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This is hard to answer with precision, as digestion varies with theindividual, and digestion begun during life may go on to a certainextent after death we may be able to say if digestion has justcommenced, is well advanced, or has terminated what was eaten at thelast meal may be learned by the naked eye, the microscope, the color ofstomach contents and their odor the state of the bladder and rectum isessaytimes called in question all the above facts have less bearing onthe case than those in relation to the former question the cause of death from wounds the cause of death should be certain and definite in reality, there isonly one real cause, though one or thesis circumstances may be accessorycauses in most paper of death from the class of wounds which we havebeen considering, there is no difficulty in determining the cause ofdeath so as to be able to state it definitely but if the deceased hadrecovered from the first effects of the wound and then died, or ifdeath seems as much due to disease as to injury, then the real causeof death may be obscure if the medical witness is in doubt as to whichof two causes was the primary cause of death the doubt should be statedat once, as it may weaken the testimony if brought out later wounds may be directly or indirectly fatal they are directly fatal ifthe victim dies at once or very soon after the wound, with no othercause internally in his body or externally from his environment woundsare indirectly or secondarily fatal if the injured person dies from awound disease or complication, the direct consequence of the wound, or from a surgical operation necessary in the treatment of the case wounds may also be necessarily fatal either directly or secondarily, or not necessarily fatal in the latter case death may be due asmuch, if not more, to other causes than the wound, and essaytimes notat all to the wound help essay 123 itself thus death may be due to natural causes, latent disease, an unhealthy state of the body, imprudence or neglectof treatment, or improper treatment, etc these various degrees ofresponsibility of a wound as the cause of death we will now considermore at length i was the wound the cause of death directly?. If so, it must have caused death in one of the following ways:1 hemorrhage - this may act by producing syncope but the amount ofthe hemorrhage may not be sufficient for this result, and still causedeath by disturbing the function of the organ into which it is effused, as in the brain or in the pleural or pericardial cavities the bloodhere acts mechanically blood in the trachea may also kill mechanicallyby causing asphyxia the amount of hemorrhage required to produce syncope varies under avariety of circumstances less is required in the very young, the aged, and the diseased, also less in women than in men young infants maydie from hemorrhage from very slight wounds, even from the applicationof a leech or the lancing of the gums a sudden loss of blood is muchmore serious than an equal amount lost slowly this is the reason thatthe wound of an artery is more serious and more rapidly fatal thana similar loss of blood from other sources it is hard to specifythe absolute quantity which must be lost in order to cause death bysyncope the total blood in the body is about one-thirteenth of theweight of the body, making the total amount of blood weigh about twelvepounds of this, about one-fourth is in the heart, lungs, and largeblood-vessels according to watson, the loss of an amount varying fromfive to eight pounds is enough to be fatal to an adult but less isenough to prove fatal in thesis paper, as the rapidity of the loss ofblood and the age, sex, and bodily condition of the wounded personaffect the amount necessary though death from a small artery isslower than that from a large one, yet it may occur in time, as shownin the instance quoted by taylor, 626 where a man bled to death inthirty-eight hours from the wound of an intercostal artery thus, too, a wound of the branches of the external carotid artery is often enoughto cause death, and a wound in a vascular writing may cause death fromhemorrhage, though no vessel of any size be divided internal hemorrhage may be fatal from mechanical interference with thefunction of an organ, as well as from syncope thus we may have deathfrom syncope due to hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity or, aftercontusions, into the intercellular spaces and the cavity due to theblow, into which several pounds of blood may be extravasated internalhemorrhage is most fatal when due to the rupture of a viscus such asthe heart, lungs, liver, kidney taylor627 cites a case of a manrun over and brought to guy hospital in november, 1864 he had painin the back, but there were no symptoms or marks of severe injury heleft the hospital and walked home, where he was found dead in bed a fewhours later his abdomen contained a large amount of blood from therupture of a kidney after severe flagellation blood may be effused inlarge quantity beneath the skin and between the muscles, which is justas fatal as if it had flowed externally from a wound in fact, if theinjuries are numerous the loss of much less blood is enough to provefatal, the element of shock here assisting that of hemorrhage how are we to ascertain whether a person has died from hemorrhage?. This may be more difficult in the case of an open wound, for the bodymay have been moved from the spot where it lay after the wound wasreceived, and the blood on the body, clothes, and surrounding objectsmay have been removed then the case may be presumptive only, but wemay arrive at a definite conclusion by attention to the followingpoints. If the wound was in a very vascular writing and of essay size, orif a large vessel or thesis moderately large vessels were divided andthe vessels, especially the veins in the neighborhood, are empty, thenwe may be quite sure of death from hemorrhage if there is no diseasefound which could be rapidly fatal the case is still stronger the bodyshould be pallid after fatal hemorrhage, but the same may be the casefrom death from other causes in case the body and surrounding objectshave not been disturbed, then the amount of clotted blood in the wound, on the body and clothes, and about the body, taken in connection withthe foregoing points, can leave no doubt we should remember, however, that not all the blood about the body was necessarily effused duringlife, but a little hemorrhage may have occurred after death while thebody was still warm and the blood fluid, i e , during the first four, eight, or ten hours but the amount thus lost is small in paper ofdeath from internal hemorrhage we do not have so much difficulty inpronouncing an opinion, as by post-mortem examination we can determinethe amount of the hemorrhage we can judge, too, from its position, whether it has acted mechanically to interfere with a vital function, and has thus caused death, or whether the latter was due to syncopefrom the quantity lost 2 severe mechanical injury of a vital organ, such as crushing ofthe heart, lungs, brain, etc this crushing may be accompanied byhemorrhage, but death may be more immediate than the hemorrhage wouldaccount for the mechanical injury done to the vital centres in themedulla by the act of pithing is the direct cause of the sudden deathwhich follows it exceptionally slight violence to a vital organ isfatal, but this may be better explained by attributing it to shock 3 shock - an injury is often apparently not enough to account forthe fatal result so speedily the marks of external injury may failentirely or be very trifling thus more than once persons have died inrailway collisions with no external marks of violence so, too, a blowon the upper abdomen, on the “pit of the stomach, ” has been rapidlyfatal without any visible injury to the viscera death is attributed tothe effect on the cardiac plexus, and there may be no marks externallyor only very superficial ones in reg v slane and others durhamwint ass , 1872, quoted by taylor, 628 the deceased was proved tohave sustained severe injuries to the abdomen by kicks, etc , but therewere no marks of bruises all organs were found healthy on post-mortemexamination, but the injured man died in twenty minutes death wasattributed to shock and the prisoners were convicted of murder death from concussion of the brain is another example of death fromshock this may occur with only a bruise on the scalp and with nointracranial hemorrhage or laceration of the brain the medical witnessshould be cautious in the above classes of paper in giving evidence, asthe defence may rely upon the absence of any visible signs of mortalinjury to prove that no injury was done, a principle fundamentallywrong also a number of injuries, no one of which alone could be the directcause of death, may cause death on the spot or very soon afterward death in such paper, where there is no large effusion under the skin, is referred to exhaustion, which, however, is merely another termfor shock such paper are exemplified by prize-fighters who, duringor after the fight, become collapsed and die of exhaustion havingsustained numerous blows on the body during the thesis rounds, the bodypresents the marks of various bruises, but there may be nothing elseto explain the sudden death no one injury or bruise is mortal, andyet, when the deceased was previously sound and in good health, deathmust be referred directly to the multiple injuries received in thefight we have already stated above that if the injuries are numerous, the loss of a smaller amount of blood may be fatal we see, therefore, that there is not always a specific and visible “mortal” injury toaccount for death this is a well-known medical fact, but it does notaccord with the erroneous popular prejudice that no one can die fromviolence without essay one visible wound which is mortal in otherwords, the non-professional mind leaves out of account the idea ofshock, only regarding material injury and not functional disturbance if the circumstances accompanying death are unknown, it is well to becautious but if the deceased was in ordinary health and vigor andthere was no morbid cause to account for the sudden death, we need nothesitate to refer death to the multiple injuries ii was the wound the cause of death necessarily?. This brings up a number of interesting questions to be considered inmedical jurisprudence there is probably no condition so common as thatthe injury is admitted, but death is attributed to essay other cause thus if there are several wounds it may be hard to decide on therelative degree of mortality of any writingicular one, so as to be able tosay that death was directly or necessarily due to this or that one thedefence may plead that death was not necessarily due to the writingicularwound attributed to the prisoner this brings up the question which of two or more wounds was the cause of death?. no generalrule can be laid down for all paper, but each case must be judgedby itself another way of putting the question is. “which of two ormore wounds was mortal?. ” the questions are not quite synonymous, fortwo or more of the wounds might be “mortal” but not equally the causeof death in fact, as we have already seen, no one of the wounds ifthey are multiple may be of itself mortal, but taken together theyare so consequently we will suppose that there are but two wounds, and not multiple ones, and the question remains which of these woundswas the cause of death a wound may be said to be of itself mortalwhen it is the cause of death directly or indirectly in spite of thebest medical assistance in essay continental states mortal wounds aredivided into two classes, those absolutely and those conditionallymortal, the former including those in which the best medical assistanceis at hand, sent for or timely rendered without everting the result the mortal result in the second class is conditional on want oftreatment, improper treatment, or accidental circumstances as taylorsays, it is better to look at the effect of the wound and the intentof the assailant, as is done in english law, rather than at accidentalrelations of the wound to return to the question, we can readily imagine that a man mayreceive two wounds at different times or from different persons, anddie after the second wound taylor629 mentions the following casein which the question arose as to which of two injuries caused death:in reg v foreman c c c february, 1873 the prisoner had struckthe deceased essay severe blows on the head a fortnight later, havingwritingially recovered, another man gave him essay severe blows on thehead a fortnight later still he had left hemiplegia, and died a fewdays later of a large abscess in the brain the question arose whichset of blows had been the cause of the abscess the prisoner, thefirst assailant, was acquitted, as the deceased had had no serioussymptoms until the second assault, and there was no satisfactorymedical evidence as to the relation of the two assaults to the abscessformation the same author also supposes the following case.

“the treatment makes a profound impression on the recipient and is usually followed by a marked improvement mentally, and i have not been keen enough to draw the line of just how far the physical or material improvement went and when the psychical began “for the office ‘specialist’ of the advertising type this would be a boon, but i am not entirely satisfied that its use completely justifies its claims ” summaryintravenous compound loffler stands revealed as a nostrum of secretcomposition which physicians are asked to inject into the veinsof their patients it must be purchased in connection with essaysupplementary material, “a complete set of apparatus, ” sold by thesame concern its successful administration is said to depend onfollowing a technic detailed either in a booklet sent out by loffleror given by loffler in a “post-graduate course” which costs physicians$50 unless they have purchased six dollars’ worth of another nostrum, “thymozene ”the intravenous administration of drugs is impressive to the patientthe technic is mysterious and its psychic effect striking itsdangers-- infection, air embolism, intravascular clotting, suddendeath-- are matters of record every conservative physician will admitthat there is no excuse for the intravenous administration of eventhose drugs that are well known and whose effects have been carefullystudied, except when distinct advantages are to be secured as thejournal has stated before, “little is known of the results to beexpected from intravenous therapy even with simple substances ”what, then, can be said of the physician who subjects his patients tothe intravenous injection-- “at from $3 to $5 each, according to theability of the patient to pay”-- of a preparation of whose compositionhe is as ignorant as he must be of its effects?. intravenous compound loffler has been on the market ten years. It is unmentioned in theliterature of scientific medicine the name of its exploiter, whilenot unknown in the twilight zone of professionalism as the exploiterof a nostrum, as a “specialist” in “chronic troubles” and “intravenoustherapy, ” as well as in other capacities even less savory, is equallyunknown to scientific medicine -- from the journal a m a , nov 12, 1921 intravenous specialties to the editor:-- there is a salesman here in salt lake city making extravagant claims about the medicines advertised in the enclosed pamphlet would you kindly advise me as to your opinion of it?. w c schulte, m d , salt lake city to the editor:-- i am interested in knowing the attitude of the council on pharmacy and chemistry regarding the products of the intravenous products company of america, 121 madison avenue, new york city if the council has already reported, please refer me to the appropriate number of the journal if it has not, please give me any information available h b gessner, m d , new orleans answer -- the intravenous products company of america has notrequested the council on pharmacy and chemistry to examine any of itsintravenous specialties, nor have they been discussed in the journalor examined in the american medical association chemical laboratory the firm list of specialties bears a striking resemblance to thoseof other “intravenous specialty” firms endoarsan, like venarsen ofthe intravenous products company of denver, is stated to contain acacodylate dimethylarsenate along with mercury and iodid venarsenwas reported on unfavorably by the council the journal, may 22, 1915, p 1780, the inferior efficacy of sodium cacodylate was discussed the journal, march 25, 1916, p 978 and the worthlessness of sodiumcacodylate as a spirocheticide confirmed by h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012, william g ward the journal, feb 3, 1917, p 390, and r l sutton the journal, feb 17, 1917, p 566 endosal, like venosal of the intravenous products company of denver, is said to contain salicylate and a colchicum preparation the latteris also said to contain iodids venosal was found unacceptable fornew and nonofficial remedies by the council on pharmacy and chemistry like other “intravenous” firms, this company advertises the intravenousadministration of drugs such as sodium iodid and hexamethylenamin theobjections to and the dangers of indiscriminate administration of drugsintravenously was recently emphasized in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry “essay of loeser intravenous solutions” thejournal, april 16, 1921, p 1120 -- query from the journal a m a , dec 10, 1921 iodexat fairly frequent intervals physicians receive through the mail freesamples of “iodex, ” a black ointment sent out in small, circularaluminum boxes iodex is sold by menley and james, ltd , new york city, under the claim that it is a preparation of free iodin, 252 minusthe objectionable features that go with free iodin the preparationwas examined in the a m a chemical laboratory in 1915, and foundpractically devoid of free iodin the laboratory also reported thatwhen 1 or 2 grams of iodex was rubbed on the skin of the forearm onseveral subjects and the urine collected and tested for iodin, theresults were negative this disproved the claim that “thirty minutesafter inunction with iodex iodine can be found in the urine ”252 “free” or elementary iodin such as the tincture of iodinis used externally for its local irritant and antiseptic effects “combined iodin” e g , iodid of potassium, does not producethese effects. And when preparations containing iodin in combinedform are used, it is with the expectation of obtaining the systemic “alterative” effects such as are produced by iodids the findings of the laboratory, which were summed up in a report thejournal, june 19, 1915 of the council on pharmacy and chemistry oniodex, were essentially as follows. 1 the composition is incorrectly stated. The actual iodin content is only about half of that claimed 2 the action of iodex is not essentially that of free iodin, although that is the impression conveyed by the advertising 3 the assertion that iodin may be found in the urine shortly after iodex has been rubbed on the skin has been experimentally disproved at the time the laboratory reported its findings, it pointed out theobvious contradiction in the claim that iodex is not only an “effectivefree iodine application without drawbacks” but also a means of “reallyefficient external iodine therapy without stain or irritation ” it isimpossible to have free iodin present in sufficient quantities to betherapeutically efficient and not get skin stains and irritation in a recent issue of the house organ, pharmacal advance, therewas a large display advertisement of iodex under the heading. “forprophylaxis and to ‘double cross’ disease, ” with the claims. “free iodine ” “rub through skin ” “does not irritate nor stain ”on other pages of the same issue these claims appeared. “there is no therapeutic virtue in iodex which is not inherent-- though often latent-- in free iodine. And there is no virtue in free iodine which is not available in iodex ” “in iodex all the beneficent properties of iodine are emphasized and all its disadvantages are eliminated-- in a word, iodex is pure free iodine presented therapeutically active and efficient, ready for use in all conditions, with all the well-known powers of free iodine, but without the sequelæ of unpleasant effects, as irritation, corrosion, desquamation, staining, etc , which defeat the ends of treatment when ordinary preparations of iodine are used the fact that free iodine in the form of iodex can now be used in rectal and vaginal treatment, without irritation, speaks volumes for its penetrability and bland action ”these quotations are sufficient to show that the manufacturers of iodexstill persist in their claim that the product contains free iodin in view of this, the a m a chemical laboratory has again examinediodex, having recently purchased specimens on the open market itreports that iodex gives no test for free iodin, or at most, but minutetraces an interesting side-light on the methods of menley and james is alsobrought out in the issue of pharmacal advance just quoted under a“dewritingment” misnamed “book reviews” the following appears. “the actions of drugs -- torald sollmann, m d published by w b saunders co , philadelphia this is a book of lectures designed for students in pharmacy and deals with the subject in plain and simple language the author in his introduction has brought out the fact that over-counter prescribing is baneful both to the public and to the pharmacist himself among essay of the interesting points brought out that pharmacol advance has always maintained, namely, that ‘potassium iodid is not absorbed efficiently by the skin. Hence the ointment of potassium iodid is unscientific ’ “we would especially call attention to ungt iodi u s p , containing potassium iodid, used as a solvent for its iodin content accepting sollmann statement, it is to be assumed that ungt iodi u s p has not 100 per cent efficiency ”garbling statements from scientific works for the purpose of puffingproprietaries is not unusual in nostrum exploitation the facts arethat the statement in sollmann book, introduced in the menley andjames house organ under the guise of a book review, appeared in adiscussion of iodin compounds in this the author points out thatto obtain systemic iodid effects, it is irrational to apply iodinpreparations externally so far as the free iodin content of theofficial ointment of iodin is concerned, l e warren reports of thea m a chemical laboratory, 1917 has shown that even after morethan six months this ointment still contains about 75 per cent of thefree iodin originally added the official ointment unguentum iodi, u s p , therefore, so far as its free iodin content is concerned, is far superior to iodex, which contains no iodin in its freestate -- from the journal a m a , may 3, 1919 the william f koch cancer remedya number of inquiries have been received of which those that follow aretypical this from a philadelphia physician. “would you give me any information you have about one so-called ‘dr w s koch, ’ detroit, michigan?.

And if the hands be oftenwashed therein, and suffered at every time to dry in of itself withoutwiping, it will in a short time help the palsy, or shaking in them the root boiled in vinegar, helps all knots, kernels, hard swellings, and lumps growing in any writing of the flesh, being thereto applied;as also inflammations, and st anthony fire, all imposthumes, andpainful sores with heat and putrefaction, the shingles also, and allother sorts of running and foul scabs, sores and itch the same alsoboiled in wine, and applied to any joint full of pain, ache, or thegout in the hands or feet, or the hip gout, called the sciatica, andthe decoction thereof drank the while, doth cure them, and eases muchpain in the bowels the roots are likewise effectual to help rupturesor bursting, being used with other things available to that purpose, taken either inwardly or outwardly, or both. As also bruises or hurtsby blows, falls, or the like, and to stay the bleeding of wounds in anywritings inward or outward essay hold that one leaf cures a quotidian, three a tertain, and four aquartan ague, and a hundred to one if it be not dioscorides. For he isfull of whimsies the truth is, i never stood so much upon the numberof the leaves, nor whether i give it in powder or decoction. If jupiterwere strong, and the moon applying to him, or his good aspect at thegathering, i never knew it miss the desired effect cives called also rush leeks, chives, civet, and sweth government and virtues i confess i had not added these, had itnot been for a country gentleman, who by a letter certified me, thatamongst other herbs, i had left these out. They are indeed a kind ofleeks, hot and dry in the fourth degree as they are, and so under thedominion of mars. If they be eaten raw, i do not mean raw, oppositeto roasted or boiled, but raw, opposite to chymical preparation theysend up very hurtful vapours to the brain, causing troubleessay sleep, and spoiling the eye-sight, yet of them prepared by the art of thealchymist, may be made an excellent remedy for the stoppage of theurine clary, or more properly clear-eye descript our ordinary garden clary has four square stalks, withbroad, rough, wrinkled, whitish, or hoary green leaves essaywhat evenlycut in on the edges, and of a strong sweet scent, growing essay near theground, and essay by couples upon stalks the flowers grow at certaindistances, with two small leaves at the joints under them, essaywhatlike unto the flowers of sage, but smaller, and of a whitish bluecolour the seed is brownish, and essaywhat flat, or not so round as thewild the roots are blackish, and spread not far, and perish after theseed time it is usually sown, for it seldom rises of its own sowing place this grows in gardens time it flowers in june and july, essay a little later than others, and their seed is ripe in august, or thereabouts government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon theseed put into the eyes clears them from motes, and such like thingsgotten within the lids to offend them, as also clears them from whiteand red spots on them the mucilage of the seed made with water, andapplied to tumours, or swellings, disperses and takes them away. Asalso draws forth splinters, thorns, or other things gotten into theflesh the leaves used with vinegar, either by itself, or with alittle honey, doth help boils, felons, and the hot inflammation thatare gathered by their pains, if applied before it be grown too great the powder of the dried root put into the nose, provokes sneezing, andthereby purges the head and brain of much rheum and corruption theseed or leaves taken in wine, provokes to venery it is of much useboth for men and women that have weak backs, and helps to strengthenthe reins. Used either by itself, or with other herbs conducing to thesame effect, and in tansies often the fresh leaves dipped in a batterof flour, eggs, and a little milk, and fried in butter, and served tothe table, is not unpleasant to any, but exceedingly profitable forthose that are troubled with weak backs, and the effects thereof thejuice of the herb put into ale or beer, and drank, brings down womencourses, and expels the after-birth wild clary wild clary is most blasphemously called christ eye, because it curesdiseases of the eye i could wish for my soul, blasphemy, ignorance, and tyranny, were ceased among physicians, that they may be happy, andi joyful descript it is like the other clary, but lesser, with thesis stalksabout a foot and a half high the stalks are square, and essaywhathairy. The flowers of a bluish colour. He that knows the common clarycannot be ignorant of this place it grows commonly in this nation in barren places. You mayfind it plentifully, if you look in the fields near gray inn, andnear chelsea time they flower from the beginning of june to the latter end ofaugust government and virtues it is essaything hotter and drier than thegarden clary is, yet nevertheless under the dominion of the moon, aswell as that. The seeds of it being beat to powder, and drank withwine, is an admirable help to provoke lust a decoction of the leavesbeing drank, warms the stomach, and it is a wonder if it should not, the stomach being under cancer, the house of the moon also it helpsdigestion, scatters congealed blood in any writing of the body thedistilled water hereof cleanses the eyes of redness, waterishnessand heat. It is a gallant remedy for dimness of sight, to take oneof the seeds of it, and put into the eyes, and there let it remaintill it drops out of itself, the pain will be nothing to speak on, it will cleanse the eyes of all filthy and putrified matter. And inoften repeating it, will take off a film which covers the sight. Ahandessayr, safer, and easier remedy by a great deal, than to tear itoff with a needle cleavers it is also called aperine, goose-shade, goose-grass, and cleavers descript the common cleavers have divers very rough square stalks, not so big as the top of a point, but rising up to be two or threeyards high essaytimes, if it meet with any tall bushes or trees whereonit may climb, yet without any claspers, or else much lower, and lyingon the ground, full of joints, and at every one of them shoots fortha branch, besides the leaves thereat, which are usually six, set ina round compass like a star, or a rowel of a spur. From between theleaves or the joints towards the tops of the branches, come forth verysmall white flowers, at every end upon small thready foot-stalks, whichafter they have fallen, there do shew two small round and rough seedsjoined together which, when they are ripe, grow hard and whitish, having a little hole on the side, essaything like unto a navel bothstalks, leaves, and seeds are so rough, that they will cleave to anything that will touch them the root is small and thready spreadingmuch to the ground, but die every year place it grows by the hedge and ditch-sides in thesis places of thisland, and is so troubleessay an inhabitant in gardens, that it rampsupon, and is ready to choak what ever grows near it time it flowers in june or july, and the seed is ripe and fallsagain in the end of july or august, from whence it springs up again, and not from the old roots government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon thejuice of the herb and the seed together taken in wine, helps thosebitten with an adder, by preserving the heart from the venom it isfamiliarly taken in broth to keep them lean and lank, that are aptto grow fat the distilled water drank twice a day, helps the yellowjaundice, and the decoction of the herb, in experience, is found to dothe same, and stays lasks and bloody-fluxes the juice of the leaves, or they a little bruised, and applied to any bleeding wounds, stays thebleeding the juice also is very good to close up the lips of greenwounds, and the powder of the dried herb strewed thereupon doth thesame, and likewise helps old ulcers being boiled in hog grease, it helps all sorts of hard swellings or kernels in the throat, beinganointed therewith the juice dropped into the ears, takes away thepain of them it is a good remedy in the spring, eaten being first chopped small, and boiled well in water-gruel, to cleanse the blood, and strengthenthe liver, thereby to keep the body in health, and fitting it for thatchange of season that is coming clown woods descript it grows up essaytimes to two or three feet high, butusually about two feet, with square green rough stalks, but slender, joined essaywhat far asunder, and two very long, essaywhat narrow, darkgreen leaves, bluntly dented about the edges thereof, ending in a longpoint the flowers stand towards the tops, compassing the stalks atthe joints with the leaves, and end likewise in a spiked top, havinglong and much gaping hoods of a purplish red colour, with whitish spotsin them, standing in essaywhat round husks, wherein afterwards standblackish round seeds the root is composed of thesis long strings, withessay tuberous long knobs growing among them, of a pale yellowish orwhitish colour, yet essay times of the year these knobby roots in thesisplaces are not seen in this plant this plant smells essaywhat strong place it grows in sundry counties of this land, both north andwest, and frequently by path-sides in the fields near about london, andwithin three or four miles distant about it, yet it usually grows in ornear ditches time it flowers in june or july, and the seed is ripe soon after government and virtues it is under the dominion of the planetsaturn it is singularly effectual in all fresh and green wounds, andtherefore bears not this name for nought and it is very available instaunching of blood and to dry up the fluxes of humours in old frettingulcers, cankers, &c that hinder the healing of them a syrup made of the juice of it, is inferior to none for inward wounds, ruptures of veins, bloody flux, vessels broken, spitting, urining, or vomiting blood.

R a hatcher, ph g , m d , professor of pharmacology, cornelluniversity medical college, new york city. A w hewlett, m d , professor of medicine, leland stanford junior university medicalschool, san francisco. John howland, m d , professor of pediatrics, johns hopkins university dewritingment of medicine, baltimore. Reidhunt, m d , professor of pharmacology, harvard university medicalschool, boston. Henry kraemer, ph d , professor of pharmacognosy, university of michigan college of pharmacy, ann arbor, mich. W t longcope, a b , m d , bard professor of the practice of medicine, college of physicians and surgeons of columbia university, new yorkcity. G w mccoy, m d , director of the hygienic laboratory, unitedstates public health service, washington, d c. Lafayette b mendel, ph d , sc d , professor of physiologic chemistry, sheffield scientificschool, yale university, new haven, conn. F g novy, m d , sc d , professor of bacteriology, university of michigan, ann arbor, mich ;w w palmer, b s , m d , associate professor of medicine, college ofphysicians and surgeons of columbia university, new york city.

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In the other side there are no suspended writingicles whenmelted, the solution is not clear, and a sediment forms the meltingpoint u s p method. See later is 48 4 c the plasticity andductility168 are 27 and 30 5, respectively it is pliable and strongat body temperature the saponification number and acid number are bothvery low, but a fatty oil is present tests indicated oil of sesame ninety-eight per cent of “ambrine” is soluble in ether. This solubleportion may be treated with low-boiling ligroin petroleum ether, outof which, on standing, a black asphalt-like substance separates of theether-insoluble substance, 65 per cent is soluble in chloroform theremaining insoluble substance contains a small amount of silica andvegetable fiber the paraffin obtained from “ambrine” melted at 48 6 c as a result of various experiments, it appears that the composition of“ambrine” is essentially as follows. Paraffin m p 48 6 c 97 0 per cent fatty oil sesame?. 1 5 per cent asphalt-like body 0 5 per cent coloring matter, and undetermined 1 0 per cent -- -- - 100 0168 these determinations will be described later other proprietary filmsa cursory examination of “mulene, ” manufactured by the mulene company, pittsburgh, was also made this appears to contain paraffin, beeswax, afat-soluble red dye and considerable rosin when heated carefully in abeaker, the rosin “sticks” to the bottom, and does not go into solutionreadily 169169 when the sample was first obtained, this feature was not observed “paresine, ”170 according to the manufactures, is a mixture composedof paraffin, 94 to 96 per cent. Gum elemi, 0 20 to 0 25 per cent ;japan wax, 0 40 to 0 50 per cent. Asphalt, 0 20 to 0 25 per cent , and eucalyptol, 2 per cent , the whole being colored with alkannin andgentian violet 171170 made by the abbott laboratories, chicago, and accepted by thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry for new and nonofficial remedies, thejournal, may 12, 1917, p 1406 171 no chemical examination was made formula for paraffin filmin a recent article, sollmann172 presented various suggestions forthe compounding of paraffin films essay of the formulas were promisingand others were not, but all were simple he did not try to imitate“ambrine ” lieut -col a j hull173 of the royal army medical corps, after experimenting with different combinations, concluded that amixture of “1 writing resorcin, 2 writings eucalyptus oil, 5 writings olive oil, 25 writings soft paraffin petrolatum174 and 67 writings hard paraffin”served the purpose as well as “ambrine ” the following formula, whichmight be called asphalt-paraffin no 21, much more closely resembles“ambrine, ” and it seems to have certain advantages, due to the use of amore suitable grade of paraffin. Paraffin175 m p by u s p method 47 2 c 97 5 gm asphalt from 3 to 5 drops olive oil 1 5 c c 172 sollmann, torald. Suggested formulas for paraffin films, thejournal a m a , april 7, 1917, p 1037 173 hull, a j. The treatment of burns by paraffin, brit med jour , jan 13, 1917, p 37.