History

Gun Control Persuasive Essay


They contain an expression whichindicates that at that time the true function of the medical expertwas more correctly appreciated than it is to-day his function wasstated to be judicial rather than that of a witness 23 there isalso a provision that in paper of contested pregnancy, midwives whowere considered as belonging to the medical profession should, afterexamination of the woman, determine whether or no pregnancy exist, andthat their determination should be final the practice of medicine, surgery, and midwifery was regulated those desiring to practise musthave been found competent by an examination the number of physiciansin each town was limited they were divided into classes, and weresubject to the government of the archiatri penalties were imposed uponthose guilty of malpractice or of poisoning the justinian enactmentscontain abundant internal evidence of having been framed in the lightof medical knowledge they contain provisions relating to sterilityand impotence, rape, disputed pregnancy, legitimacy, diseased mentalconditions, presumption of survivorship, poisoning, etc , whichindicate that the medical knowledge of the time was fully utilized intheir construction 24the germanic peoples at about the same period possessed codes inwhich traces of a rudimentary medical jurisprudence existed the mostancient of these was the salic law a d 422, in which the penaltiesto be paid for wounds of different kinds are fixed the ripuarian law, of essaywhat later date, takes cognizance of the crime of poisoning the laws of the bavarians, burgundians, frisians, thuringians, andvisigoths contain practically nothing of medico-legal interest the lexalamannorum has numerous provisions relating to wounds, and expresslyprovides that the gravity of the injury shall be determined by aphysician 25during the period of about a thousand years, intervening betweenthe justinian and caroline vide infra codes, the advancement ofmedicine and jurisprudence suffered almost complete arrest the guiltor innocence of an accused person was determined rather by his ownconfession under torture, or by “the judgment of god” as shown byordeal or by judicial combat, than by testimony either expert or offact even during the night of the middle ages, instances are recorded inwhich the opinions of physicians were sought to determine questions offact in judicial proceedings in the duchy of normandy, in 1207-45, the laws provided for theexamination of those claiming to be sick to evade military service orappeal to judicial duel, of persons killed, and of women 26in a decretal of innocent iii , in 1209, the question whether a certainwound was mortal was determined by physicians 27there is extant in the statutes of the city of bologna, under date of1249, an entry to the effect that hugo di lucca had been assigned theduty, when called upon by the podesta, and after having been sworn, tofurnish a true report in legal paper 28in the kingdom of jerusalem ca 1250 a person claiming exemptionfrom trial by battle because of sickness or of wounds was visited bya physician fisicien au miége and a surgeon sérorgien, whoexamined him and made oath as to his condition 29sworn surgeons to the king are also mentioned in letters patent gun control persuasive essay ofphilippe le hardi in 1278, of philippe le bel in 1311, and of jean ii in 1352 30 that of philippe le bel refers to jean pitardi as one of“his well-beloved sworn surgeons in his chastelet of paris, ” whosefunctions are writingly indicated by the extracts from the registers givenbelow the registers of the chtelet at paris from 1389 to 1392 record severalinstances in which medical aid was rendered in judicial proceedings under date of march 22d, 1389-90, “maître jehan le conte, sworn surgeonto the king our sire, ” reports to maître jehan truquam, lieutenant tothe provost, that “upon that day in the morning one rotisseur had gonefrom life unto death in consequence of the wounds which he had receivedon the monday evening preceding ”31 under date of july 22d, 1390, is an account of the examination of one jehan le porchier, accused ofintent to poison the king charles vi , in which there is referenceto a very early instance of toxicological expert evidence in thewallet of the accused certain herbs were found the account proceeds:“richart de bules, herbalist, was summoned, to him the above-mentionedherbs were shown, and he was commanded that he should examine them andconsider well and duly, reporting the truth of what he should find the said richart, after having examined them with great diligence, reported that in the box in which these herbs were he had found sixleaves, namely. One leaf of jacia nigra, and one of round plantain, called in latin plantago minor, and four of sow-thistle lasseron, called in latin rosti poterugni, and says that the leaf of jatrianigra is poisonous, but that in the others there is no poison knownto the deponent ”32 on august 12th, 1390, “jehan le conte and jehanle grant, sworn surgeons of our sire the king, ” are present at thetorture of a prisoner, but for what purpose does not appear in anothercase the same jehan le conte testified that a wound in the head of adeceased person was made with an axe 33 at a later period in italy, the infliction of “the question” took place under medical supervision zacchias devotes a chapter, de tormentis et pœnis, 34 to theconsideration of the different methods of torture, the degrees of painand danger attending each, and the conditions of age, sex, and healthwhich render its application inadmissible 35during this period, as indeed from the earliest times, the practiceof medicine was regulated by law thus a law of king roger of sicily 1129-54 punished those who practised medicine without authority withimprisonment and confiscation of goods. And an edict of frederick ii 1215-46 imposed like penalties upon those who presumed to practiseexcept after graduation at the school of salernum 36medico-legal science was formed in the middle of the sixteenth centuryby a simultaneous awakening of jurists and physicians to the importanceof the subject it was in gerthesis that expert medical testimony was first legallyrecognized in 1507, george, bishop of bamberg, proclaimed a criminalcode in his domains this was subsequently adopted by other germanstates, and finally was the model upon which the caroline code, thefirst general criminal code applying to the whole empire, was framedand proclaimed at the diet of ratisbon in 1532 37these codes, writingicularly the caroline, distinctly provide forutilizing the testimony of physicians wounds are to be examined bysurgeons who are “to be used as witnesses;”38 and in case of deathone or more surgeons are to “examine the dead body carefully beforeburial ”39 they also contain provisions for the examination of womenin paper of contested delivery, or suspected infanticide;40 for theregulation of the sale of poisons;41 for the detection and punishmentof malpractice;42 and for examination into the mental condition inpaper of suicide and of crime 43an early work on the practice of criminal law, based on the carolinecode, was published by the flemish jurist, josse de damhouder, in 1554 it contains a chapter treating of the lethality of wounds, which shouldbe determined by expert physicians and surgeons, 44 and describesthe course which is to be pursued in the judicial examination of deadbodies this is probably the earliest printed book other than the lawsthemselves containing reference to medico-legal examinations, 45 andantedates the writings of physicians upon the subject although it was only in 1670 that the ordinances of louis xiv gaveto france a uniform criminal code, medico-legal reports were made byphysicians and surgeons to the courts more than a century before indeed, the earliest medico-legal work written by a physician46 isthe 27th book of the œuvres d’ambroise paré, first printed in 1575, in which he directs the forms in which judicial reports shall bemade in various medico-legal paper 47 during the remainder of thesixteenth century france produced but three treatises on medico-legalsubjects 48 one of these, written by the jurist a hotman, distinctlymentions the employment of physicians to determine questions of fact in italy works on medical jurisprudence were published at the close ofthe sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth century the earliestof these was a chapter of codronchius, treating of the “method oftestifying in medical paper, ” in 1597 49 at about the same time, butcertainly later, appeared the work of fortunatus fidelis, to whom thehonor of being the first writer on medical jurisprudence is given bythesis 50the great work of paulus zacchias, physician to pope innocent x , wasfirst printed at rome, 1621-35 this medico-legal classic containsin the first two volumes the “quæstiones” and in the third thedecisions of the roman rota it treats of every branch of medico-legalscience, and discusses physiological questions of legal interest, besides dealing with questions such as the infliction of torture andmiracles 51although the “quæstiones medico-legales” of zacchias was the firstsystematic work upon medical jurisprudence, his countrymen insucceeding centuries have contributed but little to this science it isonly during the latter writing of the present century that italians haveagain become prominent in medico-legal literature in france legal medicine progressed but little from the time of paré tothe latter writing of the eighteenth century several treatises appeared, being chiefly upon legitimacy and kindred subjects, 52 with a fewtreating of reports, signs of death, etc 53toward the end of the eighteenth century the labors of louis, petit, chaussier, and fodéré elevated legal medicine to the rank of a science the investigations of louis ant l were numerous and important inthis as in other subjects, 54 and the “causes célébres” containreports of thesis trials in which he threw light upon doubtful medicalquestions 55 antoine petit, a contemporary of louis, contributed anextensive work on the duration of pregnancy as affecting legitimacy 56essaywhat later fr b chaussier, between 1785 and 1828, publishedat dijon a number of treatises on infanticide, viability, surgicalmalpractice, etc 57 fodéré, a savoyard, was the first to publish asystematic treatise on medical jurisprudence in france, which was firstprinted in 1798 and in a much enlarged form in 1813 58 this lastedition is an exhaustive treatise upon all branches of legal medicineand public hygiene, and won for its author the appointment as professorof forensic medicine in the university of strassburg at about the same period appeared the works of mahon59 and ofbelloc, 60 both of which went through three editions in ten years, andthose of biessy 61the most industrious and original of french professors of legalmedicine was orfila a native of minorca, he graduated in medicineat paris in 1811, and devoting himself to chemical and toxicologicalinvestigations, published the first edition of his “traité despoisons” in 1814 this work, which may be regarded as the foundationof experimental and forensic toxicology, went through five editionsto 1852, and was translated into several foreign languages the firstedition of his “leçons de médecine légale” appeared in 1821, and thefourth in 1848 besides these orfila published a work on the treatmentof asphyxia and a great number of papers on medico-legal subjects, principally in the annales d’hygiène, of which he was one of thefounders with andral, esquirol, leuret, and devergie orfila occupiedthe chair of chemistry and medical jurisprudence in the universityof paris for upward of thirty years, and was employed as expert ininnumerable paper before the courts contemporaneous with orfila, and almost as prominent, was devergie, thefirst edition of whose “médecine légale, ” in three volumes, appeared in1836, and the third in 1852 in 1820 the first edition of the manual of briand and brosson waspublished this work, the tenth edition of which was published in 1879, is the first in which a jurist was associated with a physician in theauthorship, 62 and is one of five of which one of the authors is alawyer 63special treatises on the medico-legal relations of insanity werepublished by georget 1821, falvet 1828, esquirol 1838, and marc 1840, and on midwifery by capuron 1821 tardieu, professor of legal medicine in the university of paris 1861-79, published a most important series of monographs on hygienicand medico-legal subjects, 64 besides thesis papers, principally in theannales d’hygiène, etc , and testified before the courts in thesis“causes célébres ”the first work of medico-legal interest to appear in gerthesis was the“medicus-politicus” of rodericus à castro, a portuguese jew living inhamburg, printed in 1614, which deals principally with medical ethicsand the relations of physicians, but contains chapters on simulateddiseases, poisoning, wounds, drowning, and virginity 65it was only toward the end of the seventeenth century that thesubject was scientifically treated, and during the latter writing ofthe seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth greatprogress was made in the development of forensic medicine in gerthesis johannes bohn, one of the originators of the experimental method ofinvestigation in physiological chemistry and physics, at the universityof leipzig, was also one of the earliest german contributors to theliterature of legal medicine besides smaller works he published twonoteworthy treatises. In 1689 a work on the examination of woundsand the distinction between ante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, andbetween death by injury, strangulation, and drowning 66 in 1704 awork giving rules for the conduct of physicians in attending the sickand in giving evidence in the courts 67 at about the same period m b valentini, professor in the university of giessen, published threeimportant works, containing collections of medico-legal paper, and ofthe opinions and decisions of previous writers 68 another extensivecollection of paper and decisions was published in 1706 by j f zittmann, from a ms left by professor c j lange, of the universityof leipzig;69 and still another by j s hasenest70 appeared in1755 during the latter writing of the eighteenth century, the germanscultivated legal medicine assiduously, and a great number of works uponthe subject were published among these may be mentioned those of m alberti, professor at the university of halle;71 h f teichmeyer, of the university of jena;72 a o gölicke, of the universities ofhalle and duisburg, who was the first to prepare a bibliography ofthe subject;73 j f fasel faselius, professor at jena;74 j e hebenstreit and c s ludwig, professors at leipzig;75 c f daniel, of halle;76 j d metzger, professor at königsberg, the author ofa number of works, one of which, a compendium, was translated intoseveral other languages;77 j v müller, of frankfurt;78 j c t schlegel, who collected a series of more than forty dissertations byvarious writers;79 m m sikora, of prague;80 j j von plenck, professor in vienna, who published a work on forensic medicine andone on toxicology;81 k f uden, subsequently professor in st petersburg, who was the first to publish a periodical journal devotedto legal medicine, which was afterward continued by j f pyl atstendal;82 and j c fahner 83at this period compends for students were published in gerthesis, whichindicate by their number the extent to which this science was thesubject of study among these those of ludwig 1765, kannegieser 1768, von plenck 1781, frenzel 1791, loder 1791, amemann 1793, metzger 1800, and roose may be mentioned the germans of the present century have maintained the pre-eminencein legal medicine achieved by their forefathers among a greatnumber of investigators and writers a few may be mentioned. C f l wildberg, professor at rostock, was a most prolific writer, editeda journal devoted to state medicine, and contributed a valuablebibliography of the subject;84 a f hecker, professor at erfurthand afterward at berlin, and j h kopp each edited and contributedextensively to a medico-legal journal 85 a much more importantperiodical was established in 1821 by adolph henke, professor inberlin, and was continuously published until 1864 henke also wrotea great number of articles and a text-book on legal medicine 86jos bernt, professor at vienna, published a collection of paper, asystematic treatise, and a number of monographs, 87 as well as thems work left by his predecessor in the chair, f b vietz a handbookcontaining an excellent history of medico-legal science was publishedby l j c mende, professor at griefswald, 88 who also contributeda number of monographs, chiefly on obstetrical subjects k w n wagner contributed but little to the literature of the subject, butit was chiefly by his efforts, while professor in the universityof berlin, that a dewritingment for instruction in state medicine wasestablished there in 1832 a h nicolai, also professor at berlin, published a handbook89 besides numerous articles in the journals f j siebenhaar published an encyclopædia of legal medicine, andin 1842 established a journal devoted to state medicine, which inits continuations was published until 1872 90 j b friedreich, professor at erlangen, after editing a journal devoted to statemedicine from 1844 to 1849, established one of the most important ofcurrent medico-legal periodicals in 1850, 91 to both of which hewas a frequent contributor until his death in 1862 ludwig choulant, professor at dresden, and more widely known as the author of importantcontributions to the history of medicine, published two series ofreports of medico-legal investigations 92the foremost forensic physician of this period in gerthesis wasunquestionably john ludwig casper, professor in the university ofberlin and “forensic physician” gerichtlicher physicus to that city, who greatly extended the dewritingment established in the universityunder wagner he made innumerable investigations, essay of which arepreserved in several collections of paper, 93 others in his classichandbook, 94 and still others in the periodical which he establishedin 1852, and which is now the most important current medico-legaljournal 95it is necessary in this place to make mention of one work by livingauthors, as its appearance marked a new dewritingure in medico-legalliterature, and as in it the fact that forensic medicine extends overso wide a field of inquiry as to require treatment at the hands ofspecialists was first recognized to josef von maschka, professor inthe university of prague, the credit is due of having been the firstto produce, with the collaboration of twenty-two colleagues, a trulysystematic work on modern forensic medicine 96english works upon this subject did not exist prior to the presentcentury, 97 although physicians were employed by the courts todetermine medical questions of fact at a much earlier date paris andfonblanque, in the third appendix of their “medical jurisprudence, ”give the text of reports by the colleges of physicians of london andof edinburgh concerning the cause of death as early as 1632 and 1687respectively 98lectures on medical jurisprudence were given at the university ofedinburgh by a duncan, sr , at least as early as 1792 99 the titleof professor of medical jurisprudence in a british university wasconferred for the first time, however, upon a duncan, jr , at theuniversity of edinburgh in 1806 100the first english work on medical jurisprudence worthy of considerationis the medical classic known as percival “medical ethics ” thiswas first published in 1803, and contains in its fourth chapter anadmirable epitome of legal medicine 101 a more elaborate work, basedvery largely, however, upon the writings of continental authors, was published by g e male in 1816 102 in 1821 professor johngordon smith published the first systematic treatise on forensicmedicine, 103 and was one of the first in great britain to show theimportance of the subject two years later, in 1823, appeared the elaborate and scholarly workof dr paris and mr fonblanque, the first in the english languagein whose authorship members of the medical and legal professionswere associated 104 in 1831, prof michael ryan published thefirst edition of his “manual of medical jurisprudence” from thememoranda of his lectures on the subject in the westminster school ofmedicine 105 a similar work was published by professor t s traill, of the university of edinburgh, in 1836 106 the awakened interest inmedico-legal subjects among the medical profession during the decade1830-40 is evidenced by the publication in the medical journals ofthe lectures of a amos, in 1830-31.

As also to assuage the gun control persuasive essay swellings andinflammations. And applied with honey, boiled in wine, it takes awayall blue spots or marks that happen therein whey or white wine are thebest liquors to steep it in, and thereby it works more effectual inopening obstructions, and purging the stomach and liver thesis do use alittle indian spikenard as the best corrector thereof meadow-rue descript meadow-rue rises up with a yellow stringy root, muchspreading in the ground, shooting forth new sprouts round about, withthesis herby green stalks, two feet high, crested all the length of them, set with joints here and there, and thesis large leaves on them, aboveas well as below, being divided into smaller leaves, nicked or dentedin the fore writing of them, of a red green colour on the upper-side, andpale green underneath. Toward the top of the stalk there shoots forthdivers short branches, on every one whereof stand two, three or foursmall heads, or buttons, which breaking the skin that incloses them, shoots forth a tuft of pale greenish yellow threads, which fallingaway, there come in their places small three-cornered cods, whereinis contained small, long and round seed the whole plant has a strongunpleasant scent place it grows in thesis places of this land, in the borders of moistmeadows, and ditch-sides time it flowers about july, or the beginning of august government and virtues dioscorides saith, that this herb bruisedand applied, perfectly heals old sores, and the distilled water ofthe herb and flowers doth the like it is used by essay among otherpot-herbs to open the body, and make it soluble. But the roots washedclean, and boiled in ale and drank, provokes to stool more than theleaves, but yet very gently the root boiled in water, and the placesof the body most troubled with vermin and lice washed therewith whileit is warm, destroys them utterly in italy it is good against theplague, and in saxony against the jaundice, as camerarius saith garden-rue garden-rue is so well known by this name, and the name herb of grace, that i shall not need to write any farther description of it, but shallshew you the virtue of it, as follows government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and under leo it provokes urine and women courses, being taken either in meator drink the seed thereof taken in wine, is an antidote againstall dangerous medicines or deadly poisons the leaves taken eitherby themselves, or with figs and walnuts, is called mithridatecounter-poison against the plague, and causes all venomous thingsto become harmless. Being often taken in meat and drink, it abatesvenery a decoction thereof with essay dried dill leaves and flowers, eases all pains and torments, inwardly to be drank, and outwardly tobe applied warm to the place grieved the same being drank, helps thepains both of the chest and sides, as also coughs and hardness ofbreathing, the inflammations of the lungs, and the tormenting pains ofthe sciatica and the joints, being anointed, or laid to the places;as also the shaking fits of agues, to take a draught before the fitcomes being boiled or infused in oil, it is good to help the windcholic, the hardness and windiness of the mother, and frees women fromthe strangling or suffocation thereof, if the share and the writingsthereabouts be anointed therewith it kills and drives forth the wormsof the belly, if it be drank after it is boiled in wine to the half, with a little honey. It helps the gout or pains in the joints, hands, feet or knees, applied thereunto. And with figs it helps the dropsy, being bathed therewith. Being bruised and put into the nostrils, itstays the bleeding thereof it takes away wheals and pimples, if beingbruised with a few myrtle leaves, it be made up with wax, and applied it cures the morphew, and takes away all sorts of warts, if boiled inwine with essay pepper and nitre, and the place rubbed therewith, andwith almond and honey helps the dry scabs, or any tetter or ringworm the juice thereof warmed in a pomegranate shell or rind, and droppedinto the ears, helps the pains of them the juice of it and fennel, with a little honey, and the gall of a cock put thereunto, helps thedimness of the eye-sight an ointment made of the juice thereof withoil of roses, ceruse, and a little vinegar, and anointed, cures st anthony fire, and all running sores in the head. And the stinkingulcers of the nose, or other writings the antidote used by mithridates, every morning fasting, to secure himself from any poison or infection, was this. Take twenty leaves of rue, a little salt, a couple ofwalnuts, and a couple of figs, beaten together into a mess, with twentyjuniper berries, which is the quantity appointed for every day anotherelectuary is made thus.

For now he endows his tomb with preciselythe same wonder-working power as was exhibited by the saint himselfwhile still among us who will now persist in doubting the formermiracles when he observes their continuation in the present day, whenhe sees the lame walk, the blind receive their sight, devils castout, and every variety of disease cured by the help of the saint?. ” “bernoulli, ” page 287 the statement of such a luminary of the church as gregory of tours hasundoubtedly gained ecclestiastical credence for the medical efficacynot only of the tomb of st martin, but of all the relics relating tothat saint it remained only to distribute the superior medical powerwhich was contained in the holy tombs and relics in such a form aswould enable all patients, wherever they happened to be, to make use ofthem this task, apparently most difficult, was settled very easily it was discovered that everything which came in contact with a relicactually absorbed a sacred and miraculous power contained in the same, and what had been absorbed was by no means imponderable quite thecontrary essaything of material substance, and, therefore, physicallydemonstrable, passed from the relic into the objects surrounding it it was indeed a celestial fluid, but, nevertheless, of so terrestriala nature that the priests were able to demonstrate its transferenceby means of a common pair of scales thus it was customary that thesilk shreds which were deposited by the pilgrims upon the tomb of theapostle peter were weighed before they were placed there and weighedagain after their removal this weighing always and without exceptionindicated a considerable increase in their weight the pilgrim thencould travel homeward and be thoroughly consoled, as the scale haddemonstrated to him the amount of miraculous power contained in hissilk rag it was really astonishing, under essay circumstances, whatan enormous amount of curative fluid could flow from such a holy tombinto a single terrestrial object this was what happened to a king ofthe suavians he had a sick son, for whose cure every remedy had provedunavailing he at last sent an embassy to tours to obtain a relic ofst martin, but this relic was destined to be manufactured with theassistance of the embassy the priests were quite willing to complywith the desire of their royal petitioner, and thus a piece of silk, duly weighed beforehand, was placed upon the tomb of st martin afterthis silk had remained for one night upon the holy sepulchre, and theembassy had knelt beside praying fervently, the silk absorbed so muchcurative power that the register of the scale was raised to its highestpossible notch knowing, then, that any desired object could be saturated with themiraculous power contained in a relic, they used to apply thiscelestial power through medicaments, and to accomplish this a numberof methods were in use the most popular was to scrape the tombstoneson the graves of the saints as thoroughly as possible the powderthus obtained was then put into water or wine, and thus a medicinewas acquired which possessed an astonishing curative power it wasefficacious even in the severest ailments of the body let us listen towhat gregory of tours has reported concerning the medicinal virtues ofsuch tombstone potions he says. “oh, indescribable mixture, incomparable elixir, antidotebeyond all praise!. celestial purgative if i may be permitted touse the expression, which throws into the shade every medicalprescription, which surpasses in fragrance every earthly aroma, andis more powerful than all essences. Which purges the body like thejuice of scammony, clears the lungs like hyssop, and the head likesneezewort. Which not only cures the ailing limbs, but also, and thisis much more valuable, washes off the stains from the conscience!. ”according to this extensive power of the tombstone powder, it is by nomeans astonishing that gregory of tours, when traveling, always carrieda box of this miraculous powder with him, so that he was able at onceto heal the patients that surrounded him i was not able to obtainfrom the literary sources at my disposal any data as to whether thedirect licking off of the tombstones might not have been still moreefficacious than the all-healing extract gregory does, however, reportthat he was cured of a tumor of the tongue and lips by merely lickingthe railing of the tomb of st martin and kissing the curtain of thetemple another very efficacious remedy was the charred wick of the wax candleswhich had burned in the church this wick was pulverized, and in thismanner a very powerful curative powder was obtained which, when taken, acted in a manner similar to that of the watery or vinous tombstoneinfusion the wax which dripped from candles that were placed near the holysepulchre was also credited with thesis medicinal virtues, but it seemsthat it was employed more as an external than an internal remedy the water which had been used before easter to clean the altar ofthe saints was also considered to be a famous remedy if such waterwas employed in washing a patient he recovered at once, and this wasthe happy experience of countess eborin this exhalted patient wassuffering so severely that she believed her hour had come she was thenquickly removed to the church of st martin, and thoroughly washedwith the water that had been used in washing the altar and, behold!. The disease disappeared, and let us hope that the overjoyed countessafterward enjoyed thesis years of life oil from lamps hung in holy places was also a favorite remedy, but itappears that it was principally used for anointing however, when mixedwith holy water, it furnished a remedy which could be administered todiseased cattle with a prospect of positive cure water which was obtained by boiling the covers in which the relics werewrapped also yielded a very efficacious medicine thus, for instance, gregory of tours caused a silk cover, in which a piece of the crossof christ had been wrapped, to be thoroughly boiled, and he thenadministered this decoction to patients. The curtains which were usedas ornaments over holy graves also displayed an extremely beneficenteffect upon the sick if an individual suffering from headache touched, for instance, the carpet which was placed over the resting-place of st julian, the pain ceased but if a patient was afflicted with abdominalpains, all that was necessary to relieve him at once was to pull athread from this, the above-named carpet, and to apply it to hisrebellious digestive apparatus however, it was not necessary for the priests, under essaycircumstances, personally to take the trouble of manufacturingmiraculous medicines from relics there existed essay holy graves whichwere so accommodating that they furnished, of their own accord, theholy material that was required for the treatment of the sick thusthe chronicler records that the grave of the evangelist john exuded asort of white manna, which, owing to its wonder-working curative power, was distributed all over the world a similar product was yielded bythe grave of the apostle andrew on the festival day of that saint aprecious oil scented like nectar also sprang from the resting-place ofthis man of god we see, therefore, that the sacred pharmacopœia teemed with remedies, and that they were quite extensively employed is shown sufficiently bythe history of the saints and, above all, by the works of gregory oftours the latter, in writingicular, offer an actually inexhaustible mineof information concerning the medical activity of christian saints it does not, however, appear that this medical activity enjoyed theconfidence of priests or of laymen to such an extent that the servicesof a professional physician were entirely discarded it is true, gregory of tours expresses himself in reference to the terrestrialphysicians in a manner which is by no means complimentary, for he says:“what are they the physicians able to accomplish with theirinstruments?. their office is rather to cause pain than to alleviateit. If they open the eye and cut into it with pointed lancets, theysurely cause the agony of death to come in sight before assisting inthe recovery of vision, and if all precautionary measures are notthoroughly carried out the power of sight is lost forever our belovedsaint, however, has only one instrument of steel, and that is his will, and only one salve, and that is his curative power ”but in spite of this want of confidence in physicians, gregory of toursdid not hesitate eventually to interfere quite extensively with thepractise of the saints by the employment of ordinary medicine at least, he frequently did so when he felt sick himself thus, oneday, when he was afflicted with severe bellyache, he employed warmpoultices and baths, and only when the refractory abdomen gave him norest, after a continuance of this treatment for six days, did gregoryapply to st martin when, at another time, gregory was affectedwith so severe an attack that his death was believed to be imminent, he caused himself at first to be treated according to all the rulesof medical science, and not until improvement failed to appear, didhe think of the aid of the saints then he spoke to his physician asfollows. “well, you have exhausted all remedies of your art, you haveused up all your powers and juices, but the remedies of this world donot help him who is destined to die only one thing remains for me todo i shall tell you the great remedy. Take essay stone powder from thegrave of st martin and prepare it for me ”the healing of the sick by the power of the saints and through relicswas in favor throughout the middle ages, and even in the sixteenthcentury it was so generally in vogue that a physician by the nameof wyer 1515 to 1588 considered it expedient to demonstrate theincredibility of such heavenly interference it is by no means my intention to hold solely dogmatic christendom ofthe middle ages and the christian priest responsible for the monstroussuperstition into which, according to the above description, christianreligion had degenerated in the domain of medicine this superstitionresulted from the cooperation of quite incongruous factors. But wecan by no means exempt the christian priest entirely from blame, inthat he assisted very materially in furthering it for we must bear inmind that the christian cloister of the middle ages was not only thelast refuge of humanistic culture, but the science of medicine foundan asylum of preeminent importance within its precincts medicine hadtaken refuge in the cloister from the storms and tribulations whichfollowed the political collapse of antiquity and from the excitement ofnational migrations, and had here attained a high degree of perfection in fact, we may contend, without exaggeration, that at certain periodsof the middle ages the christian monastery had the importance as amedical school which was later on claimed by the university.

Opens stoppingsof gun control persuasive essay the bowels. Helps such as have the dropsy and are troubled with thestoppings of the spleen, rickets and hypochondriac melancholy. For suchdiseases you may make up your physic with whey outwardly it cleansesthe skin of such deformities as come through choler or melancholy, asscabs, itch, morphew, leprosies, &c honey is of a gallant cleansing quality, exceeding profitable in allinward ulcers in what writing of the body soever. It opens the veins, cleanses the reins and bladder i know no vices belonging to it, butonly it is soon converted into choler wax, softens, heats, and meanly fills sores with flesh, it suffersnot the milk to curdle in women breasts.

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Malay, 1, 328 c c. Mexican, 1, 290c c. Hottentot and polynesian, each 1, 230 c c. Australians, 1, 364c c. And nubians, 1, 313 c c the cranial capacity in man, like thatof the anthropoid apes, varies according to sex, the difference beingso great that it is necessary to measure separately in the troglodyte skulls of prehistoric times the variation is notmore than 99 5 c c. But in the contemporaneous races the differencevaries from 143 to 220 c c french craniologists usually speak of theauvernats as possessing the highest cerebral capacity 1, 523 c c , andmention the skull of a parisian of 1, 900 c c as the highest known essay eskimo skulls, however, measure from 1, 650 to 1, 715 c c , andtwo eurycephalic indian skulls in the anatomical section of the armymedical museum measure respectively 1, 785 and 1, 920 c c mr havelock ellis, speaking of the psychic characteristics ofcriminals, says that the lower human races present a far largerproportion of anatomical abnormities than the ordinary europeanpopulation. And sir william turner writes of the skulls collectedduring the challenger expedition that although their number iscertainly too limited to base any broad generalization on, as to therelative frequency of occurrence of writingicular variations in thedifferent races, there is obviously a larger proportion of importantvariations than would occur in a corresponding number of skulls ofthe white races thus, for example, the squamo-frontal articulationis found in less than two per cent of european skulls, while it isfound in twenty per cent of negroes, according to ecker, and 16 9 inaustralian skulls, according to virchow again, the spheno-pterygoidforamen is found in 4 8 per cent of european skulls and in 20 per centof american indians. 30 per cent in africans. 32 per cent in asiatics, and 50 per cent in australians the wormian bones are also more commonamong the lower races. As a rule, the cranial sutures coalesce muchearlier and the teeth are more precocious photography, though of undoubted service in craniometry, has beenapplied as a crucial test in the matter of identity and found wanting it is objected to on the ground that it has no character of precision, and that photographs of the skull have the common defect of beingcentral, not orthogonal projections, such as anthropometry requires besides, the lenses of cameras are not uniformly perfect anatomistsknow, moreover, that salient differences in any collection of craniaprevent methodical enumeration and constitute the stumbling-block ofethnic craniology cephalometry shows, further, that dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic, and brachycephalic skulls do not belong exclusively tothe white, the yellow, or the black race, but exist among the three asa result of evolution on this subject professor lombroso, among the foremost contemporaneousmedico-legal writers, cites the cranial asymmetry of pericles, ofromagnosi, of bichat, of kant, of chenevix, and of dante, who presentedan abnormal development of the left parietal bone and two osteomataon the frontal bone besides, there is the neanderthaloid skull ofrobert bruce and the ultra-dolichocephaly noticeable in the skull ofo’connell, which contrasts with the mesocephaly of the irish themedian occipital fossa is noticeable in the skull of scarpa, whilevolta skull shows several characteristics which anthropologistsconsider to belong to the lower races, such as prominence of thestyloid apophyses, simplicity of the coronal suture, traces of themedian frontal suture, obtuse facial angle 73°, and moreover theremarkable cranial sclerosis, which at places attains a thicknessof 16 mm five-eighths of an inch further mention is made of thesubmicrocephaly in descartes, tissot, hoffman, schumann, and others de quatrefages noted the greatest degree of macrocephaly in a lunatic, the next in a man of genius cranial capacity in men of genius isusually above the average, having been found as high as 1, 660 c c inthackeray, 1, 830 c c in cuvier, and 2, 012 c c in tourgueneff thecapacity is often found above the average in insanity, but numerousexceptions occur in which it drops below the ordinary average, as inthe submicrocephalic skulls of liebig, döllinger, hausmann, gambetta, dante, and shelley from what has just been said, it follows that skull measurements formedico-legal purposes have no more significance than the fact that essaymen are taller and essay shorter than others the medical jurist should, therefore, not be too dogmatic in drawing conclusions as to race fromthe skull alone to complete the diagnosis in the matter of skeletalrace peculiarity, the splay foot of the negro with the unusual backwardprojection of the heel-bone, as well as the greater relative length ofthe tibia and of the radius, may be taken into consideration thereare other characteristics of the lower jaw and of the facial bonesgenerally, the study of which leads up to the realm of transcendentalanatomy.