History

Gre Essay


Of the second were resisting, crepitant, and quite œdematous no subpleural ecchymoses in either the experiments on animals by corin812 led him to conclude that pressure on the pneumogastrics caused increased frequency of the heart-beat and slowing of respiration pellier813 considers the subject quite fully it would appear that the pressure on the pneumogastrics disposes to stop the action of the heart and cause rapid, perhaps instant death the pressure on the carotids causes cerebral anæmia and is then only a secondary cause levy814 does not think the action of the pneumogastrics is sufficiently well known tidy states that a dog lived for three hours suspended by a rope placedabove an opening in the windpipe. And that smith815 mentions the caseof a criminal who was hung. Chovet tried to save the man by making anopening in the trachea before the execution and introducing a smalltube the man was alive forty-five minutes after the drop, but couldnot be resuscitated, although the surgeon bled him in a small proportion of paper of hanging, homicidal and judicial, death occurs by dislocation of the spine this is said to have beenfirst noticed by the celebrated louis, who states that the parisexecutioner was in the habit of giving a violent rotary movement tothe body of the convict as the trap was sprung, causing a dislocationof the odontoid process and compression of the cord and almost instantdeath taylor816 says that for dislocation the body must be heavy andthe fall long and sudden devergie817 found this to occur in abouttwo per cent of paper it is said that the paris hangman placed theslip-knot under the chin in front, which is as dr haughton suggests death may occur from secondary causes after apparent recovery. Fromcongestion of brain and other lesions of the nervous system. These mayprove fatal at remote periods fracture of the odontoid process according to m de fosse is morecommon than dislocation, and the giving away of the intervertebralsubstance more likely than either of the others the phrenic andother respiratory nerves are likely to be paralyzed. The vertebral andcarotid arteries may be ruptured the medulla oblongata is also likelyto be fatally injured death may also occur from hemorrhage upon thecord, causing pressure besides the ropes used as ligatures in judicial hanging, almost everyconceivable article that could be made into the semblance of a cord hasbeen used by suicides.

“pneumonia phylacogen has been found to be a dependable means of preventing and treating pneumonic complications of influenza in one large city it became gre essay a routine measure to give all persons affected with influenza an injection of pneumonia phylacogen as a prophylactic of pneumonia the results were remarkable not only did the paper improve rapidly, but in a great majority of them the pneumonia did not occur ”the “phylacogens” were repeatedly discussed in the journal during 1913and 1914 when these products were being pushed with much vigor by themanufacturers we know of no evidence that calls for a revision ofthe statements then made regarding them the injection of phylacogensis simply the administration of a mixture of the filtered productsof several bacterial species the results which follow represent thereaction of the bacterial protein-- a reaction for good or evil thereis no scientific evidence to show that they possess any specificprophylactic virtue to recommend their use in paper of influenza, as a prophylactic against pneumonia, is unwarranted, and thephysician who acts on the advice of the manufacturer must assume theresponsibility for the results in case of mishap he cannot fall backon the manufacturer. He will find no scientific evidence to supporthim -- from the journal a m a , nov 15, 1919 pineoleum advertising methods capitalizing the name and position of the president of the american medical associationto the editor:-- enclosed is a postal card which a physician inoklahoma has sent me together with thirty-six cents in stamps theenvelop was addressed to me at the address of the pineoleum company the postoffice corrected the address and sent it to me it is evident, therefore, that the physician in oklahoma thought i was sending thesepostals as an employee of the pineoleum company, or, at least, wasendorsing their products illustration. Postal card capitalizing the name and position of the president of the american medical association kindly do me the favor to publish this letter in the journal as aprotest against the dishonesty of this method of advertising what isquoted from an article that i wrote appeared originally in the newyork state journal of medicine and was abstracted in the journalof the american medical association of august 2, 1919 the obviousinference to be drawn from this postal is that i referred to theproducts of the pineoleum company in that article i did not have theproducts of the pineoleum company in my mind i never have used theirproducts and never prescribed them this form of advertising is done with intent to deceive and did deceivethe doctor in oklahoma it was therefore a successful falsehood, itssuccess depending on the false use of the name of the president of theamerican medical association to bolster up the sale of the product i resent the use of my name in connection with the quack advertisingof nostrum venders the low, vulpine cunning of the method used ison the same level as the deceit and dishonesty which use this formof advertising to the injury of my name and reputation as presidentof the american medical association i must insist that you protectme by publishing this letter in the journal, giving it as widespreadpublicity as possible alexander lambert comment -- “pineoleum” is a “patent medicine” advertised in thecheapest and most effective way-- by the aid of the easy going andcomplacent physician in 1906 pineoleum was being marketed by thewinslow laboratory of new york city, which also put out three or fourother nostrums-- “morumalt, ” “egeriol, ” “digestylin, ” and “fordnucleo-peptone ” pineoleum was advertised to the public then as it isadvertised now, via the medical profession physicians are circularizedand are offered a petty graft in the form of a cheap nebulizer and asample bottle of pineoleum essay time ago the company seems to havedeveloped a scheme whereby physicians could make money “dispensingpineoleum nebulizer outfits at more than 140 per cent profit ” thepineoleum concern for years has also polluted the stream at its sourceby attempting to get the secretary of the senior class of every medicalschool to distribute its free nebulizer outfits to members of theclass and receive therefor 5 cents for each outfit distributed!. thelife history of pineoleum is that of the typical nostrum epidemics, of course, are utilized as opportunities for pushing the product in1911 a card was sent out featuring “a special lagrippe offer”. In 1916the profession was circularized recommending pineoleum as “the idealprophylactic” in infantile paralysis. During the past year influenzahas again been the selling point the case described by dr lambert is not the first example of themisuse of names and statements of physicians last december thepineoleum concern was sending out an advertising card in which dr mccoy of the united states public health service was quoted asrecommending pineoleum as the “bulwark of prevention” and “battery ofrelief” in influenza of course, dr mccoy never said anything of thesort a protest against this writingicular falsehood resulted in anothercard being sent out several months later by the pineoleum peoplepurporting to explain and apologize for the misquotations and puttingthe blame on the printer the “apology” ended with a postscript inlarger and bolder face type than the body of the card that urgedphysicians to “secure our liberal introductory advertising propositionon improved oil nebulizer outfits ” from the standpoint of publicityfor pineoleum, the “explanation and apology” was doubtless as good anadvertisement as the original card of misrepresentation -- ed -- fromthe journal a m a , nov 1, 1919 “proteal therapy” and henry smith williams to the editor:-- will you please advise as to the success and safeness in using the proteal treatment for tuberculosis by henry smith williams, m d , ll d , 104 east 40th street, new york?. c p burchard, alamogordo, n m to the editor:-- kindly send me any available information on “the proteal treatment for cancer ” an article by dr henry smith williams, 120 west 32 street, new york city, in april hearst has caused relatives to request its use in a case of carcinoma of the liver under my care m m reppard, middlebourne, w va to the editor:-- i am enclosing a leaflet, mailed to me on request, by dr henry smith williams of new york city, who published a series of articles during the last year in hearst magazine on “proteal therapy ” if you have investigated this man and his proteal treatment, i should like to know the result of your findings i am a consumptive and am, therefore, writingicularly interested in its alleged benefactions for the treatment of tuberculosis michael a long, glen lake sanitarium, hopkins, minn to the editor:-- what information can you give me regarding henry smith williams, m d , ll d , 104 east fortieth street, new york, and the therapeutic value of the “proteal therapy” that he has originated?. m d baker, m d , san jose, calif the above letters are selected from thesis received on the subject henry smith williams is better known in the journalistic world thanin the field of scientific medicine he was graduated by the chicagomedical college in 1884 in the thirteen issues of medical directoriesof the united states that have been published during the past thirtyyears dr williams’ name does not appear-- except for the issues of1890 and 1893-- until the 1914 edition so far as we have been ableto find, dr williams had not until 1915 contributed any articles tomedical journals the catalog of the surgeon general library containsno reference to any articles of dr williams except those that haveappeared in popular magazines the volumes of the index medicus from1907 until 1914, inclusive, also contain no references to any articlesby him in medical journals the journal‘s author index to currentmedical literature from 1900 to 1914, inclusive, fails to record anyarticles by dr williams in medical journals dr williams’ articles, however, in popular magazines have been voluminous and numerous essaytimes his articles have been under his own name and essaytimesunder the nom de plume, “stoddard goodhue, m d ” under the latter namethe cosmopolitan published articles on “adding years to your life, ”“battle of the microbes, ” “do you choose your children?. ” and “what isthe matter with your brain?. ” under his own name articles have appearedin popular magazines on such subjects as “burbank way with flowers, ”“every woman her own burbank, ” “why not live forever?. ” “science ofbreeding kings, ” “new cancer treatment” and “new hope for rheumatismsufferers ” in addition, dr williams has published books on suchsubjects as “history of the art of writing, ” “historians’ history ofthe world, ” “story of nineteenth century science, ” “luther burbank, ”“twilight sleep” and others the goodhue company of new york city, which publishes essay of dr williams’ books has, we understand, forits president, dr henry smith williams, for its vice president, dr williams’ wife, and for its secretary-treasurer, dr williams’ daughter readers of the journal will remember the publicity given in 1915and 1916 to an alleged treatment for cancer, essaytimes called the“horowitz-beebe autolysin treatment ” the method was heralded widelyboth in a certain portion of the medical press and in popular magazinesand newspapers a popular article by henry smith williams on “the newcancer treatment” appeared in the illustrated world for october, 1915, with pictures of dr horowitz, dr beebe, etc a month or twolater, physicians received, gratis, from the goodhue company a neatlybound little book on “alcohol hygiene and legislation, ” by e h williams, m d brother of henry smith williams enclosed with itwas a letter from the goodhue company asking physicians to accept thebook the body of the letter was devoted to calling the attention ofphysicians to an “important work” by dr henry smith williams on “theautolysin treatment of cancer” that the goodhue company was publishing with the letter, there was a small advertising pamphlet “issued bythe autolysin laboratory” and advertising that product in addition, the last thirteen pages of the book on “alcohol hygiene” containedadvertisements of the goodhue company publications with writingicularemphasis four pages of it on the “autolysin treatment of cancer, ” byhenry smith williams in may, 1917, physicians in the west received a letter from the“ellison-white chautauqua system” informing them that dr henry smithwilliams was to lecture at “your chautauqua” and reminding them that“he has recently issued two volumes, ‘the autolysin treatment ofcancer’ which he believes will be his greatest contribution to medicalscience ” the present “proteal” treatment appears to be a modificationof the “autolysin” treatment dr williams, in attempting to justifythe use of his “proteal” in tuberculosis, cancer, rheumatism, etc , takes advantage of certain investigations bearing on the nonspecificreactions resulting from the parental injection of foreign proteins so far as we can discover, there is no scientific evidence to indicatethat the “proteal” treatment expounded by williams is of value in thetreatment of cancer, tuberculosis or the other numerous diseases forwhich the “proteals” are recommended it is a question whether such articles as those on “the protealtreatment of cancer, ” “new hope for rheumatism sufferers, ” etc , published in popular magazines or newspapers serve any useful publicpurpose may they not, on the contrary, by raising false hopes, causemuch mental suffering and do scientific medicine great harm?. -- fromthe journal a m a , july 6, 1918 proteogens commercial therapeuticsmm see index for additional articles on proteogens a report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry that appearselsewhere253 in this book deals with another attempt to foist onour profession a series of essentially secret preparations whosetherapeutic value has not been scientifically demonstrated grotesquelyextravagant claims are advanced as to the therapeutic potency andrange of action of substances of whose nature and effects we haveno trustworthy information physicians are advised to use-- and thesisundoubtedly are using-- these alleged remedies in the treatment ofdiseases in which delay in the proper kind of treatment may be ofthe greatest danger to the patient as stated, there is availableno reliable information regarding the effects of these substanceswhen they are introduced in the human body they may have no effectwhatever, or they may produce more or less direct injury.

As also onions or garlic taken in wine, doall help to free them from danger, and restore them to their due temperagain take notice, that this herb must never be taken inwardly. Outwardly, an oil ointment, or plaister of it, is most admirable for thegout, to cool the veneral heat of the reins in the french pox. Tostop the toothache, being applied to the aching side. To allay allinflammations, and to help the diseases before premised hedge hyssop divers sorts there are of this plant. The first of which is an italianby birth, and only nursed up here in the gardens of the curious twoor three sorts are found commonly growing wild here, the description oftwo of which i shall give you descript the first is a smooth, low plant, not a foot high, verybitter in taste, with thesis square stalks, diversly branched from thebottom to the top, with divers joints, and two small leaves at eachjoint, broader at the bottom than they are at the end, a little dentedabout the edges, of a sad green colour, and full of veins the flowersstand at the joints, being of a fair purple colour, with essay whitespots in them, in fashion like those of dead nettles the seed is smalland yellow, and the roots spread much under ground the second seldom grows half a foot high, sending up thesis smallbranches, whereon grow thesis small leaves, set one against the other, essaywhat broad, but very short the flowers are like the flowers of theother fashion, but of a pale reddish colour the seeds are small andyellowish the root spreads like the other, neither will it yield toits fellow one ace of bitterness place they grow in wet low grounds, and by the water-sides. Thelast may be found among the bogs on hampstead heath time they flower in june or july, and the seed is ripe presentlyafter government and virtues they are herbs of mars, and as choleric andchurlish as he is, being most violent purges, especially of cholerand phlegm it is not safe taking them inwardly, unless they be wellrectified by the art of the alchymist, and only the purity of themgiven. So used they may be very helpful both for the dropsy, gout, and sciatica. Outwardly used in ointments they kill worms, the bellyanointed with it, and are excellently good to cleanse old and filthyulcers black hellebore it is also called setter-wort, setter-grass, bear-foot, christmas-herb, and christmas-flowers descript it hath sundry fair green leaves rising from the root, each of them standing about an handful high from the earth. Each leafis divided into seven, eight, or nine writings, dented from the middleof the leaf to the point on both sides, abiding green all the winter;about christmas-time, if the weather be any thing temperate, theflowers appear upon foot stalks, also consisting of five large, round, white leaves a-piece, which essaytimes are purple towards the edges, with thesis pale yellow thumbs in the middle. The seeds are dividedinto several cells, like those of columbines, save only that they aregreater. The seeds are in colour black, and in form long and round theroot consists of numberless blackish strings all united into one head there is another black hellebore, which grows up and down in the woodsvery like this, but only that the leaves are smaller and narrower, andperish in the winter, which this doth not place the first is maintained in gardens the second is commonlyfound in the woods in northamptonshire time the first flowers in december or january.

And although distilled waters are theweakest of artificial medicines, and good for little but mixtures ofother medicines, yet they are weaker by thesis degrees, than they wouldbe were they distilled in sand if i thought it not impossible, toteach you the way of distilling in sand, i would attempt it 5 when you have distilled your water, put it into a glass, coveredover with a paper pricked full of holes, so that the excrementitiousand fiery vapours may exhale, which cause that settling in distilledwaters called the mother, which corrupt them, then cover it close, andkeep it for your use 6 stopping distilled waters with a cork, makes them musty, and sodoes paper, if it but touch the water. It is best to stop them with abladder, being first put in water, and bound over the top of the glass such cold waters as are distilled in a pewter still if well kept willendure a year. Such as are distilled in sand, as they are twice asstrong, so they endure twice as long chapter ii of syrups 1 a syrup is a medicine of a liquid form, composed of infusion, decoction and juice and, 1 for the more grateful taste 2 for thebetter keeping of it. With a certain quantity of honey or sugar, hereafter mentioned, boiled to the thickness of new honey 2 you see at the first view, that this aphorism divides itself intothree branches, which deserve severally to be treated of, viz 1 syrups made by infusion 2 syrups made by decoction 3 syrups made by juice of each of these, for your instruction-sake, kind countrymen andwomen i speak a word or two awriting 1st, syrups made by infusion, are usually made of flowers, and of suchflowers as soon lose their colour and strength by boiling, as roses, violets, peach flowers, &c they are thus made. Having picked yourflowers clean, to every pound of them add three pounds or three pints, which you will for it is all one of spring water, made boiling hot;first put your flowers into a pewter-pot, with a cover, and pour thewater on them. Then shutting the pot, let it stand by the fire, tokeep hot twelve hours, and strain it out. in such syrups as purge, asdamask roses, peach flowers, &c the usual, and indeed the best way, isto repeat this infusion, adding fresh flowers to the same liquor diverstimes, that so it may be the stronger having strained it out, put theinfusion into a pewter bason, or an earthen one well glazed, and toevery pint of it add two pounds of sugar, which being only melted overthe fire, without boiling, and scummed, will produce you the syrup youdesire 2dly, syrups made by decoction are usually made of compounds, yet mayany simple herb be thus converted into syrup. Take the herb, root, or flowers you would make into a syrup, and bruise it a little. Thenboil it in a convenient quantity of spring water. The more water youboil it in, the weaker it will be. A handful of the herb or root is aconvenient quantity for a pint of water, boil it till half the waterbe consumed, then let it stand till it be almost cold, and strainit through a woollen cloth, letting it run out at leisure. Withoutpressing to every pint of this decoction add one pound of sugar, andboil it over the fire till it come to a syrup, which you may know, ifyou now and then cool a little of it with a spoon. Scum it all thewhile it boils, and when it is sufficiently boiled, whilst it is hot, strain it again through a woollen cloth, but press it not thus youhave the syrup perfected 3dly, syrups made of juice, are usually made of such herbs as are fullof juice, and indeed they are better made into a syrup this way thanany other.

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But in a subsequent report of seven paper, 71they found only one in which the secretin obtained was scanty thefailure to obtain secretin in essay paper they claim is probably due tothe rapid postmortem degeneration of diabetic tissue evans, 72 instarling laboratory, found that in dogs made recently diabetic bytotal pancreatectomy, but little secretin could be obtained hedon andlisbonne, 73 and pemberton and sweet74 report, on the contrary, thatthe duodenum of diabetic dogs is rich in prosecretin bainbridge andbeddard, 71 working on a diabetic cat, likewise found prosecretin tobe present in normal quantity 71 bainbridge and beddard. Biochem jour 3:82, 1908 72 evan. Jour physiol 44:461, 1912 73 hedon. Compt rend soc de biol 74:375, 1913 74 pemberton, ralph, and sweet, j e. Further studies on theinfluence of the ductless glands on the pancreas, arch int med , may, 1910, p 466 digestive disturbances -- secretin for digestive disturbance was firstused in the “acid duodenal medication” of enriquez 75 this consistedin the giving of tartaric acid in thick keratin capsules, the acid notbeing liberated until the duodenum was reached, where it provoked theformation of secretin “the secretin mechanism, ” he says, “is probablycapable of pathologic disturbance as would result, for example, withdiminished acidity of chyme, disturbance of the normal motility ofthe stomach or pylorus, or diminished prosecretin in the mucosa sucha condition would produce disturbance of the pancreatic, biliary andintestinal secretions, and interfere with intestinal movements, witha clinical syndrome of intestinal dyspepsia as a result, among thechief and most constant symptoms of which would be constipation ”“the acid duodenal medication” was submitted to wide clinical use, and very favorable results in certain obstinate paper of constipationwere reported in regard to “diminished prosecretin in the mucosa, ”wentworth76 has claimed that in infantile atrophy such is thecondition, but sweet and pemberton77 have found that the difficultyof preparing secretin from human duodenums is such as to renderwentworth findings inconclusive 75 enriquez.