History

Harvard Essay Prompt 2016


“myricyl palmitate is a purified form of beeswax, free from all harvard essay prompt 2016 impurities, acids, etc , which is solely manufactured by this company ”it was also stated that on “special order” cerelene has been madecontaining oil of eucalyptus and resorcin, oil of eucalyptus and picricacid, and picric acid alone the following report on the preparationwas presented to the council by the referee to whom cerelene had beenassigned. Cerelene is another compound wax for the treatment of burns according to the work of sollmann j a m a , 68:1799, 1917 it is highly improbable that compound mixtures have any advantage over simple paraffin of low melting point cerelene must therefore be considered as an unessential modification of paraffin, and as in conflict with rule 10. Unless definite evidence of superiority is submitted cerelene mixtures containing medicinal ingredients also appear unscientific since the evidence that the ingredients do not leave the wax has not been successfully contradicted finally, the claims made for cerelene are rather extreme, and would need essay revision before they could be accepted the a m a chemical laboratory reports. The physical properties of cerelene are as follows. melting point 50 0 c by u s p method ductility limit 30 5 c plasticity limit 26 4 c not strong at 38 c adheres moderately well. Detaches with “pulling ” on heating, readily loses eucalyptol, and a small amount of resinous substance forms in the bottom of the beaker if cerelene is heated to 145 c and cooled, the resulting product no longer has the properties of the original cerelene it is recommended that the preceding report be sent to the hollidaylaboratories, and that unless its superiority over simple paraffins isdemonstrated and the unwarranted claims abandoned, cerelene be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rules 6and 10 this report was submitted to the holliday laboratories with theinformation that it had been adopted, oct 3, 1917 it was alsoexplained that before cerelene could be accepted, the unofficialand unstandardized constituent “myricyl palmitate” would have to beconsidered and accepted for new and nonofficial remedies since, forobvious reasons, the council does not accept a preparation whichcontains an unofficial and unstandardized substance not in n n r the holliday laboratories acknowledged receipt of the council reportand asked that the matter be held in abeyance until the requestedevidence had been obtained later the council was advised that theadvertising circulars for cerelene had been withdrawn with theexception of one giving directions for its use five months later, thefirm stated that experiments were being made “to determine the actualstrength of cerelene in comparison with other paraffin waxes ”nothing further has been heard from the holliday laboratories and noreply has been received to an inquiry made oct 12, 1918 the counciltherefore authorizes publication of its report declaring cereleneinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies -- from the journala m a , feb 15, 1919 collosol cocaine not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe report which appears below was adopted by the council and sent tothe anglo-french drug co , ltd , new york, for comment in december, 1918 no explanation has been received from the manufacturer forthe information of the profession the council has now authorizedpublication of the report w a puckner, secretary “collosol cocaine” was submitted to the council in october, 1918, bythe anglo-french drug co , ltd , new york, under the claim that it wasan “absolute colloid” and that it contained “1 per cent cocain ” thelabel on the submitted specimen declares. “collosol cocaine 1-100” “ the cocaine exists as the pure alkaloid in the colloidal state-- the condition in which it is isomorphic with the protein of the body fluids the effect is more prolonged than that of a molecular cocaine solution and being non-toxic absorption presents no practical danger ”the product was assigned to the committee on pharmacology forconsideration the following report was submitted and its adoption bythe council recommended by the committee. “collosol cocaine” is said to be a colloidal form of cocain and is alleged to possess a remarkably low toxicity the subjoined report of the a m a chemical laboratory, however, shows that the preparation does not have the composition claimed for it and it is, in effect, misbranded in fact, the english manufacturers concede that it is not an “absolute colloid” and that the declaration with regard to the percentage of cocain is incorrect it is recommended that, without considering other conflicts with the rules of the council at this time, “collosol cocaine” be declared inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule 1 which requires that the composition of an article must be correctly declared the report of the a m a chemical laboratory is appended report of the a m a chemical laboratorysimpson, hewlett and eyre lancet, april 28, 1917, p 660 reported“collosol cocaine” to be much less toxic than cocain these writers, however, did not verify the statements as to the composition and inthe light of subsequent chemical examination it is not to be wonderedat that “collosol cocaine 1 0 per cent ” was much less toxic than asolution containing 1 0 per cent of cocain hydrochlorid barger, dale and durham report from the dewritingment of biochemistryand pharmacology, medical research committee lancet, dec 1, 1917, p 825, that they examined “collosol cocaine” and found it to containbut 0 25 per cent of cocain they also found that the cocain was notpresent in a colloidal form discussing the low toxicity claimed by themanufacturers, these investigators state. “in the samples which we examined the toxicity was, indeed, much lower than that of an ordinary 1 per cent solution of a cocain salt. But the local anesthetic action was low to a corresponding degree, and both actions corresponded satisfactorily with the proportion of cocain chemically recoverable from the solution ”stroud, of the crookes laboratory which manufactures the preparation, who apparently had been informed of this work in advance ofpublication, admits the correctness of it, and states british medicaljournal, nov 24, 1918, p 710 that “whilst the colloidal protectiveapparently absorbs a portion of the cocain, the remainder is found notto exhibit the attributes of a colloid, ”the specimen of “collosol cocaine” submitted to the council and labeled“collosol cocaine 1-100” was found to contain at most 0 4 per cent cocain the examination was made in accordance with the method used bybarger, dale and durham and calculated as cocain this method, however, probably would not distinguish between cocain and basic decompositionproducts, but would include all as cocain in the amount found thespecimen of “collosol cocaine” examined was neutral or slightly acid, afact which tends to confirm the conclusion of the british investigatorsthat “collosol cocaine” contains cocain in noncolloidal form andprecludes an increased physiologic effect due to alkalinity the council adopted both the report submitted by the committee and thatof the a m a laboratory and declared “collosol cocaine” inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , april12, 1919 cuprase not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report oncuprase, sold by the anglo-french drug co , ltd the councilcriticisms of the advertising claims were sent to the firm, december, 1918 the firm made no reply and essentially the same claims arecontained in recent advertisements w a puckner, secretary “cuprase” is now being advertised and sold in the united states by theanglo-french drug co , ltd , the firm which also markets it in england it is said to be “prepared in the laboratories of f ducatte, 8 placede la medeleine, paris ” according to an advertising circular entitled“the medical treatment of cancer” “cuprase” is “chemical colloidalcopper”.

F g novy, m d , harvard essay prompt 2016 sc d , professor of bacteriology, university of michigan, ann arbor, mich ;w w palmer, b s , m d , associate professor of medicine, college ofphysicians and surgeons of columbia university, new york city. L g rowntree, m d , professor of medicine, university of minnesota medicalschool, minneapolis. Torald sollmann, m d , professor of pharmacologyand materia medica, medical dewritingment, western reserve university, cleveland. Julius stieglitz, ph d , sc d , chem d , vice chairman ofthe council, professor of chemistry, university of chicago, chicago;g h simmons, m d , ll d , chairman of the council, editor of thejournal of the american medical association, chicago, and w a puckner, phar d , secretary of the council, director of the chemicallaboratory of the american medical association, chicago the council activitiesorganized primarily for the purpose of putting a stop to falsedeclarations with regard to the composition of proprietary medicines, the council activities have broadened until its work may becharacterized as “a propaganda for the rational use of drugs ” thefollowing are essay of its activities:1 new and nonofficial remedies -- this is an annual volume, issuedby the council it describes both proprietary and nonofficial, nonproprietary drugs which are deemed worthy of consideration by themedical profession to be admitted to this book, a preparation mustcomply with certain definite rules which stipulate, in effect, that itscomposition be declared, that no untrue or grossly exaggerated claimsbe made for it, and that it shall give promise of having therapeuticvalue with the exception of a few which are still under consideration, thecouncil has considered all proprietaries whose owners or accreditedagents have requested that an examination of the products be made, and it has admitted to the book those which were found eligible inaddition, the council has examined all of the more important or widelyexploited proprietaries, even when no examination was requested, and it has admitted those of this group which were found eligible further, the council has admitted to the book certain nonofficial, nonproprietary articles which seemed to give promise of therapeuticusefulness, and it has established standards for the control of theiridentity and purity, and listed those brands which complied with thesestandards as most proprietary medicines are of a more or less experimentalnature, they are accepted for inclusion in new and nonofficial remediesonly for a limited time-- usually a period of three years at theexpiration of the period of acceptance, each preparation is reexaminedand retained only if the claims made for it and the present dayknowledge of its value permit this action since manufacturers give information only in regard to their ownproducts, new and nonofficial remedies groups together articles of asimilar character, and includes in each case a general discussion ofthe group for the purpose of comparison, not only with each other, butalso with the established or pharmacopeial drugs which members of thegroup are intended to supplant in brief, new and nonofficial remedies is a book in which are describedpreparations that have been accepted by the council the descriptionincludes facts that the physician should have it is a book that shouldbe in the hands of every physician who prescribes medicines, and whowishes to know the facts regarding the newest remedies it is the onlybook in which he can find information relative to proprietary medicinesthat are worthy of his patronage it will protect the physician whomakes use of it against the wiles of the promoters of products notworthy of his patronage it would certainly be of use to the physicianwhen the detail man calls on him, for if he were being importuned toprescribe or use samples of essaything which he had not heretofore usedand which he was unable to find in n n r , he might ask the detailman why in the nature of things few physicians are sufficiently expertin chemistry and allied sciences to be able unerringly to discriminatebetween the true and the false as regards thesis preparations that he isasked to prescribe 2 the reports of the council on pharmacy and chemistry -- amedicament may be inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies forvarious reasons. It may be worthless or irrational, its compositionmay be secret or indefinite, or it may be exploited under exaggeratedor unwarranted claims or in a way otherwise detrimental to the publichealth and scientific medicine of these various reasons which makean article unacceptable, the manufacturer obviously may remove allexcept the first, viz , worthlessness or irrationality consequently, a preparation which has been presented for admission is not definitelyrejected until after its proprietor has been informed of the objectionsto his product and has failed to bring the preparation in conformitywith the council rules when a preparation is found definitelyinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, that is, when theproprietor cannot or will not make it acceptable, the council preparesa report for publication these reports are sent for publication to thejournal of the american medical association, and later published in theannual “reports of the council on pharmacy and chemistry ” the moreimportant of these are also published in the book, “the propaganda forreform in proprietary medicines ”3 useful drugs -- since the domination of proprietary medicines, which was retarding medical advance and threatening therapeutic chaos, had been made possible only by the insufficient and inefficientinstruction given in medical schools in subjects having to do withdrugs, the council appointed a committee on medical teaching to securethe cooperation of teachers in materia medica, pharmacology and relatedbranches this committee has endeavored to effect an improvement inthese courses of instruction one of the results of this work was theselection of a list of drugs to serve as a basis of materia medicainstruction and thus insure that medical students shall be betterinformed with regard to the therapeutic worth of a few well establisheddrugs, rather than, as in the past, leaving school with a smatteringof knowledge about thesis drugs the outcome of these efforts is thepublication of “useful drugs, ” a concise but thorough and up-to-datediscussion of the actions, uses and dosage of the more importantdrugs the list of drugs presented in this book is now the basis ofinstruction in thesis schools. And thesis state examining boards areconfining their materia medica questions to the drugs in the list 4 epitome of the u s p and n f -- to encourage the use ofofficial drugs and to make available an estimate of their therapeuticvalue, a committee of the council prepared an abstract of the u s pharmacopeia and the national formulary this booklet, the “epitome ofthe u s pharmacopeia and national formulary, ” presents those portionsof these books which are of interest to physicians, and in addition, gives a concise statement of the therapeutic usefulness of the drugsand preparations described in them 5 patent law reform -- essay of the worst abuses connected with theexploitation of proprietary medicines have been made possible by ourpatent and trademark laws and the method of their interpretation andenforcement the council, therefore, appointed a committee to studythese laws and the various propositions advanced for their improvement this committee has published, from time to time, reports on variousphases of our patent and trademark laws and recently summarized thesereports in an address5 sent to the commissioner of patents and theinterested congressional committees it is hoped that by means of thesereports physicians will be enabled to give intelligent support to arevision of the patent and trademark laws when legislation is proposed 5 need for patent law revision, a m a council on pharmacy andchemistry reports, 1917, p 130 6 therapeutic research -- through its committee on therapeuticresearch, and with the aid of funds provided by the board of trusteesof the american medical association, the council has encouraged theinvestigations of questions which might lead to a better understandingof the action of drugs these investigations are brought together inthe annual reports of the committee on therapeutic research, and are animportant addition to our knowledge of drug action in the past, the council has in writingicular encouraged the investigationof the action and therapeutic value of widely used drugs regardingwhich our knowledge is still unsatisfactory these investigationshave included a study of the action of strychnin in cardiac disease, a comparison of the action of absorption and excretion of iodidpreparations, a study of the pharmacology of the opium alkaloids, etc appreciating that the available knowledge of proprietary drugsis one sided in that it comes from investigations made by interestedpharmaceutical concerns or from investigations made at the instigationof these firms, the council is planning a comprehensive study of thesisof the synthetic drugs that have gained essay vogue during recent years the futuremedical research, and efficient instruction in therapeutics and relatedsubjects, spell a diminishing influence of commercial medicine overrational therapeutics the fact that the present shortage of germansynthetics has not handicapped seriously the practice of medicineshould be a lesson to american physicians for thesis years to come on the other hand, it must be remembered that the publicity given tothe reports of the council and to other contributions toward rationaltherapeutics by the journal of the american medical association, the journals of the state organizations, and a few personally ownedpublications, is as nothing when compared with the persistent and widepublicity given to the propaganda of the proprietary houses while areport setting forth the objections to a proprietary is published butonce, the firm laudatory pronouncement goes forth again and againuntil the council report is completely overwhelmed and forgotten manufacturers of proprietaries not only keep in close touch with thepracticing physician by means of house organs, special “literature, ”or by traveling representatives, but thesis of the firms, through themeritorious lines of pills, tablets, tinctures, etc , which they putout, also obtain and hold the good will and confidence of a largeproportion of the medical profession furthermore, essay of these firms may gain the confidence of the medicalprofession through these high grade pharmaceuticals, and certain oftheir proprietaries may be of distinct therapeutic value but may failto be acceptable for new and nonofficial remedies, because they do notconform to the reasonable rules of the council these firms do notfind it profitable to force the sale of their regular nonproprietarypharmaceuticals by unwarranted claims or objectionable methods, yetthey may consider it good business to market certain proprietaryproducts by means of claims which are extravagant and without warrant, and which will lead to indiscriminate use by the profession and thepublic in a word, where there is one dollar spent on behalf ofrational medicine, thousands are spent for the purpose of increasingthe sale of preparations which directly or indirectly are a detrimentto the public health, to medicine, and to the pocketbook that the day of the secret nostrum of the pseudo-chemical company isnot yet past is well illustrated by the recent introduction of anasserted arsphenamin preparation called “syphilodol ” the a m a chemical laboratory proved one form of this asserted french discoveryto be essentially a pill of mercurous iodid another form of syphilodol for intravenous administration had all the characteristics of water, and appeared devoid of any potent ingredient though the advertisingsent out by the promoters in regard to its composition was suspiciouslyevasive, the illinois medical journal published an advertisementof “syphilodol, ” which, possibly by a coincidence, appeared above anappeal to “our readers” to use wares advertised in that journal while such rank deceptions as “syphilodol” are not common, there aremore subtle deceptions that are even more dangerous types of widelyexploited remedies of today comprise so-called ethical specialtiescomposed of well known and established drugs with “jokers” hiddenaway essaywhere or preparations which have a plausibly fascinatingpseudo-scientific background of radiant energy, colloidal chemistry, nonspecific protein reaction, or essaything of the sort the latterclass of preparations in writingicular appeal to physicians who arestriving hard to keep pace with modern science exposure of theirfallacies requires most careful consideration on the writing of thecouncil progress toward a rational and scientific drug therapy must continue, and, therefore, it is important that the council on pharmacy andchemistry should continue to make the investigation of proprietarymedicines its chief work investigation of a proprietary medicine, however, and a report of such investigation are of value in directratio only to the number of physicians who read the report, endorseit and act in accordance with its conclusions in order that you maydetermine to what extent those preparations which are admitted to newand nonofficial remedies deserve your interest and confidence, it willbe worth while briefly to outline the rules which govern the council inthe admission of articles to new and nonofficial remedies rules governing the acceptance of articles for n n r composition -- rules 1 and 2, and in a measure 5, 7, and 9, deal withthe composition of articles rule 1 requires that the quantitativecomposition of an article be furnished the council for publication rule 2 requires that the manufacturer furnish methods whereby thecomposition of products that are definite chemicals or the potentconstituents of mixtures may be determined the council does notrequire that the process of manufacture of an article be declaredunless this becomes necessary in order to judge its composition rule5 requires that statements with regard to the origin and source of anarticle shall be truthful rule 7 requires that for the guidance of thedispenser, the amounts of poisonous ingredients of a preparation beplaced on the label rule 9 requires that if patent rights are claimedfor a product, the council be informed on this point that it is not only the right but also the duty of the physician toknow the composition of what he prescribes for his patients is sogenerally admitted that few have attempted to market preparations ofavowedly secret composition when the council first began its work, it was common to see chemical formulas or statements of compositionpublished which a chemist or a pharmacist was able to pronounceat a glance as impossible 6 it was not unusual to find that thepromoter published “a formula” for his preparation, rather than “theformula ”7 today, however, a more prudent, if not more honest, courseis pursued this gives a “formula” which is correct so far as it goes, but which fails to divulge the actual composition of a preparation when it is considered that thesis physicians are not any too conversantwith the chemistry and pharmacy of drugs, it is not surprising thatessay administered the proprietary “venarsen, ” regarding the compositionof which they had only the vague statement that it was “ acomparatively nontoxic organic arsenic compound, 0 6 gm representing247 mg 3-3/4 grains of metallic arsenic in chemical combination ” in the belief that a preparation similar to that first introducedas salvarsan was being used that “venarsen” contained its arsenic assodium cacodylate-- a notoriously inactive state of combination-- doesnot justify the intravenous administration of a drug of unknowncomposition 6 puckner, w a. The abuse of chemical formulas, reports a m a chemical laboratory 3:7, 1910 7 the formula for glyco-thymoline, j a m a 52:147 jan 9 1909 while for the present it probably is not feasible to require, on thewriting of those who manufacture medicinal preparations, such professionaltraining as is required of those who prescribe and those who dispensethem, it certainly is not too much to require, as does rule 2, that amanufacturer shall be able to demonstrate that his preparation has thecomposition claimed for it nor is it sufficient for him to know thatthe ingredients claimed as constituents were used in the manufacture the fallacy of his method of reasoning was furnished by the physicianwho reported that he had personally added the required amount ofmercuric iodid for a batch of “mercol” which, nevertheless, was devoidof mercury 8 acceptance of this rule by manufacturers will permitphysicians to have a more accurate knowledge of the composition ofpreparations such as “taka-diastase”9 and “iodeol” 108 hunt, reid, and seidell, atherton. Howell mercol, j a m a 52:225 jan 16 1909 howell mercol again. Another analysis failsto reveal the presence of mercury, j a m a 52:1595 may 15 1909 9 taka-diastase and liquid taka-diastase. Report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry, j a m a 59:50 july 6 1912 10 iodeol and iodagol. Report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry, j a m a 69:1725 nov 17 1917 a requirement similar to that of rule 5 is contained in the federalfood and drugs act and so no objection has been made to this rule whichrequires a truthful statement of the origin and source of articles anillustration for the need of the rule was furnished by the one timepopular “vin mariani”11 which, though very french in its makeup, was found to be largely of the “made in the united states” variety oftipple 11 vin mariani. Official report of council on pharmacy andchemistry-- with comments, j a m a 47:1751 nov 24 1906 the issuance of a patent for a medicinal product does not prove thatsuch a product presents a discovery or that its owner is entitled toa temporary monopoly, yet it is only fair to physicians and to othermanufacturers that notice of such patent claims be given hence, thecouncil publishes in new and nonofficial remedies the informationbearing on this point lay advertising -- rules 3 and 4 provide against the recognition ofarticles that are advertised to the public directly or indirectly, exempting from this requirement preparations which the council believesare safe to be so advertised it has been held with essay justice that certain shotgun proprietariesare purchased by the public with as much circumspection as they areordered by those physicians who are addicted to the prescribing ofthem. But even the exploiters of these mixtures have not denied thatthe use of medicines by the public on its own initiative is surroundedwith thesis objections hence the practice of self medication should notbe encouraged by prescribing or using those preparations advertised forpublic use the only objection to the rule has come from a firm which markets abrand of liquid petrolatum, the standard oil company of indiana thecouncil has considered the question of exempting simple laxatives fromthe restrictions of rules 3 and 4 as it has exempted antiseptics andnonmedicinal foods the conclusion was, however, that the excessiveuse of a simple laxative like a liquid petrolatum, when prompted bynewspaper exploitation, is likely to be detrimental to health byoveruse as well as by misuse the indirect advertisement to the public, which rule 4 providesagainst, has been the means of inducing the extensive lay use of“antikamnia, ” “bromidia” and “fellows’ syrup ” naturally rule 4 hasbeen bitterly opposed by most proprietary firms arguing that thesisphysicians dispense their own drugs, pharmaceutical firms have insistedthat every medicinal preparation should bear on its label, not onlythe dose of the preparation, but also a statement of the diseases inwhich the article is indicated whether manufacturers anticipated theprofession resentment toward the claim that physicians determinethe treatment and perhaps the diagnosis by means of the statements onlabels, or because the shirley amendment to the food and drugs actmakes the proprietor responsible for therapeutic claims on the labelof a medicine, it is a fact that fewer preparations than formerly needto be refused on account of infringement on this rule in fact, essaythoroughly objectionable proprietaries make a show of being “ethical”by omitting all therapeutic discussion from the labels of theirpreparations therapeutic claims -- rule 6 makes ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies any articles regarding which the manufacturer or hisagents make unwarranted, exaggerated or misleading statements as tothe therapeutic value recognizing the long established custom oftherapeutic exaggeration, it has been most difficult to determinethe degree of conservatism which might with fairness be requiredof a manufacturer in view of the common acceptance of individualimpressions as dependable evidence, it is often almost embarrassingto declare as incompetent the statement of essay well meaning andall-too-kind-hearted doctor however, as the pitfalls of haphazardclinical trials become better known and the physician mistrust ofglowing accounts of marvelous cures more outspoken, the manufacturers’claims will be more moderate nomenclature -- were it possible to enact and enforce a law whichwould oblige manufacturers to sell their medicinal products underproperly descriptive names and which would make it illegal for aphysician to prescribe it unless he understood the meaning of suchproperly descriptive titles, then the council might safely disband inthat case, physicians would discontinue the use of most proprietarypreparations in favor of established drugs, and successful newcomersmight each year be counted on the fingers of one hand such a rationalnomenclature is not to be thought of, at least in our generation rule 8 requires that the name of an article shall not be misleading, that it shall not be therapeutically suggestive, and that establisheddrugs shall not be disguised by fanciful titles it recognizes theright of discoverers of new drugs to name their discoveries, andinterposes no objection to arbitrary names for such products so longas such names are not misleading or do not suggest the therapeuticuses of the products as the rule provides against the recognition ofcoined names for established nonproprietary drugs, so it requires thatmixtures of drugs shall bear names descriptive of their composition it would be a long step forward if physicians would recognize morefully the objections to the thesis proprietaries which have, as theironly point of originality, a non-descriptive name for an old drug ora mixture of well known drugs it is an encouraging sign that thefederal trade commission, when issuing licenses for the manufacture ofsynthetic drugs introduced under german patents, stipulated that allmanufacturers authorized to make a given drug shall use the same namefor it irrational articles -- rule 10 provides against the recognition ofan article which, because of its composition, is useless or inimicalto the best interests of the public and medical profession thisrule excludes medicaments which 1 are unessential modifications ofestablished articles, or 2 are of no therapeutic value or 3 areirrational with regard to the recognition of mixtures or compoundscontaining two or more active ingredients, the council requires thatthe manufacturer establish the rationality of its combination the rulehas prevented the recognition of thesis unnecessary so-called ethicalspecialties though a mass of testimonials was often to be had forthem, these contained no evidence that the mixture was superior to itspotent ingredient, or that its therapeutic effect had been determined that there is a healthy tendency to use single drugs for their definiteaction and to discard combinations be they shotgun proprietaries or“mixed” vaccines is perhaps best illustrated by the fact that atthe last revision of the u s pharmacopeia a considerable number ofcomplex antiquities were omitted from that book feeling confident that this meets with the endorsement of theprofession, the council is examining more critically the evidence forthe value of pharmaceutical mixtures -- from the journal a m a , may10, 1919 “accepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistry”under the caption given above, the journal of the missouri statemedical association, in its july issue, speaks editorially as follows:the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation is a dewritingment of our national organization that hasnot received the plaudits and encomiums of a wildly joyous medicalprofession nor the grateful praises of the enthusiastic manufacturerof pharmaceuticals the council seems indeed to be the unloved childof the entire family of subsidiary bodies of the association perhapsthe reason for this may be found in the character of its duties, forthe council must expose fraud, essaytimes in high places, and protectthe physician from being duped by avaricious persons and by personswho are themselves essaytimes the victims of their own credulity itthus happens that the sale of essay proprietary article previously heldin high esteem by the practitioner proves valueless, perhaps evenfraudulent the practitioner, however, may have credited much of hissuccess in treating certain conditions to that preparation and themaker has had success in accumulating dollars from its sale and bothwritingies emit a loud and vicious roar against the council, becausethey both lose money nobody wants to be “protected” against makingmoney-- make it honestly, if possible, but make it-- but this black sheepamong the councils of the american medical association insists on theirmaking their money honestly!.

i shall add, red roses are under jupiter, damask under venus, white under the moon, and provence under the kingof france the white and red roses are cooling and drying, and yet thewhite is taken to exceed the red in both the properties, but is seldomused inwardly in any medicine. The bitterness in the roses when theyare fresh, especially the juice, purges choler, and watery humours. Butbeing dried, and that heat which caused the bitterness being consumed, they have then a binding and astringent quality. Those also that arenot full blown, do both cool and bind more than those that are fullblown, and the white rose more than the red the decoction of redroses made with wine and used, is very good for the head-ache, andpains in the eyes, ears, throat, and gums. As also for the fundament, the lower writing of the belly and the matrix, being bathed or put intothem the same decoction with the roses remaining in it, is profitablyapplied to the region of the heart to ease the inflammation therein;as also st anthony fire, and other diseases of the stomach beingdried and beaten to powder, and taken in steeled wine or water, ithelps to stay women courses the yellow threads in the middle ofthe roses which are erroneously called the rose seed being powderedand drank in the distilled water of quinces, stays the overflowing ofwomen courses, and doth wonderfully stay the defluctions of rheumupon the gums and teeth, preserving them from corruption, and fasteningthem if they be loose, being washed and gargled therewith, and essayvinegar of squills added thereto the heads with the seed being usedin powder, or in a decoction, stays the lask and spitting of blood red roses do strengthen the heart, the stomach and the liver, and theretentive faculty. They mitigate the pains that arise from heat, assuage inflammations, procure rest and sleep, stay both whites andreds in women, the gonorrhea, or running of the reins, and fluxes ofthe belly. The juice of them doth purge and cleanse the body fromcholer and phlegm the husks of the roses, with the beards and nailsof the roses, are binding and cooling, and the distilled water ofeither of them is good for the heat and redness in the eyes, and tostay and dry up the rheums and watering of them of the red roses areusually made thesis compositions, all serving to sundry good uses, viz electuary of roses, conserve, both moist and dry, which is more usuallycalled sugar of roses, syrup of dry roses, and honey of roses thecordial powder called diarrhoden abbatis, and aromatica rosarum the distilled water of roses, vinegar of roses, ointment, and oil ofroses, and the rose leaves dried, are of great use and effect towrite at large of every one of these, would make my book smell toobig, it being sufficient for a volume of itself, to speak fully ofthem but briefly, the electuary is purging, whereof two or three dramstaken by itself in essay convenient liquor, is a purge sufficient fora weak constitution, but may be increased to six drams, according tothe strength of the patient it purges choler without trouble, it isgood in hot fevers, and pains of the head arising from hot cholerichumours, and heat in the eyes, the jaundice also, and joint-achesproceeding of hot humours the moist conserve is of much use, bothbinding and cordial. For until it be about two years old, it is morebinding than cordial, and after that, more cordial than binding essayof the younger conserve taken with mithridate mixed together, is goodfor those that are troubled with distillations of rheum from the brainto the nose, and defluctions of rheum into the eyes. As also forfluxes and lasks of the belly. And being mixed with the powder ofmastich, is very good for the gonorrhea, and for the looseness of thehumours in the body the old conserve mixed with aromaticum rosarum, is a very good cordial against faintings, swoonings, weakness, andtremblings of the heart, strengthens, both it and a weak stomach, helps digestion, stays casting, and is a very good preservative inthe time of infection the dry conserve, which is called the sugar ofroses, is a very good cordial to strengthen the heart and spirits.

Provoke urine, and help thestranguary the flowers of mallows being bruised and boiled in honey two ouncesof the flowers is sufficient for a pound of honey. And having firstclarified the honey before you put them in then strained out. Thishoney taken with a liquorice stick, is an excellent remedy for coughs, asthmas, and consumptions of the lungs fruits college winter-cherries, love apples, almonds sweet and bitter, anacardia, oranges, hazel nuts, the oily nut ben, barberries, capers, guinny pepper, figs, carpobalsamum, cloves, cassia fistula, chestnuts, cherries black and red, cicers, white, black and red, pome citrons, coculus indi, colocynthis, currants, cornels or cornelian cherries, cubebs, cucumbers garden and wild, gourds, cynosbatus, cypress, cones, quinces, dates, dwarf-elder, green figs, strawberries, common andturkey galls, acorns, acorn cups, pomegranates, gooseberries, ivy, herb true-love, walnuts, jujubes, juniper berries, bayberries, lemons, oranges, citrons, quinces, pomegranates, lemons, mandrakes, peaches, stramonium, apples, garden and wild, or crabs and apples, musk melons, medlars, mulberries, myrobalans, bellericks, chebs, emblicks, citronand indian, mirtle, berries, water nuts, hazel nuts, chestnuts, cypressnuts, walnuts, nutmegs, fistick nuts, vomiting nuts, olives pickled inbrine, heads of white and black poppies, pompions, peaches, french orkidney beans, pine, cones, white, black, and long pepper, fistick nuts, apples and crabs, prunes, french and damask, sloes, pears, englishcurrants, berries of purging thorn, black berries, raspberries, elderberries, sebastens, services, or checkers, hawthorn berries, pine nuts, water nuts, grapes, gooseberries, raisins, currants culpeper that you may reap benefit by these, be pleased toconsider, that they are essay of themtemperate in respect of heat raisins of the sun, currants, figs, pine nuts, dates, sebastens hot in the first degree sweet almonds, jujubes, cypress nuts, greenhazel nuts, green walnuts hot in the second degree the nut ben, capers, nutmegs, dry walnuts, dry hazel nuts, fistick nuts in the third degree juniper berries, cloves, carpobalsamum, cubebs, anacardium, bitter almonds in the fourth degree pepper, white, black and long, guinny pepper cold in the first degree the flesh of citrons, quinces, pears, prunes, &c in the second gourds, cucumbers, melons, pompions, oranges, lemons, citrons, pomegranates, viz the juice of them, peaches, prunes, galls, apples in the third mandrakes in the fourth stramonium moist in the first degree the flesh of citrons, lemons, oranges, viz the inner rhind which is white, the outer rhind is hot in the second gourds, melons, peaches, prunes, &c dry in the first degree juniper berries in the second the nut ben, capers, pears, fistick nuts, pine nuts, quinces, nutmegs, bay berries in the third cloves, galls, &c in the fourth all sorts of pepper as appropriated to the body of man, so they heat the head. Asanacardia, cubebs, nutmegs the breast bitter almonds, dates, cubebs, hazel nuts, pine nuts, figs, raisins of the sun, jujubes the heart walnuts, nutmegs, juniper berries the stomach sweet almonds, cloves, ben, juniper berries, nutmegs, pine nuts, olives the spleen capers the reins and bladder bitter almonds, juniper berries, cubebs, pinenuts, raisins of the sun the womb walnuts, nutmegs, bayberries, juniper berries cool the breast sebastens, prunes, oranges, lemons the heart oranges, lemons, citrons, pomegranates, quinces, pears the stomach quinces, citruls, cucumbers, gourds, musk melons, pompions, cherries, gooseberries, cornelian cherries, lemons, apples, medlars, oranges, pears, english currants, cervices or checkers the liver those that cool the stomach and barberries the reins and womb those that cool the stomach, and strawberries by their several operations, essaybind as the berries of mirtles, barberries, chestnuts, cornels, or cornelian cherries, quinces, galls, acorns, acorn-cups, medlars, checkers or cervices, pomegranates, nutmegs, olives, pears, peaches discuss capers, all the sorts of pepper extenuate sweet and bitter almonds, bayberries, juniper berries glutinate acorns, acorn cups, dates, raisins of the sun, currants expel wind bay berries, juniper berries, nutmegs, all the sorts ofpepper breed seed raisins of the sun, sweet almonds, pine nuts, figs, &c provoke urine winter cherries provoke the terms ivy berries, capers, &c stop the terms barberries, &c resist poison bay berries, juniper berries, walnuts, citrons, commonly called pome citrons, all the sorts of pepper ease pain bay berries, juniper berries, ivy berries, figs, walnuts, raisins, currants, all the sorts of pepper fruits purging choler cassia fistula, citron myrobalans, prunes, tamarinds, raisins melancholy indian myrobalans flegm colocynthis and wild cucumbers purge violently, and thereforenot rashly to be meddled withal. I desire my book should be beneficial, not hurtful to the vulgar, but myrobalans of all sorts, especiallychebs, bellericks and emblicks, purge flegm very gently, and withoutdanger of all these give me leave to commend only one to you as of specialconcernment which is juniper berries seeds college sorrel, agnus castus, marsh-mallows, bishop weed trueand common, amomus, dill, angellica, annis, rose-seed, smallage, columbines, sparagus, arach, oats, oranges, burdocks, bazil, barberries, cotton, bruscus or knee-holly, hemp, cardamoms greater andlesser, carduus benedictus, our lady thistles, bastard, saffron, caraway, spurge greater and lesser, coleworts, onions, the kernels ofcherry stones, chervil, succory, hemlock, citrons, citruls, gardenscurvy-grass, colocynthis, coriander, samphire, cucumbers gardenand wild, gourds, quinces, cummin, cynosbatus, date-stones, carrotsenglish, and cretish, dwarf-elder, endive, rocket, hedge mustard, orobus, beans, fennel, fenugreek, ash-tree keys, fumitory, brooms, grains of paradise, pomegranates, wild rue, alexanders, barley, whitehenbane, st john wort, hyssop, lettice, sharp-pointed-dock, spurge, laurel, lentils, lovage, lemons, ash-tree-keys, linseed, or flaxweed, gromwell, darnel, sweet trefoil, lupines, masterwort, marjoram, mallows, mandrakes, melons, medlars, mezereon, gromwell, sweet navew, nigella, the kernels of cherries, apricots, and peaches, bazil, orobus, rice, panick, poppies white and black, parsnips garden and wild, thorough wax, parsley, english and macedonian, burnet, pease, plantain, peony, leeks, purslain, fleawort, turnips, radishes, sumach, spurge, roses, rue, garden and wild, wormseed, saxifrage, succory, sesami, hartwort, common and cretish, mustard-seed, alexanders, nightshade, steves ager, sumach, treacle, mustard, sweet trefoil, wheat, both thefine flour and the bran, and that which starch is made of, vetches ortares, violets, nettles, common and roman, the stones of grapes, greekwheat, or spelt wheat culpeper that you may receive a little more benefit by these, thanthe bare reading of them, which doth at the most but tell you what theyare. The following method may instruct you what they are good for seeds are hot in the first degree linseed, fenugreek, coriander, rice, gromwell, lupines in the second dill, smallage, orobus, rocket, bazil, nettles in the third bishop weed, annis, amomus, carraway, fennel, andso i believe smallage too, let authors say what they will, for if theherb of smallage be essaywhat hotter than parsley. I know little reasonwhy the seed should not be so hot cardamoms, parsley, cummin, carrots, nigella, navew, hartwort, staves ager in the fourth water-cresses, mustard-seed cold in the first degree barley, &c in the second endive, lettice, purslain, succory, gourds, cucumbers, melons, citruls, pompions, sorrel, nightshade in the third henbane, hemlock, poppies white and black moist in the first degree mallows, &c dry in the first degree beans, fennel, fenugreek, barley, wheat, &c in the second orobus, lentils, rice, poppies, nightshade, and thelike in the third dill, smallages, bishop weed, annis, caraway, cummin, coriander, nigella, gromwell, parsley appropriated to the body of man, and so theyheat the head fennel, marjoram, peony, &c the breast nettles the heart bazil, rue, &c mustard seed, &c the stomach annis, bishop weed, amomus, smallage, cummin, cardamoms, cubebs, grains of paradise the liver annis, fennel, bishop weed, amomus, smallage, sparagus, cummin, caraway, carrots the spleen annis, caraway, water-cresses the reins and bladder cicers, rocket, saxifrage, nettles, gromwell the womb peony, rue the joints water-cresses, rue, mustard-seed cool the head lettice, purslain, white poppies the breast white poppies, violets the heart orange, lemon, citron and sorrel seeds lastly, the four greater and four lesser cold seeds, which you may findin the beginning of the compositions, as also the seed of white andblack poppies cool the liver and spleen, reins and bladder, womb andjoints according to operation essay seedsbind, as rose-seeds, barberries, shepherd purse, purslain, &c discuss dill, carrots, linseeds, fenugreek, nigella, &c cleanse beans, orobus, barley, lupines, nettles, &c mollify linseed, or flax seed, fenugreek seed, mallows, nigella harden purslain seed, &c suppure linseed, fenugreek seed, darnel, barley husked, commonlycalled french barley glutinate orobus, lupines, darnel, &c expel wind annis, dill, smallage, caraway, cummin, carrots, fennel, nigella, parsley, hartwort, wormseed breed seed rocket, beans, cicers, ash tree keys provoke the menses amomus, sparagus, annis, fennel, bishop weed, cicers, carrots, smallage, parsley, lovage, hartwort break the stone mallows, marsh-mallows, gromwell, &c stop the terms rose seeds, cummin, burdock, &c resist poison bishop weed, annis, smallage, cardamoms, oranges, lemons, citrons, fennel, &c ease pain dill, amomus, cardamoms, cummin, carrots, orobus, fenugreek, linseed, gromwell, parsley, panick assuage swellings linseed, fenugreek seeds, marsh-mallows, mallows, coriander, barley, lupines, darnel, &c * * * * *the college tells you a tale that there are such things in rerumnatura, as these, gums, rozins, balsams, and juices made thick, viz college juices of wormwood and maudlin, acacia, aloes, lees of oil, assafœtida, balsam of peru and india. Bdellium, benzoin, camphire, caranna, colophonia, juice of maudlin, euphorbium, lees of wine, leesof oil, gums of galbanum, amoniacum, anime, arabick, cherry trees, copal, elemy, juniper, ivy, plumb trees, cambuge, hypocystis, labdanum, lacca, liquid amber, manna, mastich, myrrh, olibanum, opium, opopanax, pice-bitumen, pitch of the cedar of greece, liquid and dry rozins offir-tree, larch-tree, pine tree, pine-fruit, mastich venice and cyprusturpentine sugar, white, red, and christaline, or sugar candy whiteand red, sagapen, juniper, gum, sanguis draconis, sarcocolla, scamony, styrax, liquid and calamitis, tacha, mahacca, tartar, frankincense, olibanum, tragaganth, birdlime culpeper that my country may receive more benefit than ever thecollege of physicians intended them from these, i shall treat of themseverally 1 of the juices 2 of the gums and rosins concrete juices, or juices made thick, are eithertemperate, as, juice of liquorice, white starch hot in the first degree sugar in the second labdanum in the third benzoin, assafœtida cold in the third degree sanguis draconis, acacia in the third hypocistis in the fourth opium, and yet essay authors think opium is hot becauseof its bitter taste aloes and manna purge choler gently. And scamony doth purge cholerviolently, that it is no ways fit for a vulgar man use, for itcorrodes the bowels opopoanax purges flegm very gently white starch gently levigates or makes smooth such writings as arerough, syrup of violets being made thick with it and so taken on thepoint of a knife, helps coughs, roughness of the throat, wheezing, excoriations of the bowels, the bloody-flux juice of liquorice helps roughness of the trachea arteria, whichis in plain english called the windpipe, the roughness of which causescoughs and hoarseness, difficulty of breathing, &c it allays the heatof the stomach and liver, eases pains, soreness and roughness of thereins and bladder, it quencheth thirst, and strengthens the stomachexceedingly. It may easily be carried about in one pocket, and eat alittle now and then sugar cleanses and digests, takes away roughness of the tongue, itstrengthens the reins and bladder, being weakened. Being beaten intofine powder and put into the eyes, it takes away films that grow overthe sight labdanum is in operation, thickening, heating and mollifying, itopens the passage of the veins, and keeps the hair from falling off;the use of it is usually external. Being mixed with wine, myrrh, andoil of mirtles, and applied like a plaister, it takes away filthyscars, and the deformity the small pox leaves behind them. Being mixedwith oil of roses, and dropped into the ears, it helps pains there;being used as a pessary, it provokes the menses, and helps hardness orstiffness of the womb it is essaytimes used inwardly in such medicinesas ease pains and help the cough. If you mix a little of it with oldwhite wine and drink it, it both provokes urine and stops looseness orfluxes dragons blood, cools, binds, and repels acasia, and hyposistis, do the like the juice of maudlin, or, for want of it costmary, which is the samein effect, and better known to the vulgar, the juice is made thick forthe better keeping of it.

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Same as iodin, being of a colloidal nature has the advantage of being more readily absorbed and taken up by all cellular structure, thus getting a perfect cellular medication of iodin ”a sample of b iodine, marked “nitrogen hydrate of iodin” was submittedby the manufacturers and this sample was examined b iodine was found to be a granular powder, almost black with a purplecast it has an odor of iodin and dissolves in water readily it isalso quite soluble in alcohol, but not entirely soluble in chloroformand ether ether quickly dissolves iodin from b iodine, leaving aresidue of a white granular substance chloroform acts the same asether except that the iodin is dissolved out with essay difficulty onheating b iodine, vapors of iodin escape if the heating is done ona water bath, a residue of a white granular substance, subsequentlyidentified as ammonium iodid, remains if heated in a bunsen flame, noresidue remains these tests all indicate that iodin is held in theform of a simple mixture ammonia. B iodine when mixed with an excess of sodium hydroxid andwarmed, evolves ammonia iodine. 0 1567 gm b iodine dissolved in water required 5 88 c c tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate solution indicating 48 28 per cent iodin 0 3721 gm b iodine required 14 18 c c tenth-normal sodiumthiosulphate solution indicating 48 37 per cent iodin the average is48 33 per cent iodin ammonium iodide. 0 3453 gm of the residue after heating b iodine ona water bath until all iodin had volatilized was dissolved in water, acidulated with phosphoric acid, and hydrogen dioxid solution added the liberated iodin was extracted with chloroform and titrated withtenth-normal sodium thiosulphate 23 78 c c were required indicating0 3447 gm , or 99 83 per cent , ammonium iodid a mixture of 5 gm iodin and 5 gm ammonium iodid has the properties ofb iodine mentioned above the conclusion is that b iodine is essentially a mixture of iodin andammonium iodid in equal writings, the two substances being finely powderedand intimately mixed b oleum iodinethe following regarding b oleum iodine is quoted from the circularsubmitted. “b oleum iodine. Iodine soluble in mineral oil 5 and 10% for nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, bronchial, rectal, etc , and all meucoid affections and abnormal conditions of the mucous membrane ”a sample of b oleum iodine was submitted by the manufacturer andexamined the label on the bottle states that it is 5 per cent b oleum iodine in mineral oil this sample has the characteristics ofa solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum it is oily and has thecharacteristic violet color ammonia. B oleum iodine, since it is presumed to be a solution of b iodine, was examined for ammonium compounds a small quantity was mixedwith an equal volume of strong sodium hydroxid solution and heated noammonia was evolved a few crystals of ammonium chlorid were added toa little of b oleum iodine and treated as above ammonia was readilydetected iodine.