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On the contrary, these claimstend to create the impression that the spread of measles and scarletfever can be prevented in the stage of desquamation to placesuch statements in the hands of the patient supported by the tacitendorsement of a prescription is to create a false and dangeroussense of security and to lead to a failure to observe other and moreimportant means of preventing dissemination of these diseases the council held k-y lubricating jelly in conflict with rules 1, 4, 6and grade my essay 10, and authorized publication of this report -- from the journala m a , sept 29, 1917 ziratol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryziratol bristol-myers company, new york, in compliance with thefederal “insecticide law, ” is declared to contain 32 per cent waterand 30 per cent glycerin as inert constituents regarding its activeconstituents the manufacturer makes the following and meaninglessstatement:“ziratol is prepared from phenols of the naphthalene series andconsists of a solution of such phenols in a mixture of soap, water andglycerin ”in response to inquiry, the a m a chemical laboratory examinedziratol and reported that its essential constituent appears to bealpha-napthol, 120 and that it has, essentially, the followingcomposition by weight. Alpha-napthol 18 per cent , soap 20 per cent , glycerin and water sufficient to make 100 per cent 120 alpha-napthol was also found to be the basisof the nostrum benetol see the journal, april 15, 1911, p 1128 a ziratol advertising circular gives a tabulated report of germicidaltests, said to have been made according to the method of the hygieniclaboratory of the u s public health service when this work wasdone is not stated according to these tests ziratol possesses aphenol-coefficient of 13 66 the claim that ziratol is ten times moreefficient than carbolic acid phenol is evidently based on this report these claims of high germicidal value are contradicted by anexamination made for the council a specimen purchased in the openmarket was examined independently by two operators, to determine thehygienic laboratory phenol-coefficient one observer found the phenolcoefficient to be 2 54 the other reported it to be 3 09 evidently thegermicidal value of ziratol is greatly exaggerated in the advertisingclaims and, in fact, does not exceed that of the official compoundsolution of cresol liquor cresolis compositus, u s p for whicha phenol-coefficient of about three has been established see newand nonofficial remedies, 1917, p 82 the claim that ziratol is“the universal antiseptic and germicide” is manifestly an unwarrantedexaggeration the referee in submitting this report to the council recommended thatziratol be held in conflict with rule 1 secrecy of composition andrule 6 unwarranted and exaggerated claims after the report had beensubmitted, it was found that a new advertising circular, accompanyinga trade package, no longer contained the claim that “ziratol is tentimes more efficient than carbolic acid ” the older circular made thefollowing statement. “1 strong activity -- compared with the bactericidal action of carbolic acid by the method of the hygienic laboratory of the marine hospital service, ziratol has the carbolic acid coefficient of more than ten, that is, ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolic acid, -- a strength unapproached by any other of its class ziratol in dilution of 1:1400 kills the typhoid bacillus in 2-1/2 minutes, thus proving that it is strongly active even in very weak solutions ”the new advertising circular reads. “1 strong activity-- extensive bacteriological investigations on thesis pathogenic organisms, conducted in the lederle laboratories of new york, prove conclusively the high bactericidal value of ziratol in extremely dilute solutions a copy of the complete report will be mailed upon request ”in response to a request, the bristol-myers company sent a copy ofthe bacteriologic investigations of ziratol, said to have been madeby the lederle laboratories the organisms employed for these testswere staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, green pus bacillus, b coli, and saliva no tests are given with thetyphoid bacillus the conclusion is reached that “in all the tests thesolutions of ziratol have several times greater killing efficiencythan those of phenol ” the “coefficients” or comparative values whichcan be calculated from the results after exposure of 15 minutes to thedisinfectants range from 2 0 to 4 0 this is in substantial accordwith the referee findings as regards the phenol-coefficient with b typhosus as the test object while the new advertising circular avoidsthe former claim that ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolicacid, in germicidal value, it still makes the unwarranted claims thatziratol is the “universal disinfectant ”the council declared ziratol inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies 1 because its composition is secret rule 1. 2 becausethe phenol coefficient, determined according to the method of thehygienic laboratory, u s p h s , is not stated on the label rule2. 3 because the label and the circular accompanying the tradepackage advises its use by the public as a “vaginal douche” rule 3;and 4 because the claim that ziratol is the “universal disinfectant”is exaggerated and unwarranted rule 6 before authorizing publication of the preceding report the councilsubmitted it to the bristol-myers company in order to give that companythe opportunity of revising its method of marketing ziratol in replythe company enlarged on its withdrawal on “our own initiative” ofthe claim that ziratol had a phenol-coefficient of over ten when thisclaim was shown to be incorrect “by authoritative sources ” one wonderswhether this is a euphemistic reference to the proceedings of thefederal authorities under the insecticide act against the bristol-myerscompany, just made public, 121 because of the false claims made forthe germicidal efficiency of ziratol this prosecution resulted in theseizure and condemnation of two lots of this proprietary which hadpassed in interstate commerce 121 u s dept of agric , insecticide and fungicide board, serviceand regulatory announcements, no 16, issued aug 8, 1917 no 244, misbranding of “ziratol ” u s v 100 bottles, more or less, of“ziratol”. Consent decree of condemnation and forfeiture. Productordered released on bond, p 248 no 256, misbranding of “ziratol ”u s v 936 bottles and 6 jugs of ziratol, consent decree ofcondemnation and forfeiture.

The rootis round, and essaywhat long, for the most writing lying along, the leavesshooting forth at the largest end, which, when it bears its berries, are essaywhat wrinkled and loose, another growing under it, which issolid and firm, with thesis small threads hanging thereat the wholeplant is of a very sharp biting taste, pricking the tongue as nettlesdo the hands, and so abides for a great while without alteration theroot thereof was anciently used instead of starch to starch linen with there is another sort of cuckow-point, with less leaves than theformer, and essay times harder, having blackish spots upon them, whichfor the most writing abide longer green in summer than the former, andboth leaves and roots are more sharp and fierce than it. In all thingselse it is like the former place these two sorts grow frequently almost under every hedge-sidein thesis places of this land time they shoot forth leaves in the spring, and continue but untilthe middle of summer, or essaywhat later. Their husks appearing beforethe fall away, and their fruit shewing in april government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars tragusreports, that a dram weight, or more, if need be, of the spotted wakerobin, either fresh and green, or dried, having been eaten and taken, is a present and sure remedy for poison and the plague the juice ofthe herb taken to the quantity of a spoonful has the same effect butif there be a little vinegar added thereto, as well as to the rootaforesaid, it essaywhat allays the sharp biting taste thereof upon thetongue the green leaves bruised, and laid upon any boil or plaguesore, doth wonderfully help to draw forth the poison. A dram of thepowder of the dried root taken with twice so much sugar in the form ofa licking electuary, or the green root, doth wonderfully help thosethat are pursy and short-winded, as also those that have a cough. Itbreaks, digests, and rids away phlegm from the stomach, chest, andlungs the milk wherein the root as been boiled is effectual also forthe same purpose the said powder taken in wine or other drink, orthe juice of the berries, or the powder of them, or the wine whereinthey have been boiled, provokes urine, and brings down women coursesand purges them effectually after child-bearing, to bring away theafter-birth taken with sheep milk, it heals the inward ulcers of thebowels the distilled water thereof is effectual to all the purposesaforesaid a spoonful taken at a time heals the itch. An ounce or moretaken a time for essay days together, doth help the rupture. The leaveseither green or dry, or the juice of them, doth cleanse all manner ofrotten and filthy ulcers, in what writing of the body soever. And healsthe stinking sores in the nose, called polypus the water wherein theroot has been boiled, dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from anyfilm or skin, cloud or mists, which begin to hinder the sight, andhelps the watering and redness of them, or when, by essay chance, theybecome black and blue the root mixed with bean-flour, and applied tothe throat or jaws that are inflamed, helps them the juice of theberries boiled in oil of roses, or beaten into powder mixed with theoil, and dropped into the ears, eases pains in them the berries orthe roots beaten with the hot ox-dung, and applied, eases the pains ofthe gout the leaves and roots boiled in wine with a little oil, andapplied to the piles, or the falling down of the fundament, eases them, and so doth sitting over the hot fumes thereof the fresh roots bruisedand distilled with a little milk, yields a most sovereign water tocleanse the skin from scurf, freckles, spots, or blemishes whatsoevertherein authors have left large commendations of this herb you see, but for mywriting, i have neither spoken with dr reason nor dr experience about it cucumbers government and virtues there is no dispute to be made, but thatthey are under the dominion of the moon, though they are so much criedout against for their coldness, and if they were but one degree colderthey would be poison the best of galenists hold them to be cold andmoist in the second degree, and then not so hot as either lettuce orpurslain.

Thesis small fluid hemorrhages in substance grade my essay. No subpleural ecchymoses frothy mucus tinged with blood in trachea and bronchi. Bronchi congested brain and abdominal organs normal proof of death by suffocation it is essaytimes difficult in a given case to state whether death is dueto suffocation there is no lesion which of itself could be accepted asproof but a collation of the lesions found taken in connection withthe surroundings of the body will in thesis if not in most paper lead toa definite conclusion infants have been found alive four and five hours after having beenburied in the earth 923 if the pulverulent material has penetratedinto the œsophagus and stomach, the burial has occurred during life exceptionally when burial has occurred after death and traces of thematerial are found in the air-passages, they are not found in theœsophagus or stomach the committee on “suffocation, ” of the new york med leg soc , reported924 the following group of appearances as evidences of death by suffocation. The general venous character of the blood, the turgidity of the larger veins, the congestion of the parenchymatous organs, especially at the base of the brain, the lungs congested in a variable degree and œdematous, frothy mucus in the bronchi, the right side of the heart always fuller than the left fitz925 holds that suffocation is a condition composed of a group of symptoms and appearances due most probably to accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood and a deficiency of oxygen the appearances are. The blood dark and fluid though in gradual suffocation there may be clots in the right side of the heart, the right side of the heart full, venous congestion of the lungs not constant, interstitial emphysema of the lungs, and venous congestion of the liver, kidneys, and brain he prefers the word engorgement to congestion in this connection tardieu926 holds that when in infants buried in pulverulentsubstances we find emphysema of the lungs in high degree, bloody frothin the air-passages, abundant subpleural and subpericardial ecchymosesand the blood fluid, the burial has occurred during life the samelesions are found in small animals similarly treated it must not be forgotten that an intoxicated person or one in anepileptic spasm is practically helpless, and can, therefore, besuffocated, accidentally or otherwise, under circumstances in which onein possession of his senses would be able to escape accidental, homicidal, and suicidal suffocation accidental suffocation is frequent, as has already appeared suicidal suffocation is very rare homicidal suffocation occurs foreign bodies have been forced into the air-passages smothering hasbeen done by holding the face in various materials to prevent accessof air. By pressure on the chest. By forcible closure of the mouth andnose as in burking. By laying compresses over the face, as in the caseof king benhadad, 927 whom hazael killed “and it came to pass on themorrow that he took a thick cloth and dipped it in water, and spreadit over his face so that he died. And hazael reigned in his stead ”benhadad was already quite ill and not expected to live death by suffocation928 may be considered as presumptive of homicideunless the facts are already referable to accident in infants, suffocation is, of course, either accidental or homicidal;in adults usually accidental the absence of signs of a strugglein adults suggests accident. Unless there is cause of suspicion ofprevious stupefying with narcotics taylor929 calls attention to a dangerous practice among essayattendants upon infants, of putting into the mouth of the child toquiet it a bag containing sugar. And instances a case in which thechild would have died of suffocation but for the fortunate discovery ofa writing of the bag protruding from the mouth in ten years, 3, 612 deaths were reported in the city of london, ofinfants smothered by being overlaid 930infants may be born into a mass of blood and fæces, from which theunattended mother in her weakness may be unable to remove them page931 shows by experiment that the inspiratory effort when violently exerted is sufficient to convey small objects into the air-passages cinders passed thus into the trachea and œsophagus of kittens and rabbits berenguier932 experimented on new-born pups, placing them in ashes, plaster, and starch in ashes they lived fifteen hours. These found their way into the middle of the œsophagus, but were stopped at the glottis plaster and starch formed a paste with the oral mucus and the movement of the mass was not so great as the ashes in no case did either of the materials pass beyond the glottis tardieu933 examined three infants which had been buried during life one was in ashes. The nose was obstructed, mouth full. Ashes also in the œsophagus and stomach, but none in larynx or bronchi the second infant was in manure. A greenish stuff was found in the mouth and stomach the third in bran confessed to by the mother. The nose and mouth were full, but there was none in the throat.

“approximate composition made sic by quantitative and qualitative analysis of the finished product ”it is also claimed that “an even greater advantage of tyree buchu and hyoscyamus compound over other drugs, lies in the fact that every constituent of the former is required to conform to a fixed standard of active principle strength. Hence the results derivable from it are absolutely uniform ”these pretentious claims of scientific accuracy look rather absurd tochemists thesis of the substances present in buchu, hops, hyoscyamus, uva ursi and pareira brava are also present in other drugs. Hence itwould never occur to a pharmaceutical chemist to try to ascertain thecomposition of such a mixture as tyree elixir by “quantitative andqualitative analysis of the finished product, ” much less to determinethe “active principle strength” of each ingredient, for no methods areknown by which this can be done it is claimed that, because of the care exercised in making tyreeelixir “ the results derivable from it are absolutely uniform ”a moment reflection, however, must compel any physician to attributethis statement, on the most charitable construction, to sheerignorance of course, even a definite chemical principle, such asquinin, does not exert uniform clinical action, for clinical conditionsvary, and accordingly the patient may or may not be cured it is simplypreposterous to claim that the clinical results obtained from suchsubstances as hops, pareira brava, buchu and uva ursi are absolutelyuniform a peculiarly vicious claim is that the elixir renders the mucoussurfaces of the genito-urinary tract “hostile to the multiplication ofthe gonococci ” since infection with the gonococcus produces the direstresults, any claim which means in plain english that the remedy assistsin producing a cure or in preventing infection with that organismcannot be condemned too strongly uva ursi, to be sure, has essay slightantiseptic action but it is devoid of any curative action in gonorrheaand the minute amounts that are present in the tyree elixir are of nomore protective value against gonorrheal infection than a grain ofhexamethylenamin would be it is further claimed that the elixir is a “specific” for “inflammationof the bladder, bright disease, renal colic, suppurative nephritis, acute cystitis, urethritis, catarrh of the bladder it would beinteresting to know what distinction the manufacturer draws between‘inflammation of the bladder, ’ ‘cystitis’ and ‘catarrh of thebladder’, acidemia, edema, vesical catarrh of old age, lithemia” andthat ascites and anasarca “can be reduced greatly to the satisfactionof the patient, and honor of the physician” by using a mixture oftyree elixir and infusion of digitalis such claims as these do notmerit serious discussion, for they carry their own refutation it is recommended that tyree elixir of buchu and hyoscyamus compoundbe held in conflict with rules 5, 6 and 10 and that publication ofthis report be authorized -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 167 hydroleine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhydroleine charles n crittenton company, new york is a cod liveroil emulsion said to contain 45 per cent of cod liver oil, a trace ofsalicylic acid and 18-1/2 grains of “pancreatin, etc , ” per ounce theadvertising claims are based largely on the theory that cod liver oilis “that writingicular fat which dietetic experience and physiologicalchemistry have proved to be most digestible ” as a matter of fact, while the superior digestibility of cod liver oil over other oils hasoften been asserted, neither “dietetic experience” nor “physiologicalchemistry” have “proved” this by definite observations the crittentoncompany claims that it is more readily split than other oils thisis probably not true, easy emulsification of the raw oil being oftenconfounded with easy splitting this latter claim, however, is offeredin justification of the name “hydroleine, ” which the crittenton companyinterprets as “hydrated oil ” a circular wrapped around the bottlecontains the assertion that “cod liver oil has long been held in highesteem by the medical profession for the treatment of a large number ofserious diseases ” this recommendation is likely to lead the public toplace undue reliance on hydroleine in the grave conditions mentioned the preparation is in conflict with the rules of the council inasmuchas its name does not indicate its composition, unwarranted therapeuticclaims are made for it, and the exploitation is likely to give thepublic unwarranted confidence in its value the council therefore heldhydroleine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies -- from reportsof council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1915, p 171 curative vaccine, bruschettini report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycurative vaccine, bruschettini, manufactured by a bruschettini, genoa, italy, is claimed to have the properties “of acting directly on thetubercular bacillus, bringing directly into the field and determining ahyperproduction of antibacillar and antitoxic substances ” the use ofthe preparation is said to be indicated in “all forms of tuberculosis ”a referee reported to the council that he had examined the availableinformation and believed that the use of this product had nosatisfactory experimental basis the method of preparation appears tobe based more on theoretical considerations than on experimental basis on the recommendation of the committee on serums and vaccines thecouncil voted that curative vaccine, bruschettini, be not acceptedbecause 1 the method used for the production of the vaccine was notsatisfactorily stated. 2 the theory on which its use is based has notbeen satisfactorily confirmed, and 3 the value of the product is notupheld by satisfactory clinical evidence the council findings, in accordance with its procedure, were sentto the manufacturers for comment his reply was considered by a newreferee who found that the matter presented did not warrant a revisionof the council conclusions accordingly the council directedpublication of its findings -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1915, p 176 stearns’ wine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfrederick stearns & co market a preparation known as “stearns’ wine, ”“stearns’ wine of cod liver ext with peptonate of iron, ” and as “vinumext morrhuae, stearns ” the constituents are said to be “concentratedextract of fresh cod livers, ” “peptonate of iron” and a “fine qualityof prime sherry wine” containing 18 per cent of alcohol this preparation was at one time marketed through the medicalprofession, but is now advertised direct to the public in typical“patent medicine” style the label on a recently purchased bottle ofstearns’ wine contains the following statements. “stearns wine is an ideal tonic for elderly people, for weak, pale and delicate children and convalescents “stearns wine has for thesis years been successfully prescribed in the treatment of general or nervous exhaustion, anemia, malnutrition, loss of appetite, loss of sleep, faulty circulation and impoverished blood supply ”the scope of the recommendations for the preparation is furtherindicated in a booklet accompanying the bottle, which begins. “stearns’ wine, what it is and why it is good for you ”the conclusion is. “stearns’ wine is a safe medicine for the young, middle-aged and old it is a safeguard to the family health ”it is not necessary to discuss either these all-embracing claims asto the therapeutic efficacy of the mixture or the fallacies presentedin favor of cod-liver extract and peptonate of iron the councilreaffirms the opinion that whatever therapeutic value cod liver mayhave resides chiefly, if not entirely, in its fatty constituents the journal, oct 9, 1909.

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Bromidia is a distinctly dangerous mixture forindiscriminate use the claim of the manufacturers, implied, ratherthan directly stated, that it is superior to an extemporaneouslyprepared mixture of those drugs is especially reprehensible because ittends to create the impression that the nostrum is safer in effectivedoses, conducing to a false sense of security on the writing of thosewho are deluded into prescribing it in larger doses than they would amixture of the same drugs prepared extemporaneously a report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry published in thejournal, may 16, 1914, p 1573, mentions three instances in which deathis reported to have followed the use of bromidia the manufacturersof bromidia have no magic power to render hydrated chloral harmless, while it retains its hypnotic action it depresses the central nervoussystem, and it is nothing less than monstrous for any one to pretendto rob this drug of its dangerous properties while it retains itshypnotic effects if the patient requires a hypnotic, the physicianshould choose that one which his judgment and experience dictate asthe best for that writingicular patient if he needs hydrated chloral, the physician should prescribe exactly as much as he believes thepatient needs if the effect is slightly greater or slightly less thananticipated, no harm is done and the physician has gained experiencethat will be valuable in future prescribing if bromidia is prescribedand unexpected effects are induced, it is impossible to know whetherthese were due to the hydrated chloral or to one of the other narcoticsor to a synergistic action. And there is nothing to guide in thefurther use of the nostrum, for mixtures of narcotics commonly havemuch less uniformity of action than a single drug the irritant action of hydrated chloral on the stomach can be avoidedby the use of bland fluids or dilute solutions the following serves asan example of the way in which it may be prescribed conveniently. Gm or c c hydrated chloral 2|6 gr xl syrup of orange peel | water of each 30| fl ℥ ia tablespoonful 15 0 c c of this mixture, containing 10 grains 0 65 gm of hydrated chloral, will often induce sleep in the absenceof severe pain or serious disturbance, and seldom does this dose haveto be repeated more than once in such simple paper hydrated chloralis often used in essaywhat smaller doses in combination with potassiumbromid, which may be prescribed in a mixture such as the following.