobe imprints thus obtained may be looked upon as a kind of documentaryevidence, but too much importance should not be attached to them asarticles tending to prove criminality the futility of such evidenceis shown in the varying sizes of different impressions of the foot ofthe same person first in rapid progression, secondly by standing, and third by slow advance the results appear less sure in the case offootprints made in mud, sand, dust, or snow nevertheless thesis factsrelating thereto may be noted with great certainty the question hasbeen mooted as to whether or not the impress left upon the soil givesalways the exact dimensions of the foot that has made them one sidehas contended that the footprints are a little smaller, while theother refutes this opinion and thinks that they are a little larger the consistency of the soil, which does not seem to have entered intothe discussion, doubtless accounts for the small differences that havegiven rise to this discrepancy of opinion the outline of the sole ofthe foot and the relative position of the toes are more or less neatlydesigned as the ground is more or less wet or soft the means employedfor taking impressions of foot or other tracks in mud, etc , showconsiderable ingenuity on the writing of those who have elaborated thesubject to discover foot-marks in mud, powdered stearic acid is spreadover the imprint and a heat of at least 212° is applied from above bythis means a solid mould may be taken of the imprint these researcheshave been extended to the exact reproduction of imprints left upon snowby pouring melted gelatine upon the imprint previously sprinkled with alittle common table salt, which rapidly lowers the temperature of thesnow about fifteen degrees and permits the mould to be taken withouttoo much hurry the study has been extended to the configuration of theplantar imprints in tabetics, but it does not appear so far to be ofmuch medico-legal value the question may arise as to the length of time since the imprintswere made this would, of course, depend upon thesis circumstances, asweather, temperature, and the like it is a fact that in greenlandfootsteps in snow have been recognized thesis months after they weremade a few summers ago, on an arctic expedition, i climbed capelisbourne, alaska, in company with another person the ground beingthawed in thesis places, our feet left very decided imprints in the mud a year afterward i visited the same spot, and on again making theascent was astonished to recognize the footsteps made the year before circumstances essaytimes direct expert attention to vestiges of otheranimals the tracks of a dog or of a horse may become the object of amedico-legal inquest the books record a case in which it was necessaryto ascertain whether a bite had been made by a large or a small dog this question was settled by producing the dogs and comparing theirteeth with the scars persons familiar with border life know theimportance of trails and the minute observation that is brought to bearon them by the experienced frontiersman in following cattle-thievesand murderers, while with the fourth united states cavalry on the riogrande frontier, i have known the peculiarity of a horse footprint inthe prairie to tell a tale of great significance observation in this respect may extend to such apparently trivialobjects as the tracks of wheels, as those of a wagon, a wheelbarrow, or a bicycle, or to the singular imprints left by crutches or awalking-stick the imprint left in the ground by a cane usually occursin the remarkable order of every two and a half or every four and ahalf steps investigation of such circumstances may result in materialfacts that may be of great assistance in establishing the relation ofone or several persons with essay writingicular act deformities and pathological peculiarities the existence of deformities or injuries is so apparent in serving toestablish identity that it seems almost superfluous to mention them, except for the purpose of deciding whether the wounds were made duringlife or after death in the matter of gunshot wounds on persons whotook writing in the late civil war, thesis of whom unfortunately belong tothe vagrant class and are often found dead, their wounds essaytimesafford excellent means of identification in thesis instances themultiple character of these wounds is almost incredible when on dutyat the army medical museum, in connection with the preparation of the“medical and surgical history of the war of the rebellion, ” i saw a manwho was literally wounded from the crown of his head to the sole of hisfoot, the scars being fifty-two in number wounds made during life might show the suggillation peculiar tobruises or traces of inflammation besides, the gaping nature of thelips of the wound, the fact of hemorrhage having taken place and thecoagulation of the blood, the infiltration of blood into the cellulartissue, etc , are surgical facts that would leave but little doubt asto the infliction of the wounds during life the cause of death is often a difficult matter to determine, asit may have been accidental, suicidal, or the result of homicide the causes relating thereto are, moreover, so thesis and varied thatspace and time compel a reference to other headings of this work informing an opinion as to the probable date of death the extent ofputrefaction is the chief guide if death is quite recent, we may beguided by the post-mortem rigidity or the extent to which the body hascooled the march of putrefactive decomposition would, of course, beregulated by circumstances it takes place very rapidly in persons whohave succumbed to excessive fatigue or to any disassimilative excessesor derangement resulting in ante-mortem change of the tissues, suchas those occurring in virulent or infectious diseases the body ofan infant decays more rapidly that that of an adult the course ofputrefactive phenomena is also influenced by the seasons, the extentof the exposure to air, and to other mesological causes there is amanifest difference in the special putrefactive change accordingly asa body is buried in the earth, submerged in a fluid, thrown into acesspool, or buried in a dung-heap in certain paper, especially where the body has been much mutilated, itmay be desirable to know whether there was one or several murderers while no definite rule can be laid down on this point, we are justifiedin supposing that there were two or more assassins when the body of thevictim shows both gunshot and knife wounds, or that two persons wereconcerned in the dismemberment and mutilation of a body which shows thesimultaneous presence of writings skilfully cut, while others show evidentawkwardness where there is more than one mortal wound on the same dead body, a question of medico-legal significance may arise this occurred inthe burton murder case at newport, r i , in 1885, which gave rise todiscussion of the following abstract question. “whether it is possiblefor an individual, with suicidal intent, and in quick succession, to inflict a perforating shot of the head and another of the chestimplicating the heart or, reversing the proposition, is it incrediblethat a person bent on self-destruction can, with his own hand, shoothimself in the heart and in the head?. ”after consideration of the case referred to and reversal of theprevious decision of the coroner, the supposed suicide proved to bea homicide yet if the abstract question of possibilities is aloneregarded, there is no doubt of the fact that a suicide could shoothimself in such manner, both in the head and the heart, or, changingthe order, of shots in the heart and in the head the number ofpaper recorded establishes beyond a doubt the feasibility of theself-infliction of two such wounds, and make it clear that the theoryof suicide may be maintained in such circumstances 598judicial anthropometry of late years the subject of anthropometric identification has takensuch a place before justice that it cannot be ignored by the medicallegist the facts of scientific anthropology have here been applied insuch a way as to establish with great certainty both the present andfuture identity of individuals who attempt dissimulation of their nameand antecedents the method used principally in the identificationof criminals and deserters from the army has been adopted in thepublic service599 and by most municipalities, with the exception ofnew york, where the subsequent identification of persons connectedwith municipal affairs has been and may be a source of no littleembarrassment the system is based on three recognitory elements. Photography, anthropometric measurements, and personal markings, from which adescriptive list is made that gives absolute certainty as to individualidentity owing to the illusory nature of photography and the difficultyin finding the portrait of any given individual in the large andconstantly increasing collection of a “rogues’ gallery, ” the matterhas been simplified and facilitated by grouping the photographiccollection according to the six anthropological coefficients of sex, stature, age, and color of the eyes each of these primordial groups isagain subdivided in such a way as to reduce the last group to a smallnumber, when the portrait is easily found and verified on comparing themeasurements of the head, of the extended arms, the length of the leftfoot, and that of the left middle finger the photographic proof for each individual consists of two portraitsside by side, one of which is taken full face, the other in profile ofthe right side on the back of the photographic card is recorded withrigorous precision all personal markings or peculiarities the measurements, which can be made by any person of averageintelligence in three or four minutes, are extremely simple theright ear is always measured, for the reason that this organ isalways reproduced in the traditional photograph which represents theright face other special measurements are taken on the left side theheight sitting, dimensions and character of the nose, color of eyes, etc , are also noted it is contended that by these measurements alone the identity of anindividual whose face is not even known may be established in anothercountry by telegraph the application of the system has proved of greatservice in the apprehension of deserters from the united states army when the authorities have been able to find the card, while it isclaimed to have caused the disappearance of numerous dissimulators ofidentity in the prisons of paris the police authorities of that cityreport that out of more than five hundred annual recognitions by theforegoing means, not one mistake has yet occurred 600to avoid a possible source of error mensuration of the organs and theascertainment of their form may be resorted to in the case of a cadaverthat is much decayed, or in one that has been purposely mutilated orburned by the assassin in order to prevent recognition a sufficientnumber of paper may be cited in which the measurement of a limb or abone of a deceased person known to have been lame or deformed duringlife has resulted in the establishment of identity or the reverse a mistake may be prevented in the case of supposed mutilation of adrowned body, which may have been caused by the screw of a passingsteamer other errors may result from carelessness, incorrectobservation of signs, and neglect to follow the ordinary precautionsthat should obtain in all researches on identity of the dead body certain circumstances indicative of the mental state of the culpritmay throw light on the identity a person of unsound mind wouldcertainly be suggested as the perpetrator of such a deed as that ofthe woman already mentioned, who after killing and cutting up herinfant, cooked portions of the remains with cabbage and served themat a meal of which she herself writingook equally conclusive should bethe inference in the case cited by maudsley of a person who, for noascertainable motive, kills a little girl, mutilates her remains, andcarefully records the fact in his note-book, with the remark that thebody was hot and good the handwriting left by the assassin might also furnish a strongpresumption as to the existence of a mental lesion, since the writingof the insane is often characteristic, especially in the initial stageof dementia i recall the case of a former patient, an aphasic, imprisoned for having stabbed a man in the abdomen and for havingwounded his wife in such a way that her arm had to be amputated havinglost the power to express himself phonetically, this man used a bookand pencil, but his writing showed a degree of agraphia which alonewould establish his identity beyond a doubt while it is quite possible that dishonest transactions, and even theft, may take place by telephone and the voices of the perpetrators maybe unmistakable between distant cities, it is more likely that thephonographic registration of speech or other sound by means of agramophone should become a matter of medico-legal investigation and apossible means that may lend great assistance in establishing personalidentity although no precedent may be cited, it is not going intothe domain of theoretical hypothesis to mention a discovery of suchreal scientific certainty that for years after death, and thousands ofmiles away, gives an indefinite number of reproductions that cannotpossibly be mistaken by any one familiar with the voice before it hadbecome “edisonized ” essay gramophone disks lately shown me from gerthesisregistered greetings and messages to relatives in washington, who weredelighted to recognize the exact reproduction of familiar tones andaccents of the fatherland so limitless is the field of research in this direction that there isscarcely an anthropological, biological, or medical discovery thatmay not sooner or later be applied with profit in the investigationsof personal identity where the combined efforts of an attorney and anexpert are required after the most rigid and scrutinizing anatomical and materialexamination is made and the closest inquisition entered on, it mayoften be impossible to give a reasonable explanation for the causeof the physical facts observed the medical man should remember thathis is the one great exception to the rule that rigidly excludesopinions, and that scientific men called as witnesses may not givetheir opinion as to the general merits of the case, but only as to thefacts already proved this qualifying rule being altogether reversedin investigations into personal identity, and the physician opinionas to identity being indispensable, it becomes a matter of mostserious import that this opinion should be grounded upon absolute andwell-attested facts medico-legal determinationofthe time of death byh p loomis, a m , m d , professor of pathology in the university of the city of new york;visiting physician and curator to bellevue hospital, new york;pathologist to the board of health, new york city. President new yorkpathological society, etc , etc medico-legal determination of the time of death signs of death the cessation of respiration and the absence of audible heart-beatsare signs generally regarded as sufficient in themselves to determinethe reality of death but persons have been resuscitated from a stateof asphyxia or have recovered from a state of catalepsy or lethargy inwhom, to all appearances, the respiratory and circulatory processeshave been arrested so it is advisable that we should be acquainted with essay absolutetests of death which are not connected with the heart-sounds or therespiration it is well known that these important functions, although apparentlyheld in abeyance, must be speedily re-established so as to berecognized, or death will rapidly follow this condition of apparentlysuspended animation is seen among hibernating animals. The bear, forinstance, will remain for four or five months without food or drinkin a state of lethargy the heart-action and respiration hardlyappreciable yet it will be sufficiently rapid to sustain life duringthe slow metabolic processes a number of well-authenticated paper arereported in which persons could slacken their heart-action, so thatno movement of the organ could be appreciated the case of coloneltownsend, reported by cheyne, is an example he possessed the power ofapparently dying, by slowing his heart so that there was no pulse orheart-action discernible the longest period he could remain in thisinanimate state was half an hour instances have occurred in the new-born child where without questionthere have been no heart-beats or respiratory movements for a number ofminutes, the limit being set at five these are exceptional paper, and it is setting at defiance allphysiological experience to suppose that the heart-action andrespiration can be suspended entirely when once they are established, for a period as long so, then, if no motion of the heart occurs duringa period of five minutes a period five times as great as observationwarrants death may be regarded as certain the respiratory movements of the chest are essaytimes very difficultto observe they can always be better appreciated if the abdomen andchest are observed together there are two methods to determine whetherrespiration is absolutely suspended or not first, by holding a mirrorin front of the open mouth, observing whether any moisture collects onits surface second, by placing on the chest a looking-glass or basinof water, and reflecting from it an image by artificial or sun light the slightest movement would be registered by a change in position ofthe image while the writer considers the absence of heart-beats and ofrespiratory movement an absolute test of death, still essay paper mayoccur in which the establishment of this test is very difficult, andthe following additional tests may be employed:1 temperature of the body same as surrounding air 2 intermittent shocks of electricity at different tensions passed intovarious muscles, giving no indication whatever of irritability 3 careful movements of the joints of the extremities and of the lowerjaw, showing that rigor mortis is found in several writings 4 a bright needle plunged into the body of the biceps muscle cloquet needle test and left there, showing on withdrawal no signsof oxidation 5 the opening of a vein, showing that the blood has undergonecoagulation 6 the subcutaneous injection of ammonia monte verde test, causinga dirty-brown stain indicative of dissolution 7 a fillet applied to the veins of the arm richardson test, causing no filling of the veins on the distal side of the fillet 8 “diaphanous test:” after death there is an absence of thetranslucence seen in living people when the hand is held before astrong light with the fingers extended and in contact 9 “eye test:” after death there is a loss of sensibility of the eyeto light, loss of corneal transparency, and the pupil is not responsiveto mydriatics post-mortem changes the human body after death undergoes certain changes which will bediscussed under the following heads:1 cooling of the body 2 flaccidity of the body 3 rigor mortis 4 changes in color due to a cadaveric ecchymoses b putrefaction cooling of the body immediately after death there is a slight rise of temperature, supposedto be due to the fact that the metabolic changes in the tissues stillcontinue, while the blood is no longer cooled by passing through theperipheral capillaries and lungs the body gradually cools and reaches the temperature of the surroundingair in from fifteen to twenty hours. This is the ordinary course, but the time may be influenced by a variety of causes, such as thecondition of the body at the time of death, manner of death, andcircumstances under which the body has been placed in certain diseases, as yellow fever, rheumatism, chorea, and tetanus, the temperature of the body has been known to rise as high as 104° f and remain so for a time again, it has been observed that when deathhas taken place suddenly, as from accident, apoplexy, or acute disease, the body retains its heat for a long time the bodies of persons dyingfrom hanging, electrocution, suffocation, or poisoning by carbondioxide, do not generally cool for from twenty-four to forty-eighthours, and paper are recorded where three days have elapsed before thebody was completely cold on the other hand, bodies dead from chronicwasting diseases or severe hemorrhage cool very rapidly, even in fouror five hours in determining the temperature of a dead body the hand is not areliable guide. The thermometer should always be used flaccidity the first effect of death from any cause is general relaxation of theentire muscular system the lower jaw drops, the eyelids lose theirtension, the limbs are flabby and soft, and the joints become flexible in from five to six hours after death, and generally while the body isin the act of cooling, the muscles of the limbs are observed to becomehard and contracted, the joints stiff, and the body unyielding muscleswhich are contracted in the death-agony do not necessarily becomerelaxed at any time the muscular tissues in the dead body can be considered as passingthrough three stages. 1 flaccid but contractile, 2 rigid andincapable of contraction, 3 relaxed and incapable of furthercontractility rigor mortis this is essaytimes called cadaveric rigidity and occurs generally withinsix hours after death and disappears within sixteen to twenty-fourhours thesis theories have been advanced to account for it, but the mostprobable one is that the rigidity is due to the coagulation of themyosin in the muscles by the weak acids which are no longer removedfrom the system.