History

Gun Violence Essay


This isthe general rule for all simples gun violence essay of this nature chamapitys ground-pine. Hot in the second degree, and dry in thethird, helps the jaundice, sciatica, stopping of the liver, and spleen, provokes the menses, cleanses the entrails, dissolves congealed blood, resists poison, cures wounds and ulcers strong bodies may take a dram, and weak bodies half a dram of it in powder at a time chamæmelum, sativum, sylvestre garden and wild chamomel gardenchamomel, is hot and dry in the first degree, and as gallant a medicineagainst the stone in the bladder as grows upon the earth, you may takeit inwardly, i mean the decoction of it, being boiled in white wine, orinject the juice of it into the bladder with a syringe it expels wind, helps belchings, and potently provokes the menses. Used in baths, ithelps pains in the sides, gripings and gnawings in the belly chamædris, &c germander. Hot and dry in the third degree. Cuts andbrings away tough humours, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, helps coughs and shortness of breath, stranguary and stopping of urine, and provokes the menses. Half a dram is enough to take at a time chelidonium utrumque celandine both sorts small celandine isusually called pilewort.

Applied to the place, ithelps that aposthume in the joints, commonly called a gun violence essay felon. Strewedin a chamber, kills all the fleas there. This is hottest arsmart, and is unfit to be given inwardly. There is a milder sort, calledpersicaria, which is of a cooler and milder quality, drying, excellently good for putrified ulcers, kills worms. I had almost forgotthat the former is an admirable remedy for the gout, being roastedbetween two tiles and applied to the grieved place, and yet i had itfrom dr butler too hysopus hysop helps coughs, shortness of breath, wheezing, distillations upon the lungs. It is of a cleansing quality.

|general | | 2 | 2 | ms | | | | aortitis | condition| | 2 | 3 | ms | | | | | improved | 18 | 4 | 2 | oomm | 9 5 |13 da |- to |latent | | | 2 | 1 | mm | | | | |markedly | | | | | | | | | improved | 19 | 2 | 3 | mu | 2 5 | 5 da | |gumma | | 20 | 5 | 2 | mmmmo | 9 |14 da | to |latent |marked |small | 2 | 3 | ms | | | | | general | induration | | | | | | | | improve- | following | | | | | | | | ment | no 3 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- corpora lutea soluble extract, parke, davis & co report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfollowing inquiries, the council took up for consideration “corporalutea soluble extract, ” marketed by parke, davis & co in the form ofampules and proposed for hypodermic administration the report whichappears below was submitted to the council by a committee, and wasadopted by the council corpora lutea soluble extract was declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, and publication of thereport authorized w a puckner, secretary corpora lutea soluble extract has not been submitted by themanufacturer the information of the referee is based, therefore, onthe claims made in the trade package, and on the statements in theprice list these show that the product is essentially secret andclaims made for the actions and uses of the preparation do not makeclear the essentially experimental status of the article, and aretherefore misleading conflict with rule 1 -- no definite statement of composition appearsbeyond the indefinite claim that it is an aqueous solution of “solublecorpora lutea extract, ” each ampule corresponding to 0 2 gm ofdesiccated gland how these soluble products are obtained, whether theyrepresent all the water-soluble principles, or whether essay have beeneliminated, are questions that are not answered yet such informationis essential to intelligent and scientific use, for, as there is nomethod of standardization, the method of preparation is the only markof identity for instance, we do not know at this time whether proteinshave anything to do with the supposed value of corpora lutea it is, therefore, essential to know whether or not the proteins have beeneliminated conflict with rule 6 -- the circular in the package advises thehypodermic use of this extract, not only in functional amenorrheaand the ordinary reflex consequences of physiologic or artificialmenopause, but also in. “‘neurasthenic’ symptoms during menstrual life”. “sterility, not due to pyogenic infection or mechanical obstruction”. “repeated abortions, not due to disease or mechanical factors”. “hyperemesis in the early months of pregnancy ”these are not stated merely as conditions in which various enthusiastshave tried corpus luteum, but as conditions “for which it will be foundserviceable ”it is not necessary to inform the medical profession that thisstatement is calculated to raise expectations which cannot possibly befulfilled even the manufacturers seem to realize this. At least theyspeak essaywhat indefinitely of “suitable paper, ” “good judgment, ” “realindications, ” etc but they proceed to nullify this warning-- if it wasintended as a warning-- by their illustrations of unsuitable paper, for instance, “amenorrhea due to extreme anemia, dysmenorrhea due tocervical stenosis, ” etc finally, they sum up the case. “therefore, additional emphasis on the necessity for the proper selection of paper is essential in order that this useful preparation may not be unjustly discredited ”how these paper of sterility, abortions, etc , are to be selectedis not revealed in other words, the restriction is no more than aconvenient device by which every improvement is to be attributed to themedicine, and every failure to the physician the referee recommends that corpora lutea soluble extract, parke, davis & co , be held ineligible to n n r , because it is a secretpreparation advertised under extravagant claims editorial comment -- was it not in weir mitchell “adventures offrançois” that the itinerant promised to pull teeth without anypain, if the patient would hold absolutely still?. and, mirabiledictu, the ones who suffered were those who had not held absolutelystill!. -- from the journal a m a , april 7, 1917 wheeler tissue phosphates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council held that the contribution from the a m a chemicallaboratory, “wheeler tissue phosphates, ” demonstrates that this is asemisecret, complex and irrational preparation, sold with misleadingclaims concerning its medicinal constituents and therapeutic properties the council directed that the report be included with the annualcouncil reports and declared wheeler tissue phosphates in conflictwith rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 w a puckner, secretary wheeler tissue phosphates l e warren, ph c , b s “wheeler tissue phosphates, ” known also as “compound elixir ofphosphates and calisaya, ” is advertised as a nerve food and anutritive tonic the label states that it contains calcium, iron, sodium trihydrogen phosphates, alkaloids of peruvian bark with 12-1/2per cent of alcohol the preparation is sold by the t b wheeler, m d co , of rouses point, new york according to the manufacturer, wheeler tissue phosphates “ is an inorganic combination of the phosphates of iron and calcium and hydrogen phosphoric acid together with hydrochloric acid, hydrocyanic acid, and quinine, cheerful coloring, and a delicious, cordial-like flavoring ” “ the iron is the green, inorganic phosphate and the calcium the simple white phosphate of your early student days ”the preparation is a red liquid, having an acid reaction, asweet-bitter taste and the odor of wild cherry qualitative testsindicated the presence of calcium, iron, a phosphate, a chlorid, asulphate, quinin or cinchona alkaloids, alcohol, sodium, cochinealcoloring and invert sugar ammonium salts, glycerol, citrates orlactates were not found from the quantitative values obtained thepreparation may be taken to represent. Sp gr at 25c /25c 1 1087 alcohol per cent, by volume 11 35 gm per 100 c c calcium phosphate ca₃ po₄₂*  0 397 iron phosphate fepo₄ 4h₂o* 0 068 chlorid as hydrochloric acid 0 407 sodium sulphate na₂so₄ 10h₂o  0 043 quinin sulphate u s p 0 041 sodium phosphate na₂hpo₄ 12h₂o  0 065 invert sugar 26 824 water, cochineal and flavor, to make 100 c c * it should be understood that the calcium and iron salts are held in solution by the hydrochloric acid the dose of wheeler tissue phosphates recommended by the manufactureris a tablespoonful or about 15 c c 1/2 oz the total calcium in adose of the preparation is equivalent to about one-sixth of an averagedose of the official calcium chlorid, and the total phosphate to eachdose is equivalent to about one-fourth of a dose of the officialdiluted phosphoric acid each prescribed dose of the preparationcontains about 0 01 gm 2/13 grain of iron phosphate or about onetwenty-fifth of the average dose, and to obtain a pharmacopeial dose ofiron phosphate the patient would be obliged to take three-fourths ofthe contents of an entire bottle-- or 12 ounces-- of the preparation ifit be assumed that all of the chlorid present is in the form of freehydrochloric acid, each dose of the preparation contains the equivalentof about two-thirds of one pharmacopeial dose of diluted hydrochloricacid each dose of the preparation contains about 0 0062 gm 1/10grain of quinin sulphate, or about one-sixteenth of the average tonicdose in other words, to obtain the amount of quinin sulphate given inthe u s pharmacopeia as the tonic dose, the patient would be requiredto swallow 7-1/2 fluidounces of the proprietary preparation, or thecontents of nearly half a bottle the fallacy of prescribing wheelertissue phosphates either for its quinin or its iron content is apparent wheeler tissue phosphates is, then, a mildly bitter flavored syrupwhich contains nearly 12 per cent of alcohol, small quantities each ofcalcium phosphate and hydrochloric acid and insignificant amounts ofiron and quinin salts in other words, essentially it is a sweetenedsolution of small quantities of calcium phosphate in very dilutehydrochlorid acid together with 12 per cent of alcohol bearing in mind the analysis of the preparation, how ludicrous essay ofthe claims appear. “tissue phosphates is not a hypophosphite preparation.

Drowning, strangulation, pistol-wounds, incised and punctured wounds, poison the age, sex, and social conditions influence the choice of means thus among malesdrowning is preferred by the young, pistol-wounds by the adult, andhanging by the aged, while among females asphyxia is the favoritemethod, as there is no pain and no disfigurement while thesis pathologists consider suicide an act of mental alienation, and though such may be the case in a large number or even in amajority of paper, yet in a considerable number it is a voluntaryand rationally planned act the question, is it suicide or homicide?. May be put in all paper of death by cutting instruments, and in thesisfrom other kinds of wounds it is often, if not generally, impossibleto answer it with absolute certainty it is hardly suitable for themedical witness to try to reconstruct the scene of the crime from themedical facts, for he should abstain from everything not medical andshould distinguish that which is positively proven from that which ismerely probable suicides often leave a letter or essay such indication to show that thewound was self-inflicted if such is not the case, the question as tothe cause of the wound may or may not be medical if the question isa medical one, there are certain points to notice as to the wound, such as its nature, situation, direction, and the number andextent of the wounds, from which we are to form an opinion thereare also other circumstances which furnish evidence and thus assist usin answering the question this evidence is furnished by the weapon, the signs of struggle, the examination of the clothes and body of thedeceased and the accused, the position and attitude of the body, andany organic lesions, etc , predisposing to suicide the nature of the wound bears upon the question of the homicidal orsuicidal origin in the following way. Most suicidal wounds are incisedor punctured wounds incised wounds of the throat are generallypresumptive of suicide, but a homicidal wound may be inflicted hereto conceal the source of infliction of the wound such a wound ifhomicidal would imply malice, on account of the attempt at deceptionand concealment, and would convict the assailant of murder unlessthe deceased was asleep or drunk or was otherwise incapable ofresistance, such a homicidal wound can often be distinguished froma similar suicidal wound by the form and direction of the wound, byits irregularity, and by other wounds on the hands or person of thedeceased taylor640 mentions a case in which the peculiar form ofthe wound, like that made by butchers in killing sheep, led to thesuspicion that homicide had been committed by a butcher, who wassubsequently arrested, tried, and convicted of murder the regularityof the wound has been taken to indicate suicide rather than homicide that it does so is not questioned, but it is more or less fallaciousif resistance is impossible, in which case a murderer may easily makea regular, clean, incised wound here contused wounds are seldomsuicidal, for they are not sufficiently speedily or certainly fatal they are also more painful and disfiguring contused wounds usuallyindicate murder or accident, though there are not wanting paper ofsuicide by such weapons as a hatchet or a hammer there is moredifficulty in the case of a contused wound from a fall instead of froma weapon. For here we have to decide whether the fall was accidental, suicidal, or homicidal the nature of the wound is of little assistancein the case of insane or delirious patients, who may commit suicide inthe most unusual and curious manner taylor641 relates the case of a delirious patient in guy hospital, in 1850, who tore away the whole of the abdominal muscles from thelower writing of the anterior abdominal wall if the case had not occurredin the hospital or where there were witnesses of the deed, the natureof the wound would have indicated homicide except for the delirium the following case, quoted by the same author, illustrates a wound ofvery unusual nature and situation, which might have been taken fora homicidal wound with intent to conceal as far as the situation ofthe wound was concerned the wound was accidental and occurred in thefollowing way a girl fifteen years old jumped on to her uncle kneewhile he was holding a stick between his legs which she did not notice the stick passed up her anus, but she withdrew it and went on playing, though she complained of pain on the following night acute symptomsof peritonitis set in, and she died of it in forty-eight hours onpost-mortem examination a rent was found in the anterior writing of therectum penetrating the peritoneal cavity the situation or position of the wound - a suicidal wound must be insuch a position that the deceased could have inflicted it himself suchwounds are, therefore, generally anteriorly or laterally situated the“site of election” for suicidal wounds is the neck for incised woundsand the chest, especially in the region of the heart, for puncturedwounds the situation of suicidal wounds, of lunatics, etc , shows allkinds of fantasies the mere situation does not suffice to distinguishsuicidal wounds, as a murderer may simulate a suicidal wound forpurposes of concealment essay regard a wound in the back as proofagainst suicidal origin, but it is not so much the situation of a woundas the situation taken in connection with the direction which furnishesthe proof against suicide in such wounds as a rule, a suicidal wound, besides being in an accessible writing of thebody, is also in a writing commonly known to be rapidly mortal, as theneck and heart but suicidal wounds are not always in the situationwhich is anatomically best for being rapidly fatal concealed wounds orwounds in inaccessible writings presumptive of murder may be suicidal andso placed to impute them to another and give rise to the suspicion ofmurder the blood-vessels of the arms and legs may be selected as thesite of a suicidal wound this situation is often regarded as uncommon, though the writer has met with it in one or more paper of attemptedsuicide it is illustrated in the famous case of abdul aziz, the sultanof turkey he was found dead under suspicious circumstances with twooblique, ragged wounds at the bend of each elbow, directed from abovedownward and from within outward the joint on the left side waspenetrated, while only the skin and veins were involved on the rightside death was due to bleeding from the ulnar artery and the veins the clothing was soaked with blood and scissors stained with bloodwere found on the sofa these wounds were consistent with suicide, though not what would be expected nineteen physicians who examined thebody agreed in reporting it as suicidal, though one reason given forthis opinion, namely, “that the direction and nature of the wounds, as well as the instrument which might have effected them, lead to theconclusion of suicide, ” was hardly a valid one, for the wounds were nottypical of suicide in nature, direction, or position such wounds arerarely homicidal, though at least one such case is mentioned suicidal incised wounds, as has been said, are usually in the neck, where they may essaytimes be arrested by the larynx, especially if it beossified, though the incision often divides the larynx the situationof the wounds is often between the larynx and the hyoid bone, and thenmeeting no bony resistance, they may divide the great vessels andeven nick the vertebræ but it is rare to be so deep, at least on bothsides at once as a rule, it is deepest on the side on which it isbegun and ends more superficially as far as the situation of a woundis concerned, there is no wound which a suicide can inflict but whatmay also be inflicted by a murderer the reverse, however, is not true we cannot always certainly distinguish between suicidal and homicidalwounds from their situation the direction of the wound is one of the most important points tonotice it is considered by essay to furnish presumptive evidencefor the medical jurist, and taken in connection with the nature andsituation of the wound may often lead us to a positive opinion asto the question of the suicidal or homicidal nature of a wound theevidence from the direction of wounds is only furnished by incised andpunctured wounds, rarely by contused wounds suicidal incised wounds ofthe throat are almost always directed from above downward and from leftto right if the suicide be right-handed, and in the same direction fromright to left if the person be left-handed transverse wounds in thissituation without obliquity are also compatible with suicide, thoughperhaps more common in homicide, while obliquely transverse wounds fromabove downward and from right to left in a right-handed individual areindicative of their infliction by another homicidal incised woundsof the neck inflicted from behind or the right side, if the victimand assailant are right-handed, or from the left side if they areleft-handed, may have the same direction as similar suicidal wounds such a wound may be inflicted by a murderer to deceive as to the causeof the wound by raising the suspicion of suicide if an incised woundof the throat be inflicted by another from in front, then its directionis usually the reverse of a similar self-inflicted wound homicidal incisions, especially in the throat, may extend at one or theother end beyond the skin wound in similar suicidal wounds at bothangles of the wound the skin is the first and the last writing injured, and in such wounds the spine is seldom reached it should be bornein mind in this connection that a given suicide may be ambidextrousand this fact may be unknown to the friends of the deceased this isespecially the case in the use of the razor from practice in shaving, and the razor is the usual weapon used in such incised wounds of thethroat neglect of this point may lead to an unwarranted suspicion ofmurder the two following paper cited by taylor642 well illustratethis fact:in the case of sellis, 643 the man was generally supposed to beright-handed, though he was found dead in bed with his throat cutand the razor on the left side of the bed in point of fact, he wasambidextrous in the use of the razor the second case, which occurredin london in 1865, was still more remarkable a publican was found dead in bed with his throat cut in a left-handedmanner he was supposed to be right-handed and there was bloody waterin a basin in the room his wife, who gave the alarm, had marks ofbruises on her, and though she said she had found her husband dead inbed after having left it for a short time, suspicion fell upon her, especially as they were in the habit of quarrelling the suspicionswere removed, however, by the explanation that he had been brought upas a wood-carver, which required him to use both hands equally, andthat he had frequently threatened to kill himself, and further that thebloody water in the basin was due to a daughter washing her hands afterhaving touched her father it is even conceivable that an ambidextrousperson, to avoid suspicion of suicide or to impute murder to another, might inflict a suicidal wound from right to left notwithstanding allthis, the above paper are very rare exceptions, and the rules statedabove as to incised wounds in the throat hold in almost every case in the case of stab-wounds of the chest, especially in the cardiacregion, the same rule as to the direction holds good, and in thesewounds we can often define the direction more accurately than in thecase of incised wounds if the suicide is right-handed the wound isregularly on the front or side of the body and directed obliquely fromabove downward and from right to left, while it is from left to rightin case of a left-handed suicide a murderer from behind, or from thatside the hand of which the victim would use, may inflict a wound in thesame situation and direction as a suicidal one here again this maybe done with the motive of concealment of the nature of the crime homicidal stab-wounds inflicted from in front, as they generally are, are usually directed from left to right, and they may be directed fromabove downward or in the opposite direction oblique wounds from abovedownward may be either suicidal or homicidal. Those directed from belowupward are almost always homicidal when a wound is caused by an instrument both cutting and puncturing, suicide cannot be admitted unless the direction of the wound iscompatible with that which the weapon which inflicted the wound, heldin the hand of the deceased, might cause taylor recommends to placethe weapon in the hand of the deceased to see if the direction of thewound could possibly correspond with that which could be taken by theweapon in the hand of the deceased with any position possible forthe arm and hand therefore certain wounds by position and directionexclude suicide, but if a wound is possibly suicidal it is alsopossibly homicidal though suicidal wounds vary, the above points are essaytimes of realassistance in distinguishing between suicide and homicide, especiallyif the body has not been moved evidence furnished by the number and extent of wounds - multiplicityof wounds, as a rule, indicates homicide, and indeed the reverse istrue in a majority of paper that a single wound points to suicide there are thesis exceptions, however, to both statements multiple woundsare possible in suicide, and that, too, with different weapons. Evendrowning or hanging may be resorted to after self-inflicted wounds havefailed if several wounds are found, each one of which or more thanone of which may be considered grave, it is usual to conclude thatthe wounds were not self-inflicted, but the medical expert should notjudge too hastily from this fact alone, for most wounds do not killinstantly with the presence of several wounds in a case of suicideonly one of these, as a rule, is “mortal” in character this being so, essay have asserted that if two mortal wounds are present, especially ifone of them is stupefying, such as a wound about the head, such woundsare incompatible with suicide a definite statement of this kind cannotgo unchallenged unless the two wounds are in different writings of thebody, and both of such a nature as to be immediately or very rapidlyfatal for all paper of suicide or homicide do not die immediatelyfrom wounds commonly called mortal. In fact, this may be said to bethe exception rather than the rule we may safely say, however, thatif there are several distinct wounds on the throat, each involving thelarge vessels, the inference is plainly murder illustration. Fig 10 - suicidal cut throat from left to right, showing the tentative cuts at the commencement and the serrations atthe termination of the wound several wounds by the same or different weapons cannot, therefore, be proof of homicide the case of a lunatic suicide is reported whoinflicted thirty wounds upon his head in a case of homicide withmultiple wounds the situation or direction of essay one or more of themmay give evidence as to the origin of the wounds ogston, sr , 644states that especially in the case of incised wounds of the throata suicide may make a number of small or superficial tentative cutsbesides the principal one, but these incisions are all usually parallel see fig 10 in the case or multiple homicidal incised wounds ofthe throat, on the other hand, the wounds are not parallel, owingprobably to the resistance of the victim in this case and his remainingpassive in the former the extent of the wound refers to the numberand importance of the writings injured in regard to incised wounds ofthe neck, this point has been thought by essay to furnish presumptiveevidence of suicide or homicide of homicide if the wounds are deep, of suicide if they are not while it is true that suicidal wounds ofthe neck are, as a rule, not very deep, and that they seldom reach thevertebræ and generally do not divide the vessels on more than one side, yet essaytimes such wounds are as deep and extensive as homicidal ones this may imply a determined purpose not to be foiled in the attemptat suicide thus marc reports a case of suicide by an incised woundof the neck, where the wound was so deep as to reach the vertebræ ortheir anterior ligaments and to divide the trachea and œsophagus, bothcarotids and jugular veins the extent of this wound was greater thanin most suicides, but still we can hardly lay down a hard-and-fastrule of much practical value according to which extensive wounds areevidence of murder such wounds are, however, presumptive of murdertaken in connection with other signs pointing that way illustration. Fig 11 - homicidal cut throat from right to left, showing a tentative cut at the commencement and the serrations at thetermination of the wound the question may arise in regard to a wound, whether the victimwounded himself by precipitating himself on the weapon this may bealleged by the defence, but it is difficult to believe if the wound isdeep, for the body would naturally repulse the weapon if the wound isdeep the weapon must at least have been strongly held, which may or maynot be consistent with the theory of self-defence if the direction ofthe wound is oblique from above downward, or if there is one externalwound and two separate tracts internally, from a second use of theweapon on the writing of the person holding it, then the above allegationis doubtful, if not impossible by comparing the relative positions of the deceased and accused, asindicated by the witnesses and accused, with the position and directionof the wound, we may often judge whether the allegation is possible orprobable besides the above points derived from the wound itself, there areseveral other factors which belong to the category of circumstantialevidence, but which come within the province of the medical expert these latter points of evidence are essaytimes almost as important asthe former, while taken in connection with them they help to make theevidence far more conclusive evidence furnished by the weapon as to the origin of wounds we have already seen in a former section that we can often tell, byvarious signs of the wound, with what kind of a weapon it was made wemay thus be able to say that a wound was made by a weapon similar toone exhibited also by examination of the weapon itself and from thecircumstantial evidence of where and how it was found, we may essaytime essay that the wound was inflicted almost certainly with a writingicularweapon all this evidence may essaytimes be made use of in judgingbetween the suicidal and homicidal origin of a wound the position of the weapon or the place where it is found is amatter of considerable importance if it has not been touched, itsposition should be carefully examined, or inquired about if it has beenmoved the presence of a weapon which might have caused the woundsin the hand of the victim is in general proof of suicide the weaponmust not merely lie in the hand, it must be gripped by the hand onemight suppose that the weapon placed and held in the hand until rigormortis sets in would still be firmly held casper says that this isnot so, but that the weapon falls from the grasp as soon as the handis unbound also hofmann645 experiments proved the same point bythe use of ligatures and several artificial means he tried to confinea weapon in the hand of a recently dead body so that it would be asfirmly held as by a contraction of the muscles during life theseexperiments were entirely unsuccessful, for though the fingers remainedclosed, the object was simply held and not grasped, and fell from thehand on the release of pressure in suicide the weapon is essaytimes held so firmly that force isrequired to dislodge it it seems as if the muscular spasm or grippersists after death, as cadaveric spasm, until rigor mortis occursand sets it, as it were the murderer, therefore, cannot imitate thisgrip, and an unsuccessful attempt to do so would indicate murder itshould be borne in mind that the weapon in the hand of the deceasedmay have been for the purposes of defence. Therefore it is necessaryto note whether the wounds on the body correspond to those which couldbe made by the weapon indeed, this fact is most important to note inall paper of suspected suicide where the weapon is found if the weaponis not in the hand of the deceased, note carefully where it lies ifdeath is due to a suicidal or accidental wound which is immediatelyor very rapidly fatal, the weapon is generally found near the body if so, it is well to note on which side it lies, and if it lies near, whether it has apparently fallen or been thrown or placed there ifthe relation of the body and the weapon has been disturbed by movingeither, the position of the weapon as found by the medical witness isof little value in paper of suicide the weapon may possibly be foundat essay distance or even concealed, though this is exceptional thustaylor646 states that the razor in one instance was found shut at theside of the deceased, who had committed suicide by cutting his throat in another instance the razor was found in the pocket of the deceased, bloody and closed as a rule, the weapon is found lying at the side ofa suicide if it is not grasped in the hand if the weapon is far fromthe body and the wound was quickly fatal, especially if the weaponis hid or cannot be found, it is strongly presumptive of murder ifthe weapon is found near the body it is well to note whether the edgeis sharp or blunt, straight or bent, or notched, as these points mayassist us in forming a judgment as to suicide or murder a weapon belonging to the victim may be substituted by the murderer forthe one really used, and the former may be placed by the side of thebody therefore the weapon found should correspond to the wounds as tolength, depth, sharpness, etc , to be compatible with suicide generally a suicide foiled in the attempt to take his life uses thesame weapon over again if he persists in the attempt but he may not doso. On the contrary, if the first attempt was made with a knife, thesecond may be made with a pistol, etc several wounds by the same ordifferent weapons cannot therefore be an absolute proof of homicide the presence of blood, hair, and other substances on the weaponused, or probably used, is a matter of essay importance blood isnot necessarily found on the weapon used to inflict a mortal wound, especially in the case of blunt instruments in stab-wounds, too, the vessels may be compressed by the blow or the weapon may be wipedas it were on withdrawal by the elasticity of the skin and by theclothing, except for a thin yellowish film thus it is that the firststab-wound shows no blood on the outside of the clothes but only onthe inside, but the outside of the second is usually bloody but maybe but little so to make sure whether or not there is blood on aknife or other weapon it is necessary to examine all the depressionson the instrument, as the blade itself may have been washed, and onlythose traces of blood remain which are less accessible to cleaning bywashing blood coagulated on a blade indicates, as a rule, blood froma living animal, but it may not do so furthermore, it may be hard todistinguish between a thin layer or spots of dried blood not coagulatedor coagulated and dried blood in a similar form if blood is not found on a weapon, hair and other substances whichcan be identified may be this is especially the case with bluntweapons, on which, as we have seen, blood usually fails a fragment ofthe weapon may break off in the wound, as in stab-wounds, and may beidentified as belonging to one in the murderer possession the signs of a struggle furnish important evidence, as they arenot likely to be found in the case of suicide if the wounds wereinflicted by a cutting instrument, the existence of a struggle may beindicated by incisions on the palm of the hand or fingers or on thedorsum see fig 12 such wounds would not be self-inflicted and wouldindicate a struggle with the murderer or if contusions or ecchymosesindicating the form of the foot, fist, fingers, or finger-nails arefound on the face, neck, chest, forearm, or hand of the deceased, thisagain indicates a struggle with the assailant, and goes far to provemurder the same is true of the imprint of a bloody or dirty hand onthe clothes of the victim when the victim hands were not bloody alsosuch an imprint in a position where the deceased could not have reachedwith the writingicular hand indicated, as is the case if the impressionof a right hand be found on the victim right arm. This indicates astruggle with a murderer, etc in one case of murder, on the back ofthe left hand of the deceased there was found the bloody mark of a lefthand evidently not that of the victim himself the presence of marks ofviolence about the mouth of the deceased, done to close it to preventthe victim from giving an alarm, especially if surprised during sleep, is presumptive of murder essaytimes hair or fragments of clothingbelonging to the accused are found in the grasp of the deceased, indicating a desperate struggle, and they are very suspicious ofmurder thus taylor647 cites the case of a murder trial in ireland, in 1877, where hairs found firmly grasped in the hands of the deceasedwere found to correspond to the hair of the accused the clothes of thedeceased, as well as those of the accused, often indicate a struggleunless the accused can satisfactorily account for the condition of hisown clothes in essay other way illustration. Fig 12 - incised wounds of right hand in the struggleof defence homicide the examination of the clothes and body of the deceased and theaccused may furnish important evidence if suicide is accomplished by a weapon like a knife, it is rare for thehand not to be bloody if it is not bloody we may well suspect a caseof supposed suicide the presence of blood on the hand does not provesuicide, though its absence may disprove it, as the hand is generallybloody in case of murder by being carried to the wound the examination of the clothing of the deceased is of greatimportance as we have noticed before, a suicide generally opens them, a murderer rarely a suicide is often writingly or even wholly undressedwhen he inflicts the wound, while murder is usually committed on thoseentirely dressed the wound of the clothes should correspond to that ofthe body in case of murder in suicide the wounds of the body and ofthe clothes may not correspond, especially if there exists a motive tofalsely impute the crime the clothes of the deceased as well as thoseof the accused may indicate a struggle, as we have already noticed ofcourse, in regard to the clothes examined, it is necessary to clearlyprove that they were worn at the time by the deceased or accused, otherwise serious mistakes may be and essaytimes are made in examiningthe blood-spots on the clothing, note whether the blood occurs in largepatches or sprinkled as by a spurting vessel or by continued violence the body of the accused may present scratches, marks of nails, contusions, bites, or other wounds indicative of a struggle it wouldbe well to ask the accused how he received the wounds or scars, to seeif his explanations tally with the injuries it is hard to tell whenwounds which have cicatrized were inflicted. We can only distinguishbetween old and recent ones, and thus control the statements of theaccused an examination of the finger-nails of the prisoner soonafter the crime may reveal blood underneath when the rest of thehands and person are free from it note also the site and shape ofthe blood-spots, if they exist, and whether or not they came from anarterial jet these spots may be on the body or clothes of the accused the account of the accused as to these spots may or may not correspondto the facts as indicated by them the above leads us to the more orless important question:could the assailant have escaped without stains?. It is possible for the murderer to escape without being spotted withblood, but the probability of this occurrence depends on the natureof the wound and the relative positions of the deceased and theassailant at the time the wounds were inflicted this latter fact isvery largely, if not altogether, a matter of speculation as far asthe medical evidence goes it is a popular, though false, idea thata murderer clothes must be bloody, and the police may be misled inexpecting to find them so in every instance taylor1 cites severalpaper in which either no blood was found on the murderer clothes, or only small spots wholly out of proportion to the amount of bloodwhich must have spurted or flowed from the wound absence of blood onthe prisoner clothes is often made use of by the defence to provethe prisoner innocence, whereas, besides the possibilities of havinghad no spots in the first place, the clothes may have been changedor washed before the examination was made this has occurred in morethan one murder trial taylor648 mentions the following paper inillustration:it was alleged that the absence of blood-stains on the prisonerclothing was a strong proof of his innocence in the trial ofsub-inspector montgomery for the murder of mr glasse omagh ass , july, 1873 in this case the weapon was a bill-hook which had producedcontused wounds on the head there was blood on the floor about thebody, but the wounds were not likely to have been accompanied by muchspurting yet it was assumed that the assailant in this case musthave been covered with blood much stress was laid upon the absenceof blood-stains on the first two trials the jury could not agree, owing chiefly to the absence of blood-stains, but on the third trialhe was convicted and afterward admitted that he had removed theblood-stains from the clothes with cold water also in the case ofreg v courvoisier c c c , 1840 the accused, who was tried forthe murder of lord william russel, had no blood-stains on his clothes all the vessels of the throat of the deceased had been cut to thevertebræ while he was asleep it was contended most strongly that theaccused could not possibly have committed the crime, as he had noblood-stains but after conviction he confessed that he wore no clotheswhen he committed the murder, and he only had to wash his hands and thecarving-knife he used again, in the case of reg v thompson durhamwint ass , 1863 the defence mainly relied on the absence of blood onthe prisoner clothing the wound in the throat of the wife of theaccused was five inches long, directed from left to right, dividingall the vessels and nerves of the neck the medical witness statedjustly that no such wound could be self-inflicted it was rapidlyfatal no weapon was found near the body the prisoner was convicted the same author cites the case of a prisoner on whose trousers wornsoon after the murder no blood-marks were found, but the trousersactually worn by him were found with blood upon them juries have evenacquitted the prisoner apparently only because no marks of blood werefound, though the other circumstances were explicable only on thetheory of murder it should be remembered in this connection that blood-stains may befound on the clothing of thesis, especially on the coarse clothingof working-people this may be accounted for by the occupation, flea-bites, accidental circumstances, or it may occur withoutdefinite explanation such persons may be accused of murder and yetthe blood-stains be consistent with innocence too much importanceshould not, therefore, be attached to them, even if the accused cannotsatisfactorily explain them and if he does not attempt to do so ina suspicious way that blood on the clothing even under suspiciouscircumstances may be consistent with innocence is illustrated by thecase of a suicide by cutting the throat, in 1872, cited by taylor 649in this case the son first found his father dead, and thought that hehad broken a blood-vessel he raised the body, staining his hands andclothes, then went for help at the inquest he was closely questionedas to the presence of the blood-stains, but there could be no doubtthat the case was one of suicide in general, we may say that a murderer is much more likely to escapewithout blood-stains in contused wounds, and more likely in the caseof punctured wounds than in incised wounds, for in punctured woundsthe bleeding is much less free and is less likely to spurt from thewound in the case of incised wounds he is most apt to escape withoutstains if he is behind or to the side of the victim when he inflictsthe wound in other words, when a writing of the body of the deceasedwas between the assailant and the wound inflicted furthermore, theassailant is more likely to escape without blood-stains if there is asingle wound than if there are several, and each additional wound makesit more likely that he will be spotted with blood the examination of the ground or floor and the furniture, etc , mayfurnish essay evidence as to the nature of the crime, and also helpthe witness to answer the questions which may essaytimes be asked, i e , at what spot was the victim wounded?.

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The veins mayor may not be closed by an imperfect clot 5 the skin of the edges is not everted or inverted 6 the sides of the wound do not gape and their surfaces are smoothand even, as the tissues are not unevenly retracted résumé - it is very easy from the foregoing to distinguish between awound inflicted before death and one ten or twelve hours after death if the hemorrhage has been abundant and arterial, if it has infiltratedbetween and gun violence essay deeply stained the tissues and the stain cannot readilybe washed off. If the blood coagulates completely and the coagulaare firm and are found lying in the wound, plugging the vessels, andincorporated with the tissues between which they lie. If the edgesof the skin are everted and the sides of the wound are retracted anduneven under these circumstances, we may be sure that the woundwas inflicted during life or a very short time after death if, onthe contrary, the hemorrhage is slight in amount or almost failsaltogether. If it is venous in character. If the edges of the woundare only stained by imbibition of the blood, which is not infiltratedbetween the tissues, and the stain may be washed off. If the blood isnot at all or only slightly clotted and the clots are soft. If the skinis not everted and the sides of the wound are smooth and lie nearly incontact.