History

Grad School Essay


It helps to distractattention from the fact that he does not tell what the preparationdoes contain!. In the old-time medical journal advertisements, one reads, “salhepatica is the most powerful solvent of uric acid known ” the sameadvertisement as it appeared in those days in the journal showsthat claim toned down to, “sal hepatica is a powerful solvent ofuric acid ” in those easy going days, the bristol-myers companydeclared that “diabetes is treated with decided advantage by meansof sal hepatica it possesses the property of arresting thesecretion of sugar in the liver ” in the old days, too, sal hepaticawas recommended in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver, brightdisease, gravel, phthisis, etc the present advertising circular recommends sal hepatica as aneliminant, laxative or cathartic in gout, autointoxication, “biliousattacks, ” rheumatism, acute indigestion, catarrhal conditions ofthe stomach, pyorrhea, headache, dizziness, heart burn, “summercomplaints, ” “derangements of the stomach and liver, ” skin diseases, colic, alcoholic excesses, and as a “preventive of seasickness ”in 1914 the council on pharmacy and chemistry published256 a reporton sal hepatica declaring it secret in composition and sold underexaggerated and unwarranted claims 256 j a m a , feb 7, 1914, p 472 in view of the inquiries which the journal continues to receive itseemed worth while to make a chemical examination of the present-dayproduct accordingly specimens were purchased and analyzed in thea m a chemical laboratory the report that follows was submitted bythe chemists:“sal hepatica is a white, granular, odorless powder it effervesces onthe addition of water in which it eventually dissolves the aqueoussolution, after boiling to remove carbon dioxid, has an acid reactionto litmus “since a great thesis medicinal substances are sold in effervescent form, and since practically no information is given by the manufacturerconcerning the composition of sal hepatica, it became necessary totest for a considerable number of therapeutic agents the absence ofacetanilid, acetphenetidin, alkaloids, ammonium salts, benzoates, caffein, citrates, heavy metals, hexamethylenamin, magnesium, potassium, salicylates and sugars was demonstrated by appropriatetests the presence of a carbonate probably in the form of abicarbonate, a phosphate, a sulphate, a chlorid, tartaric acid, sodiumand traces of lithium was shown by qualitative tests “quantitative analysis indicated that the composition of the specimensexamined was essentially as follows. Sodium phosphate, anhydrous 4 4 per cent sodium sulphate, anhydrous 26 5 per cent sodium tartrate, anhydrous 12 7 per cent sodium bicarbonate 19 5 per cent tartaric acid, free 20 8 per cent sodium chlorid 8 9 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 7 2 per cent “from the results of the analysis, it appears probable that thecomposition of the mixture before ‘granulation’ was approximately asfollows. Sodium phosphate 4 per cent sodium sulphate 25 per cent sodium bicarbonate 30 per cent tartaric acid 30 per cent sodium chlorid 8 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 3 per cent “sal hepatica, therefore, is essentially an effervescing mixture ofdried sodium sulphate glauber salt and sodium tartrate with alittle dried sodium phosphate and table salt added it is similar tothe effervescent artificial carlsbad salt described in the nationalformulary “in 1909 the druggists circular published the following analysis ofsal hepatica.

during all this time i never gave a thought as to where we were going or how we were going to get there i didn't give a damn what happened, only that my wife pulled through however, after my wife had passed the critical point and commenced to get better, a load seemed to be lifted off my shoulders, and the mere fact grad school essay of being a prisoner on board a german raider seemed of no consequence i then commenced to take an interest in things around me my continual silence, with nobody to talk to, and the long periods of darkness, from 7:10 p m to 6:30 a m , it being winter in the south pacific, grew very irkessay on account of the extreme heat in the cabin when the door was closed and the light on, i was unable to sit inside and read, so the only thing left was to sit outside my door on the deck and think, and god knows i didn't have thesis very agreeable things to think about at this time my wife was still too weak to talk, and anyway i didn't want to get her asking questions, thinking it would only make her worry, which i knew was not good for her my days were usually taken up in washing clothes and nursing the wife i never knew there were so thesis clothes in the world, and to think that they came from one sick wife and a perfectly healthy six-year old kiddie!. i, like a darn fool, kept putting on clean white frocks and all the other white fixings that go with it when the missis got on the job again, miss juanita got a pair of overalls on week days and a dress on sundays, all this going to prove that as a nurse maid i was a fizzle i came a steve brodie on the wife's hair also, letting it get into such a mess that i couldn't comb the rats' nests out of it and had to cut the whole business off short however, this didn't make much difference, as it all came out itself anyway at all times on the wolf the fresh water situation was of great importance, as we were on a strict allowance of drinking water, which they condensed and purified themselves we were also allowed a minute quantity of semi-condensed water for washing purposes i used to save up for several days and get enough for a bath, all of us using the same water after bathing, this water was used to wash clothes in on other mornings we had to be content with a salt water bath, which is very refreshing but has little cleansing quality every effort was made to catch all the rain water possible, and then everybody had the big wash during a heavy rain it was customary for all hands to strip and stand out in the rain and have a good rain water bath it was quite odd to see from one hundred and fifty to three hundred men taking their bath in this manner it makes one think of the garden of eden before eve showed on the job i used to look forward to the evening when the prize officer, lieutenant zelasko, used to come to my quarters and talk for half an hour his talk usually was of the war, and it was interesting to get the german view of it of course, from their viewpoint "poor gerthesis" was the defendant, and they figure they are fighting to protect their homes and not in a war of conquest thesis of the crew of the wolf had seen service on the various fronts and in belgium and had essay very interesting experiences to tell these stories were always from the german viewpoint one chap in writingicular had a unique and unenviable experience, having been wounded in six places at six different times he was shot once through the shoulder on the russian front on two occasions, while on service in france, he was shot, once through the arm and on another occasion through the leg at the storming of antwerp he was wounded on the head by a flying piece of shell, and later on, while trying to storm a bridge, he was bayoneted while serving as a member of the prize crew on the s s melunga, after her capture by the wolf, he lost an eye, while knocking off the head of a beer bottle, a piece of the glass striking him in the eye the bottle of beer was "gambe carlsburger, " a danish beer, and as this accident happened on an australian steamer in the indian ocean, i don't know just exactly who should get the credit for this, although i think that denmark should be credited with an asset one of the officers, a lieutenant, was in the sailors' foot regiment the first time the germans entered antwerp, and told of the civil populace throwing large rocks, flat irons and cooking utensils down on the soldiers' heads while they were marching into the town, and spoke as if this was a grave breach of the marquis of queensbury's rules as to how to conduct a war after thesis of the brave teuton soldiers had been wounded in this undignified and unwarlike manner, they withdrew and the artillery bombardment followed from other sources i have heard that this regiment marched up the street taking pot shots at anybody, male or female, who happened to look out of a window or door i judged from this man's conversation that this sailor regiment shipped to stop bullets and not flat irons and other nameless weapons one afternoon i asked commander nerger for permission to talk to essay of the men, saying it was not healthy for a man to sit around all day and not say a word to anybody this he granted, so after that i could hold short conversations with a good thesis members of the crew, and in a short time had practically the run of the ship it was absolutely forbidden, however, for me to talk to any of the other prisoners who had been on board the wolf for a long time and knew of its various mine-laying activities our meals were served in our cabin, on dishes taken from the beluga. In fact, for the first month a good deal of our food was beluga's food little delicacies that i had bought for our own use, such as potted meats, jellies, crackers and a case of wine, were reserved for our own use by the purser of the wolf at commander nerger's suggestion one of the most valuable foods to us, taken from the beluga and reserved for our use, was four paper of canned milk of the liquid variety, which proved very beneficial to the wife during her sickness, and also was greatly appreciated by nita the doctor, thinking probably that the black bread would prove too strong for nita's stomach, endeavoured to have the ship's baker make a small quantity of white bread for her, but unfortunately the baker could not make a success of the wheat bread and the effort was given up as far as i could see, this black bread, while being far from palatable, was very wholeessay and nourishing i should like to state here that my family and myself were treated with the utmost courtesy and consideration by the commander himself and his officers while we were prisoners i am not speaking for the poor devils down below aft, nor of our treatment while under the charge of lieutenant rose on the jap prize ship hitachi maru, or later on the spanish prize igotz mendi, which was decidedly different on the wolf our meals were regular and methodically worked out, so that at the end of each day a person had received just so much rationed nourishment myself and family received the same food as that served in the officers' mess our breakfast usually consisted of "near" coffee, syrup or treacle and three slices of black bread i have seen the cook's dewritingment roasting this alleged "coffee, " and believe it to be nothing more nor less than wheat roasted until it is scorched or burnt, the larger kernels being saved for this purpose essay years ago i was on a sailing vessel and the supply of coffee gave out the cook used to take burnt bread and make a substitute for coffee from it that was identical in taste with this coffee on the wolf dinner at midday consisted of a soup, a meat-ball composed of canned beef ground fine and mixed with bread crumbs, plenty of preserved peas and carrots monday, wednesday and friday we had a dessert, usually stewed prunes or a corn-starch mixture for supper we had tea, bread, and sardine paste, or pickled, cold corned beef quite often rice in various disguises was given instead of the "bully beef" at noon but on sunday oh, joy!. !. a regular, honest-to-grandma dinner, consisting of asparagus soup, real fresh meat from the refrigerator, evaporated potatoes, a vegetable, prunes and a sweet this for a regular menu, day in and day out, doesn't look very good, but considering that we were prisoners i don't believe we had any cause to complain the food we received was the same as that which the commander and deck officers had, and superior to that of the warrant officers and seamen torpedoshowing "mannlicher" type torpedo tube, portside forward on "wolf" steamerfinal dive of japanese steamer "hitachi maru " 6558 gross tons capt kokmoa captured september 26th off maldiva islands, indian ocean sunk by bombs november 7th the german auxiliary cruiser and minelayer wolf was formerly a freighter belonging to the hansa line, a subsidiary of the hamburg-american line. Of 6, 728 gross tons. Single screw, one funnel. Two well decks, two telescoping masts, equipped with wireless, double bridge. Two sampson posts on poop and four sets of cargo booms on the poop rigged from the sampson posts were two faked cargo booms whose real purpose was to disguise a six-inch gun mounted there on her boat deck she showed three life-boats, working boats from each side the vessel was painted all black and had no writingicular distinguishing marks wolf carried two six-inch ordinary guns, one mounted forward under the forecastle head and the other on top of the poop. Four 4 7 ordinaries, two forward and two aft mounted on the well deck the bulwark or rails at these guns, as at the six-inch forward gun, were fitted with hinges and spring catches, so that by one blow of a hammer they dropped down, giving the guns ample room for action under ordinary circumstances nothing of these guns could be seen above the rail she was further armed with four torpedo tubes, two forward and two aft, on the well decks the torpedoes forward were "red heads" and especially effective for short distances, while those aft were "mannlichers" and used for long distance work she also had four machine guns mounted, two on each end of the boat deck in such a manner that they could control the decks and the prisoners' quarters aft on leaving kiel wolf had a crew of three hundred and seventy-five men, including one commander and corvette captain, one lieutenant commander, three senior and six junior lieutenants, two surgeons and twelve warrant officers, including gun mechanics, torpedo mechanics, mine experts, navigating sub-lieutenants and boatswains she had a wireless crew of seven men, including one wireless expert the signal corps consisted of six signal men in charge of a code expert, who had had several years of training at a school in deciphering various codes i am led to believe from what i saw that this man was able to decipher naval and private codes used in the south pacific, but was unable to handle codes used in the north atlantic on leaving kiel wolf had on board five hundred mines, seventy-five hundred tons of westphalian coal, three thousand tons of water, and twenty-five hundred tons of food and ammunition this heavy cargo over-loaded the wolf i understand she was drawing over two feet more than her normal loaded draft when she left kiel, and on getting safely through the blockade she encountered a very heavy series of gales in the north atlantic, causing the vessel to labour heavily this labouring strained her hull and topside and she dropped a good thesis rivets as soon as she ran out of this bad weather repairs were made and all her topsides double riveted essaything like nine thousand rivets were driven, this work being done by her crew as the wolf proceeded down the atlantic among her mechanics she seemed to have representatives from almost every trade, and apparently an inexhaustible supply of materials for making repairs or new additions to her equipment wolf was equipped with a triple expansion engine and three boilers and one auxiliary donkey boiler her power plant was unique in that she could steam seven knots per hour on a consumption of eighteen tons of coal per diem, and eleven and a half knots per hour, her maximum, on twenty-eight tons of coal per diem i have heard it said that she had one of the most efficient power plants out of europe, having a fuel consumption of 1 2 per i h p wolf was further equipped with a powerful searchlight, situated abaft the bridge, on a tower that could be raised or lowered at will when not in use this light could not be seen above the top of the house wolf sailed from kiel on november 21, 1916 the commander of the wolf, corvette captain nerger, of the imperial german navy, was a man of probably thirty-five years of age, of moderate height and slim build he was immaculate in all things pertaining to his person, and was a strict disciplinarian i was in commander nerger's quarters one day i had visited him to thank him for the courtesy he had extended to my family and to myself, and found him a very agreeable man to talk to. A thorough gentleman and apparently anxious to do anything he could to make our lot bearable in talking with him i found nothing to denote the arrogant prussianism which is said to predominate in the higher branches of the german navy and yet commander nerger was a man "all alone " he kept absolutely to himself. Took no man into his confidence no man ever knew an hour ahead what his plans or the vessel's plans were he was the only one who knew when we started for home on the fifteen months' cruise of the wolf nerger was in full charge and ran his vessel as a "one man ship " he lived in comfortable quarters on the boat deck, just under the bridge, and had his meals served in his private dining room in the five months i was on the wolf i do not think i saw him on the berth deck more than a dozen times, and then only on an inspection trip of essay kind he always had the appearance of having just stepped out of a bandbox, he was so immaculate in his dress i was told by his officers that nerger never gets excited.

And also where there is respiratory interferencein the prolonged efforts of tedious labor and in convulsions liman755 found it in those who were hung it is due, according tohofmann, 756 to increased blood pressure and consequent hemorrhages it is of importance as tending to show that there was stasis of bloodin the head and face during life liman757 found cyanosis in theconjunctivæ, lips, back of mouth, and in the muscles maschka758in 234 paper of asphyxia found capillary hemorrhages of the eyes andeyelids 87 times dastre and morat759 claim that in asphyxia the cutaneous circulationbecomes more active than in the normal state, while at the same timethe vessels of the abdominal cavity are contracted laffont760considers the mechanism of this peripheral dilatation post-mortem stainings hypostases are usually darker in strangulationthan in other forms of death they appear soon, as does alsoputrefaction, because of the quantity and fluidity of the blood signs of hemorrhage from the nose, eyes, and mouth may be visible;as also bloody froth from the mouth and nose chevers761 never sawbleeding from the ears in strangulation taylor762 states that dr geoghegan informed him of a case of suicidal strangulation by a ribbon;the violence was great, there was bleeding from the ear, and the drumwas found ruptured in this case the mark on the neck, which was deep, nearly disappeared after the ligature was removed taylor also sayswilde, of dublin, saw a case of rupture of drum and hemorrhage instrangulation pellier763 says that littré mentions a case of ruptureof tympanic membrane in strangulation by a cord zoufal and hofmannhave offered explanations of the occurrence case 35 the grad school essay face usually shows pain and suffering. Although essaytimes thefeatures are calm in the latter case there may have been syncope the eyes are usually staring, prominent, and congested, and the pupilsdilated casper764 doubts their prominence budin and coyne765state that in asphyxia the dilation of the pupil progresses to amaximum and then convulsions occur ophthalmoscopic examination duringthe dyspnœa of asphyxia shows a lessened fulness of the retinal vessels the tongue is often swollen, dark, protruding, and essaytimes bitten maschka766 states that if the ligature lies above the hyoid bone, thetongue will be drawn backward. If over or below the bone, the tip ofthe tongue may appear more or less between the jaws the hands are usually clinched and may have in their grasp articleswhich, under the circumstances, have a medico-legal value the external generative organs are essaytimes congested. Erection ofthe penis may have taken place and persisted the vagina may be moist tardieu, devergie, and casper767 deny that these appearances areusual involuntary discharges of urine, fæces, and seminal fluid may haveoccurred there is nothing characteristic in their appearance all the external appearances of asphyxia are usually more marked instrangulation than in hanging internal appearances - the mark usually there is hemorrhage into theloose connective tissue under the mark and in the subjacent muscles;in most paper isolated and circumscribed, but essaytimes extendingbeyond the line of the mark hemorrhage from compression by the fingersis more marked than that from ligature 768 essaytimes there is onlyfulness of the subcutaneous veins the carotid arteries may suffer rupture of their inner and middlecoats, especially in atheromatous subjects and when the compressionhas been great friedberg769 states that the injury of the carotid, if there is hemorrhage into its middle and internal coats, is a proofthat the strangulation occurred during life, and probably from pressureof the fingers on the neck, without any regard to any disease of theartery he reports two paper the examiner should be careful not toinjure the artery with his forceps the vessels may contain clots the neck occasionally suffers extreme injury, and, owing to theviolence used, this occurs oftener in strangulation than inhanging 770 occasionally the neck is broken the hyoid bone may be fractured see case 5 maschka771 saw one casein eighteen of erdrosselung and five paper in fifteen of erwürgen the trachea is essaytimes torn, or may be folded on itself the cartilages of the larynx, especially if calcareous, may befractured this is more likely to affect the thyroid than cricoid the fracture would appear to occur only as the result of enormousforce. Especially in the young in whom the cartilages are so elastic the experiments of keiller772 on cadavers led him to conclude thatfalls on the larynx, even from a height and with superadded force, areunlikely to fracture that organ. That severe pressure or violent blowsagainst the larynx from before backward may cause fracture. But thatsevere lateral pressure, as in ordinary throttling, is more likely thanother forms of violence to fracture the alæ of the thyroid or even thecricoid cartilages and also the hyoid bone taylor773 states that dr inman, of liverpool, had informed him of a case of splitting of ringsof windpipe from pressure see paper 5, 13 maschka774 in fifteenpaper of choking found six fractures of the larynx chailloux775 has collected eight paper of fracture of larynx instrangulation they were all made with the fingers the experimentsof cavasse776 seem to show that there is no great difficulty infracturing the thyroid in strangulation internal appearances due to asphyxia - the veins of the entire bodyare distended with very dark and very fluid blood, while the arteries, especially in the young, are mostly empty experiments on the loweranimals have shown that the pulmonary artery and systemic veins to thefinest ramifications are distended with dark blood 777the heart - the right side, especially the auricle, is usually fullof dark fluid blood, due to the mechanical impediment to the passageof blood through the lungs if the heart continues to beat after therespiration has ceased the right ventricle is commonly well contracted, like the left cavities, and nearly empty, the lungs being muchcongested essaytimes the left cavities of the heart contain blood thiswould be most likely to occur if the heart should stop in the diastole essaytimes clots are found in the right ventricle maschka778 foundclots in the heart 25 times in 234 paper of asphyxia the lungs are usually much congested, resembling red hepatization, except that the blood is darker hemorrhages apoplexies into thesubstance of the lungs are common tardieu found patches of emphysemadue to rupture of the surface air-vesicles, giving the surface ofthe lung the appearance of a layer of white false membrane ogstonadmits this occurrence in pure strangulation but to a less extent inmixed paper liman779 found the lung surface uneven, bosselated, the prominences being of a clearer color and due to emphysema the lungs were in the same condition of congestion and emphysemain strangulation, suffocation, and hanging he failed to find theapoplexies described the lungs are essaytimes anæmic in healthy young subjects, especiallychildren, the blood-vessels of the lungs often empty themselvesafter the heart stops the lungs may, therefore, be bloodless, butemphysematous from the violent efforts to breathe page experimentson the lower animals showed the lungs of a pale reddish color andnot much distended. A few dilated air-cells might be seen towardtheir anterior borders, and there might be small hemorrhages over thesurface his experiments appear to show that subpleural ecchymosesoccur as a result of violent and repeated efforts to breathe amongother experiments780 he stopped the mouth and nostrils of a youngcalf long enough to excite violent efforts at respiration. It wasthen instantly killed by pithing the lungs were found pale red, not congested, but showed subpleural ecchymoses page believedthese were due to the changed relation between the capacity of thethorax and volume of lungs liman found these ecchymoses in paper ofstrangulation, hanging, drowning, poisoning, hemorrhage, and œdema ofbrain, in the new-born, etc he failed to find them in essay paper ofsuffocation he believes them due to blood pressure from stasis inthe blood-vessels ssabinski781 made thesis experiments on dogs andcats to ascertain the presence or absence of subpleural ecchymoses instrangulation, drowning, section of pneumogastrics, opening of pleuralsac, compression of chest and abdomen, closure of mouth and nose, burial in pulverulent materials, etc similar hemorrhages may appearon the mucous and serous membranes, as the respiratory, digestive, andgenito-urinary tracts, and pleuræ, pericardium, peritoneum, membranesof brain, and the ependyma these are essaytimes minute and stellate, at others irregular in shape. Thesis are bright-colored accordingto tardieu the punctiform ecchymoses are rarely present except insuffocation maschka, 782 in 234 paper of asphyxia, found the lungscongested 135 times, anæmic 10, and œdematous 42 he thinks thesubpleural ecchymoses valuable signs of asphyxia the bronchial tubes are usually full of frothy, bloody mucus, and themucous membrane is much congested and shows abundant ecchymoses the lining membrane of the larynx and trachea is always congested andmay be livid.

And the affidavit is filed in grad school essay the office of the countyrecorder 1, 298 b penalty - practising without complying with the act is a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in a countyjail from thirty days to six months, or both fine and imprisonment foreach offence filing or attempting to file as his own the diploma or certificate ofgraduation of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony. Subject to fine and imprisonment 1, 298 c. S 6, 312 exceptions - the act is not applicable to a person in an emergencyprescribing or giving advice in medicine or surgery, in a townshipwhere no physician resides within convenient distance, nor to thosewho have practised medicine or surgery in this state for ten yearspreceding the passage of this act, nor to persons prescribing in theirown families, nor to midwifery in places where no physician resideswithin convenient distance 1, 298 e. As amended by act offebruary 7th, 1889 fees - no special fees are enumerated in the statute the countyrecorder fees for services are prescribed in rev stats , 1887, s 2, 128 illinois qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in any ofits dewritingments unless he possesses the qualifications required if agraduate in medicine, he must present his diploma to the state boardof health for verification as to its genuineness if the diploma isfound genuine, and from a legally chartered medical institution in goodstanding, and if the person named therein be the person claiming andpresenting the same, the board must issue a certificate conclusive asto his right to practise medicine if not a graduate, the person mustpresent himself before the said board and submit to examination, andif the examination is satisfactory the board must issue certificate laws 1887, p 225, s 1 the verification of a diploma consists in the affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the person therein named the affidavit may betaken before any person authorized to administer oaths, and attestedunder the hand and official seal of such officer if he have a seal swearing falsely is perjury graduates may present their diplomas andaffidavits by letter or proxy 3 all examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates are made bythe board. And certificates authorize their possessor to practisemedicine and, surgery 4 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the clerk of thecounty in which the holder resides within three months from its date, and the date of recording indorsed until recorded, the holder cannotlawfully exercise the rights and privileges conferred a personremoving to another county to practise must record his certificate inthe county to which he removes 5 examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing and shall be ofelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 8 the board may refuse to issue a certificate to a person guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes the applicant in case of a refusal or revocation may appeal to thegovernor and his decision will be final 9 definition - “practising medicine” is defined as treating, operatingon, or prescribing for any physical ailment of another the actdoes not prohibit services in case of emergency, nor the domesticadministration of family remedies, and does not apply to commissionedsurgeons of the united states army, navy, or marine hospital service inthe discharge of official duty 10 itinerant vender - an itinerant vender of drug, nostrum, ointment, orappliance intended for treatment of disease or injury, or professingby writing, printing, or other method to cure or treat disease ordeformity by drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, must paya license fee of $100 per month into the treasury of the board theboard may issue such license selling without a license is punishableby fine of from $100 to $200 for each offence the board may for causerefuse a license 11 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without a certificate ispunishable by a forfeiture of $100 for the first offence, and $200 foreach subsequent offence. Filing or attempting to file as his own thecertificate of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony, punishable as forgery exceptions - the act saves for six months after its passage the rightof persons who have practised continuously for ten years in the stateprior to its passage, to receive a certificate under former act butall persons holding a certificate on account of ten years’ practice aresubject to all requirements and discipline of this act in regard totheir future conduct. All persons not having applied for or receivedcertificates within said six months, and all persons whose applicationshave for the causes named been rejected, or their certificates revoked, shall, if they practise medicine, be deemed guilty of practising inviolation of law 12 penalty - on conviction of the offence mentioned in the act, the courtmust, as a writing of the judgment, order the defendant to be committed tothe county jail until the fine and costs are paid 13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for each certificate to agraduate or licentiate, $5 2 for graduates or licentiates in midwifery, $2 2 to county clerk, usual fees for making record to treasury of board, for examination of non-graduates. $20, inmedicine and surgery. $10, in midwifery only if the applicant fails to pass, the fees are returned if he passes, acertificate issues without further charge 7 indiana qualification - it is unlawful to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics without a license act april 11th, 1885, s 1 the license is procured from the clerk of the circuit court of thecounty where the person resides or desires to locate to practise. Itauthorizes him to practise anywhere within the state. The applicantmust file with the clerk his affidavit stating that he has regularlygraduated in essay reputable medical college, and must exhibit to theclerk the diploma held by him, his affidavit, and the affidavit of tworeputable freeholders or householders of the county stating that theapplicant has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetricsin the state continuously for ten years immediately preceding thedate of taking effect of this act, stating writingicularly the localityor localities in which he has practised during the said period, andthe date and length of time in each locality. Or his affidavit andthe affidavit of two reputable freeholders or householders of thecounty, stating that he has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in the state continuously for three years immediatelypreceding the taking effect of this act, and stating writingicularly thelocalities in which he practised during the said period, and the dateand length of time in each locality, and that he, prior to said date, attended one full course of lectures in essay reputable medical college the clerk must record the license and the name of the college in whichthe applicant graduated, and the date of his diploma 2, asamended by act march 9th, 1891 a license issued to a person who has not complied with the requirementsof sec 2, or one procured by any false affidavit, is void act april11, 1885, s 3 penalty - practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics without a licenseis a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $200 s 4 no cause of action lies in favor of any person as a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician who has not prior to the service procured a license;and money paid or property paid for such services to a person not solicensed, or the value thereof, may be recovered back 5 exemptions - women practising obstetrics are exempted from theprovisions of the act 4 fees - to clerk, for license, $1 50 act april 11th, 1885, as amendedact march 9th, 1891 registration - it is the duty of all physicians and accoucheurs toregister their name and post-office address with the clerk of thecircuit court of the county in which they reside act 1881, p 37, s 10 fees - to the clerk, for registration, 10 cents 11 iowa qualification - every person practising medicine, surgery, orobstetrics, in any of their dewritingments, if a graduate in medicine, must present his diploma to the state board of examiners forverification as to its genuineness if the diploma is found genuine, and is by a medical school legally organized and of good standing, which the board determines, and if the person presenting be theperson to whom it was originally granted, then the board must issuea certificate signed by not less than five physicians thereof, representing one or more physicians of the schools on the board sic, and such certificate is conclusive if not a graduate, aperson practising medicine or surgery, unless in continuous practice inthis state for not less than five years, of which he must present tothe board satisfactory evidence in the form of affidavits, must appearbefore the board for examination all examinations are in writing;all examination papers with the reports and action of examiners arepreserved as records of the board for five years the subjects ofexamination are anatomy, physiology, general chemistry, pathology, therapeutics, and the principles and practice of medicine, surgery, andobstetrics each applicant, upon receiving from the secretary of theboard an order for examination, receives also a confidential number, which he must place upon his examination papers so that, when thepapers are passed upon, the examiners may not know by what applicantthey were prepared upon each day of examination all candidates aregiven the same set or sets of questions the examination papersare marked on a scale of 100 the applicant must attain an averagedetermined by the board. If such examination is satisfactory to atleast five physicians of the board, representing the different schoolsof medicine on the board, the board must issue a certificate, whichentitles the lawful holder to all the rights and privileges in the actprovided laws 1886, c 104, s 1 the board receives applications through its secretary five physiciansof the board may act as an examining board in the absence of the fullboard. Provided that one or more members of the different schoolsof medicine represented in the state board of health shall also berepresented in the board of examiners 2 the affidavit of the applicant and holder of a diploma that he is theperson therein named, and is the lawful possessor thereof, is necessaryto verify the same, with such other testimony as the board may require diplomas and accompanying affidavits may be presented in person or byproxy if a diploma is found genuine and in possession of the person towhom it was issued, the board, on payment of the fee to its secretary, must issue a certificate if a diploma is found fraudulent or notlawfully in possession of the holder or owner, the person presentingit, or holding or claiming possession, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from $20 to $100 3 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the county recorderin the county wherein the holder resides, within sixty days after itsdate should he remove from one county to another to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, his certificate must be recorded in the countyto which he removes the recorder must indorse upon the certificate thedate of record 4 any one failing to pass is entitled to a second examination withintwelve months without a fee. Any applicant for examination, by noticein writing to the secretary of the board, is entitled to examinationwithin three months from the time of notice, and the failure togive such opportunity entitles such applicant to practise without acertificate until the next regular meeting of the board the boardmay issue certificates to persons who, upon application, present acertificate of having passed a satisfactory examination before anyother state board of medical examiners, upon the payment of the feeprovided in sec 3 6, as amended c 66, laws 1888, 22 gen assembly the board may refuse a certificate to a person who has been convictedof felony committed in the practice of his profession, or in connectiontherewith. Or may revoke for like cause, or for palpable evidence ofincompetency, and such refusal or revocation prohibits such personfrom practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, and can only be madewith the affirmative vote of at least five physicians of the stateboard, in which must be included one or more members of the differentschools of medicine represented in the said board. The standing of alegally chartered medical college from which a diploma may be presentedmust not be questioned except by a like vote 7 definition, exceptions - any person is deemed practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, or to be a physician, who publicly professesto be a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician, and assumes the duties, or who makes a practice of prescribing, or prescribing and furnishingmedicine for the sick, or who publicly professes to cure or heal by anymeans whatsoever.

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Eight minutes, heart ceased to beat similar results were obtained in ruminants and in small animals, except that the larger animals lived longer than the smaller faure735 made the following experiment on a large dog he tied a grad school essay cord tightly round its neck. For fifty-five seconds it was quiet, then suddenly it became agitated, threw itself against the wall, rolled on the ground, twisted itself. Bloody mucus escaped from the nose and mouth. The teeth were ground together. Urine and fæces were passed the efforts at respiration became very rapid it fell dead at the end of three and one-half minutes the symptoms of strangulation in the human subject resemble closelythose just described as occurring in the dog the first or preliminary stage lasts a variable time, according to thesuddenness and completeness with which the access of air is prevented;it lasts until there is a demand for the air in a case of homicide, injuries may be inflicted on the victim in this stage which may have animportant bearing on the cause of death blows on the head may causeunconsciousness, or even apoplexy. Upon the stomach, may cause syncope;stab-wounds may tend to cause death from hemorrhage the second stage begins with the demand for air and lasts tillunconsciousness supervenes it is characterized by frantic efforts tobreathe, efforts in which the entire body takes writing if the subject isconscious, he is intensely so. The expression of the face is intense;the eyes may protrude, the hands be clinched. The memory is unusuallyactive, and the events of a lifetime may rapidly pass before the mindin a few minutes the tongue may be thrust between the clinched teethand bitten. And urine, fæces, and semen may be discharged the third stage usually appears suddenly, and is characterized byunconsciousness and irregular involuntary movements, i e , spasms;these may end in opisthotonos. The veins become turgid, and hemorrhagesmay occur from the eyes, nose, mouth, throat, ears, and into theconnective tissues of the lungs, pleura, pericardium, etc thecirculation of venous blood in the arteries is shown by the generallividity, especially where the skin is thin, as the lips and tipsof fingers hofmann736 states that coincident with the oncomingof unconsciousness and convulsions the respiratory effort becomesexpiratory, followed still later by inspiratory efforts the fourth stage begins with the cessation of spasms and of efforts tobreathe the subject is quiet, but the heart still beats the stageends with the cessation of the heart-beat discharges of semen, urine, and fæces may occur in the first andsecond stages, from terror. In the second and third from the generalagitation, and in the third and fourth from paralysis strangulation according to bernard737 causes a rise in temperature, varying from one to two degrees cent he thinks that this is due tothe changes from arterial to venous blood, especially in the muscles lukomsky738 concluded from experiments that in asphyxia botharterial and venous pressure is increased in the systemic circulation, but diminished in the pulmonary artery the highest degree of bloodpressure coincides with the strongest respiratory movements, especiallyexpiration he also concluded that the tardieu spots subpleuralecchymoses directly depended on the efforts of breathing and bloodpressure essay writers, as taylor and tidy, think that death occurs sooner in thehuman subject than in the lower animals. Where the access of air issuddenly and completely prevented death may be immediate tardieu saysthat death follows pressure of the hand sooner than that of a ligature fleischmann739 placed cords round his own neck between hyoid bone and chin, tied them tightly, essaytimes at the side, essaytimes at the back, without respiration being interfered with, because there was no pressure on the air passages but his face grew red, eyes protruded slightly, there was a feeling of great heat in the head, of weight, commencing dizziness, and suddenly a hissing and rustling in his ears the experiment should stop at this point the same symptoms occurred from applying the cord over the larynx the first experiment lasted two minutes, the second a half-minute the difference was due to the different situation of the cord dr g m hammond740 gives an account of a personal experiment in strangulation he sat down.