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Global Regents Essay Topics


Pink frothy mucus in bronchi. No emphysema nor apoplexies right side of heart full of dark blood. Left side empty liver, spleen, and kidneys congested stomach and intestines normal bladder empty internal genitals normal brain congested 6 mackenzie. Ibid , august, 1888, p 232 - hindoo man, age about30 strangled by soft cloth cord necroscopy. Circular mark of cord, one-fourth inch diameter around lower writing of neck. Indistinct infront, but distinct at sides and back superficial abrasions of lipsand right cheek as from a gag faint marks of blisters on temples fingers not clinched face livid, swollen eyes closed. Conjunctivæcongested.

Unwarranted therapeutic claimstherapeutic questions -- this rule insists that the claims ofmanufacturers or agents concerning the therapeutic properties of theirproducts must be compatible with demonstrable facts manufacturerswill be held responsible for all statements made or quoted in theiradvertising “literature” regarding their products recognizing theexistence of honest differences of opinion on thesis therapeuticquestions, the council desires to be liberal in the application ofthis rule it is natural that a manufacturer should be writingial towardhis own product, and a moderate degree of emphasis in advertising maynot be objectionable the council, however, will not admit claims whichare neither in harmony with already accepted facts nor supported byacceptable evidence in doubtful paper the council considers thesequestions with the advice and cooperation of its staff of clinicalconsultants clinical evidence -- to be global regents essay topics acceptable, the clinical evidence mustoffer objective data with such citation of authority as will enable thecouncil to confirm the facts and establish the scientific value of theconclusions drawn clinical data are worthless when the author is notcited the facts on which claims with regard to the value of a remedyare based must have been rendered accessible for investigation andconfirmation by disinterested observers, either through publication orthrough the records of a hospital or other institution explanation of rule 7. Poisonous substancespoisons -- for the information of the pharmacist or dispenser, and toenable him to safeguard the interests of the patient and the physician, all articles containing such potent agents as the poisonous alkaloidsand other organic substances and the salts of essay of the metals shouldhave the exact amount of these ingredients which is contained in theaverage adult dose stated on the label explanation of rule 8. Objectionable names“coined” names -- thesis of the abuses connected with proprietarymedicines arise from “coined” proprietary trade names such names willnot be recognized by the council unless in writingicular instances thecouncil shall deem their use to be in the interest of public welfare in every such exception the burden of proof, both for establishing andfor continuing the exception, lies with those who market the product proprietary “trade” names when permitted -- in consideration ofthe benefits which may come from the discovery of a therapeuticagent, the council concedes to the person or firm which, by right ofdiscovery, controls such a product the right to name it the councilwill offer no opposition to an arbitrary name for such a new product, provided it is not misleading, therapeutically suggestive, or otherwisesubversive of scientific pharmacy and therapeutics if the discoverythat a previously known substance has therapeutic value is deemed ofsufficient importance, the council may recognize a name for such asubstance if the name is applied by the person who makes the discovery;or, with the consent of the discoverer or in the absence of any proteston his writing, the council may recognize a name applied by the firm whichfirst makes such a product available to physicians in the interestof rational drug therapy, the council recommends that trade names becoined so as to indicate the potent element or constituent scientific names -- when the proprietary or trade name for an articleis considered insufficiently descriptive of its chemical compositionor pharmaceutical character, the council may require as a conditionfor the acceptance of such articles that a descriptive scientificname satisfactory to the council appear on the labels, circularsand advertisements for such an article for all definite chemicalsubstances it is required that the scientific name be given prominenceon the labels, in circulars and advertisements proprietary names for unoriginal articles -- proprietary nameswill not be recognized for articles which are included in the u s pharmacopeia or national formulary or for unessential modificationsof such articles neither will proprietary names be recognized forsubstances or mixtures which are described in medical or pharmaceuticalpublications in the marketing of unoriginal articles, the legitimateinterests of the producer are fully served by identifying such productsby appending the name or initials of the manufacturer or agent, orby the use of a general brand mark no objection will be made by thecouncil to the use of such brand marks, provided that in no case shallsuch mark be used as a designation for an individual article for any product which, by reason of the absence or lapse of patentrights or for other reasons, is open to manufacture by more than onefirm, the council reserves the right to select a common name and toprovide standards of identity, purity and strength, and then willaccept such article only if it is marketed under the title adopted asthe n n r name or the name under which such article was introduced to which may be appended the firm identifying mark n n r to u s p -- when an article which has been accepted fornew and nonofficial remedies is admitted to the u s pharmacopeiaor national formulary, it will be omitted from new and nonofficialremedies one year after such standardization if the name of sucharticle is used in these standards either as the main title for theproduct or as a synonym if the name under which the article isdescribed in new and nonofficial remedies is not used in these books ofstandards, the proprietary preparation will be retained provided theofficial name is given prominence on the labels and in the circularsand advertisements of such article when the council adopts a commonname for an article that has been admitted under another name, itwill be continued under the older name only on condition that thecouncil name be given prominence on the label and in the circulars andadvertisements for such article pharmaceutical preparations and mixtures -- these, with rareexceptions, are not original in composition and there is seldothesis reason why they should be endowed with arbitrary names on thecontrary, it is important that the prescriber should be remindedconstantly of their potent ingredients therapeutically suggestive names -- articles bearing therapeuticallysuggestive names will not be accepted for new and nonofficial remedies, first, because they are likely to lead physicians into prescribingnames instead of remedies, and second, because they tend to encourageunwarranted self-medication by the laity even if the name is atfirst apparently meaningless to the public, its meaning will soon beunderstood because patients soon learn the technical names applied totheir diseases and symptoms the prohibition against therapeuticallysuggestive names is not applied to serums, vaccines and antitoxins, because the accepted nomenclature of the specific organisms used intheir preparation makes this unavoidable and because self-medicationwith them is improbable explanation of rule 9. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc protection -- this information is important as a means of determiningthe legal status of medicinal articles and as an aid to their readyrecognition in current publications explanation of rule 10. Unscientific and useless articlesunscientific compounds -- the use of articles which are unessentialmodifications of official or established nonproprietary articles isunscientific and serves no useful purpose the council will not acceptproducts which are scientifically unsound and which, therefore, mustbe considered useless or inimical to the best interest of the medicalprofession and the public this class includes compounds or mixturescontaining an excessive number of active ingredients. Those compoundsor mixtures the components of which are of no probable assistance toone another, and those articles which are of no therapeutic value unessential modifications of official substances -- the subterfugeof obtaining proprietary rights over an official or establishednonproprietary product, by introducing unessential modifications, alsotends to confusion and abuses, and such articles will not be admittedby the council essential and important modifications, however, willreceive recognition the council interprets the term “establishednonproprietary product” as applying to a preparation of any formulawhich has been published through any recognized or reasonablyaccessible channel of publication, prior to its appropriation ormodification by a manufacturer duplicates of biologic productsaccepted under the name of the manufacturers will not be accepted underthe names of the distributors the council on pharmacy and chemistry, present and futurea w a puckner, phar d secretary, council on pharmacy and chemistrya read before the chicago medical society, march 26, 1919 the world war marked an epoch in the existence of the council onpharmacy and chemistry, as it did in all human endeavors theinformation and experience which had been accumulated by the councilduring its thirteen years’ existence was drawn on by our government, directly or indirectly, and it also received consideration in england, france, 1 belgium, holland, 2 italy, 3 sweden and elsewhere in theworld wide readjustment that has begun, the efforts of the council, past and present, will influence the plans of those who engage inthe manufacture or sale of medicines, and, undoubtedly, will be theincentive to the establishment of similar bodies in other countries 1 “new and nonofficial remedies” in france, foreign news, j a m a 71:1331 oct 19 1918. 70:1783 june 8 1918 2 nederl tjdschr v geneesk oct 5, 1918, p 1201 3 an italian view of the proprietary evil, foreign news, j a m a 71:840 sept 7 1918. The council on pharmacy and chemistry and thepatriotic medical league in italy, ibid 71:918 sept 14 1918 as secretary of the council almost from the time of its organizationin 1905, 4 and knowing the work of its members and its collaborators, i am firmly convinced that this body has deserved the endorsement andsupport given it by the american medical profession i welcome thisopportunity to present an outline of the council past activities andto speak of essay of the problems of the future, because i feel assuredthat a knowledge of its endeavor to improve drug therapy will increasethe profession confidence in the council and add to the number of itssupporters 4 although the council on pharmacy and chemistry was established in1905, it is likely that only a small percentage of physicians knowjust what the council is, or have any conception as to its personneland its ability to judge the available evidence for proprietarymedicaments the personnel has changed from time to time since 1905 at present its membership is. C l alsberg, a m , m d , chief of thebureau of chemistry, u s dewritingment of agriculture, washington, d c. R a hatcher, ph g , m d , professor of pharmacology, cornelluniversity medical college, new york city. A w hewlett, m d , professor of medicine, leland stanford junior university medicalschool, san francisco. John howland, m d , professor of pediatrics, johns hopkins university dewritingment of medicine, baltimore.

Guthrie v weaver, 1 mo apps , 136. Johnsonv marinus, 18 abb n c , 72, and note 493the law casts the duty of burial of the wife upon the husband, andof the husband upon the wife in secord v secord cited in note 1above, the court said. “there are cogent reasons connected with publicpolicy and the peace of families, where in the absence of testamentarydisposition the possession of a corpse and the right to determine itsburial should follow the administration of the estate ” inasmuch asthe husband has the first right to administer upon the estate of thewife, and the wife upon the estate of the husband, the law imposes thecorrelative duty of burial upon the person having such right. And soit has been held that the husband is liable for the necessary expenseof the decent interment of his wife from whom he has been separated, whether the writingy incurring the expense is an undertaker or merevolunteer 494where the deceased leaves a will appointing executors, the executorshave a right to the possession of the body, and the duty of burialis imposed upon them, but it has been doubted whether at common lawa direction by will concerning the disposal of the body could beenforced, and therefore the right to make such direction has beenconferred by statute in several states 495and where a widow ordered a funeral of her husband, it was held thatshe was liable for the expense, although she was an infant at the time, the court holding that the expense fell under the head of necessaries, for which infants’ estates are liable 496if there be no husband or wife of the deceased, the nearest of kinin the order of right to administration is charged with the duty ofburial 497such acts as casting a dead human body into a river without the ritesof sepulture kanavans case, 1 me , 226. Stealing a corpse 2 east, pc , 652 or stealing for dissection a dead body of one executed whenthe death sentence did not direct dissection rex v cundick, d &r , n p , 13, were indictable offences at common law 498in the works of the early dramatists, and by essay writers of fiction, it has been stated, or implied, that the body of a deceased personcould be seized and detained to compel the payment of his debts thiswas never the law in jones v ashburnham, 4 east, 460, it was heldthat to seize a dead body on pretence of arresting for debt would becontra bonos mores, and an extortion on the relatives, and that casedistinctly overrules any authority to be derived from the case of quickv coppleton, 1 vent , 161, to the effect that forbearance to seizeor hold a body upon such a pretence would afford any consideration fora promise to pay a debt so, also, where a jailer refused to give upa body of a person who had died while a prisoner in execution in hiscustody, to the executors of the deceased, unless they would satisfycertain claims against the deceased due the jailer, the court issueda peremptory mandamus in the first instance, commanding that the bodyshould be delivered up to the executors rex v fox, 2 q b , 247 and in r v scott, 2 q b , 248, it was said, that a jailer whoshould attempt to do so would be guilty of misconduct in his publiccharacter, for which he would be liable to prosecution 499how and by whom the dead human body may be removed or exhumed - wherethe right of burial has been exercised, and the body interred inits final resting-place, no person has any right to interferewith it without the consent of the owner of the grave, or of theproperly constituted public authorities in foster v dodd, 8 d & e , 842-854, it was held, that a dead body belongs to no one, andis, therefore, under the protection of the public if it lies inconsecrated ground, ecclesiastical authorities will interpose forits protection. But whether in ground consecrated or unconsecrated, indignities offered to the remains or the act of indecentlydisinterring them, are the ground of an indictment 500even the purchaser of land upon which is located a burial-ground maybe enjoined from removing bodies therefrom, if he attempts to do soagainst the wishes of the relatives or next of kin of the deceased every interment is a concession of the privilege which cannot afterwardbe repudiated, and the purchaser title to the ground is fettered withthe right of burial 501on the other hand, the right of the municipal or state authorities, with the consent of the owner of the burial lot or in the execution ofthe right of eminent domain, to remove dead bodies from cemeteries iswell settled 502after the right of burial has once been exercised by the person chargedwith the duty of burial, or where such person has consented to theburial by another person, no right to the corpse remains except toprotect it from unlawful interference 503on the other hand, where a husband did not freely consent to the burialof his wife in a lot owned by another person, it was held that a courtof equity might permit him, after such burial, to remove her body, coffin, and tombstones to his own lot, and restrain any person frominterfering with such removal 504in rhodes v brandt, 21 hun, n y , 1, the defendant brought anaction against one beelard to recover for services rendered by him, asa physician, in treating a child of beelard for a fracture of thethigh-bone, in which action beelard set up malpractice on the writing ofthe defendant as a defence during the pendency of the action the childdied and was buried subsequently beelard, the father, acting under theadvice of his counsel, directed and allowed the plaintiff, a physician, to cause the body of the child to be exhumed, and a portion of thethigh-bone to be removed, in order that it might be used in evidence onthe trial of the question of malpractice after the bone was removed, the body was returned to the grave the defendant thereupon caused theplaintiff to be arrested for unlawfully removing the body from thegrave contrary to the provisions of the statute, and the plaintiffsued the defendant for malicious prosecution the court held that theplaintiff had not removed the body from the grave “for the purpose ofdissection or from mere wantonness, ” as these terms were used in thestatute 3 r s , 6th ed , 965, for violation of which he had beenarrested, nor had he committed any offence against public decency orthe spirit of the statute 505autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accusedpersons - as shown in a previous article in this volume, on the powersand duties of coroners and medical examiners, in paper of sudden orsuspicious death, it has been the law for nearly a thousand yearsthat an inquisition or inquest super visum corporis must be held byan officer known as a coroner, and that this office and its powers andduties were inherited by this country as writing of the english common-lawsystem in force at the time of the formation of the republic of theunited states when a body has been buried, and the coroner believesthat an inquest is necessary, he has power to disinter the body andhold an inquest, and he may direct a post-mortem examination to bemade, but after having done so he must cause the body to be reinterred it is now well settled that in holding such an inquest, and making suchan autopsy or post-mortem examination required by his official duty, the coroner has authority to employ, and it is his duty to employ, professional skill and aid, and his contract will bind the county topay a reasonable compensation for the same 506as will be seen below from a synopsis of the statutes relating tothis matter, thesis of the states have enacted statutes defining andprescribing the duties of the coroner and other public officers in suchpaper at an early period in england see 2 and 3 will iv , chap 75, sec 7 it was enacted by the english parliament that any executoror other person having lawful possession of the body of a deceasedperson, and not being an undertaker or other writingy entrusted with thebody for the purpose only of interment, might lawfully permit the bodyof such deceased person to undergo an anatomical examination, unlessto the knowledge of such executor or other writingy such person shouldhave expressed his desire during his life in writing, or verbally inthe presence of two or more witnesses during his illness whereof hedied, that his body after death might not undergo such examination, orunless the surviving husband or wife or known relative of the deceasedshall require the body to be interred without such examination byanother section of this statute sec 10, professors of anatomy andother persons duly licensed were declared not liable to punishment forhaving in their possession human bodies when having such possessionaccording to the provisions of the act section 308 of the new york penal code, subdivision 3, as amendedby chapter 500, laws 1889, enacts that whenever and so far as thehusband, wife, or next of kin of the deceased, being charged by lawwith the duty of burial, may authorize dissection for the purposeof ascertaining the cause of death and no further, the right existsto dissect the dead human body the same statute also provides thatwhenever any district attorney of that state, in the discharge ofhis official duties, shall deem it necessary, he may exhume, takepossession of, and remove the body of a deceased person, or anyportion thereof, and submit the same to a proper physical or chemicalexamination or analysis, to ascertain the cause of death, whichexamination or analysis will be made on the order of a justice of thesupreme court of the state, or the county judge of the county in whichthe dead bodies shall be, granted on the application of the districtattorney, with or without notice to the relatives of the deceasedperson, or to any person or corporation having the legal charge ofsuch body, as the court may direct the district attorney shall alsohave power to direct the sheriff, constable, or other peace officer, and employ such person or persons as he may deem necessary to assisthim, in exhuming, removing, obtaining possession of, and examiningphysically or chemically such dead body, or any portion thereof. Theexpense thereof to be a county charge paid by the county treasurer onthe certificate of the district attorney the matter of ordering autopsies and dissections of dead bodies, orexhuming the same for that purpose or other purposes, is a matter of somuch public importance that it has been regulated in nearly all of theunited states by statutory enactments, which together with the otherstatutes relating to the subject-matter of this article are hereuntoappended the author of this article is greatly indebted for assistance inpreparing the same, and in compiling these statutes, to mr amasa j parker, jr , of the albany, n y , bar appendix statutory regulations concerning dead bodies the coroner has power to hold inquest and direct autopsy, ala , code, sec 4, 801 et seq ariz , pen code, sec 2, 309 et seq ark , r s , sec 692 cal , pen code. Sec 1, 510 col , mill stat , sec 870 conn , gen stat , secs 2, 005, 2, 008 del , r s , ch 33 fla , r s , secs 3, 011, 3, 019 ga , code, secs 590, 591, 4, 101 et seq idaho, r s , sec 8, 377 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 606 ind , r s , secs 5, 878, 5, 879 iowa, mccl am code, sec 487 kan , gen stat , secs 1, 780, 1, 784 ky , gen stat , ch 25, secs 3, 11 la , voorh rev l , sec 653 me , r s , ch 139, sec 1 md , code, art 22, secs 3, 4 minn , gen stat , sec 1, 011 et seq miss , am code, sec 816 mo , r l , sec 2, 438 et seq mont , crim l , secs 869, 883 neb , consol stat , sec 3, 144 n h , pub stat , ch 262, sec 1 et seq n j , rev stat , p 170 et seq n c , code, sec 657 n dak , comp laws, sec 664 et seq ohio, r l , sec 1, 221 et seq oklahoma, stat , sec 1, 745 et seq ore , crim code, sec 453 et seq pa , bright pen digest, 1536, sec 37 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 17 s c , r s , secs 711, 2, 664 et seq tenn , code, sec 6, 139 et seq va , code, sec 2, 928 et seq wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 245 et seq w va , code, ch 154 wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 wyo , r s , sec 1, 879 et seq medical examiner shall hold inquest and direct autopsy mass , pub stat , ch 26, secs 10, 11 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420 justice of the peace shall hold inquest and direct autopsy mich , how am stat , v 2, sec 9, 583 et seq nev , gen stat , sec 225 et seq n m , comp l , sec 443 et seq texas, code crim p , art 988 et seq vt , rev l , sec 3, 934 et seq wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 and may order a body to be disinterred for the purpose of holding suchinquisition ark , r l , sec 718 cal , pen code, sec 1, 510 del , r l , ch 33 ga , code, secs 590, 591, 410 et seq idaho, r l , sec 8, 377 s c , r s , sec 2, 687 texas, code crim p , art 989 and when not claimed by friends and relatives, to bury the bodydecently, and when the property of deceased is not sufficient to defrayexpenses, this may be done at public expense cal , pen code, sec 3, 094 col , mill stat , sec 882 conn , gen stat , sec 2, 015 idaho, r l , sec 2, 081 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 606 iowa, mccl am code, sec 501 kan , gen stat , sec 1, 792 ky , gen stat , ch 25, sec 6 la , voorh rev l , sec 660 me , r s , ch 139, sec 11 md , code, art 22, sec 7 mass , laws, 1887, ch 310 mich , how am stat , v 3, sec 9, 593 minn , gen stat , sec 1, 021 miss , am code, secs 3, 145, 3, 146 mo , r l , sec 2, 456 mont , gen laws, sec 881 neb , consol stat , sec 3, 144 nev , gen stat , sec 2, 269 n h , pub stat , ch 262, sec 16 n j , rev stat , p 170, sec 5 n m , comp laws, sec 447 n dak , comp laws, sec 676 ohio, r l , sec 1, 227 oklahoma, stat , sec 1, 759 ore , crim code, sec 462 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 24 tenn , code, sec 6, 150 va , code, sec 3, 946 wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 257 w va , code, ch 154, sec 8 wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 wyo , r s , sec 1, 886 removal or disinterment of a dead body without authority of law orconsent of relatives, for the purpose of selling such body or fordissection or for mere wantonness, is a a felony cal , pen code, sec 290 ga , laws, 1882, v 2, p 87 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, p 794 ind , r s , sec 2, 166 mo , r s , secs 3, 842, 3, 845 mont , laws, 1889, p 114 n c , laws, 1885, ch 90 b a misdemeanor ark , r s , secs 1, 902, 1, 903 del , laws, 1883, ch 234 kan , gen stat , sec 2, 372 et seq md , code, art 27, secs 133, 134 pa , bright pen digest, 229, sec 11 tenn , code, secs 5, 659, 5, 660 c is punishable by various sentences ala , code, secs 4, 023, 4, 028 ariz , pen code, sec 491 col , mill stat , sec 1, 367 conn , gen stat , sec 1, 880 fla , r l , sec 2, 625 iowa, mccl am code, sec 5, 328 ky , gen stat , ch 29, art 17, sec 16 me , r s , ch 124, sec 27 mass , pub stat , ch 207, secs 47, 48 mich , how stat , v 2, sec 9, 297 miss , am code, secs 1, 023, 1, 024 neb , consol stat , sec 5, 847 n h , pub stat , ch 266, sec 7 n dak , comp laws, sec 6, 559 ohio, r l , sec 7, 034 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 198 ore , crim code, sec 656 texas, pen code, art 345 vt , rev l , secs 4, 194, 4, 196 va , code, sec 208 w va , code, ch 149, sec 13 wis , s & b am stat , sec 4, 592 wyo , r l , sec 1, 029 d a high misdemeanor n j , rev stat , p 249, sec 122 bodies of criminals executed under sentence, and those dying in jail, poor-house, etc , when to be delivered over for dissection ark , r s , sec 2, 552 cal , pen code, sec 3, 094 col , mill stat , secs 1, 547, 1, 548, 1, 204 conn , gen stat , secs 1, 729, 1, 732 ga , laws, 1887, v 2, p 87 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 869 ill , crim code, sec 503 ill , s & c am stat , v 3, p 867 ind , r l , sec 4, 258 et seq iowa, mccl am code, sec 5, 329 kan , gen stat , sec 3, 758 me , r s , ch 13, sec 2 me , laws, 1893, ch 254 mass , laws, 1891, ch 185 mass , pub stat , ch 202, sec 8 mich , how stat , v 3, sec 2, 284 minn , gen stat , sec 678 mo , r s , sec 6, 883 neb , consol stat , secs 3, 299, 3, 301, 5, 848 n h , pub stat , ch 136 n j , rev stat , p 239, sec 69 n c , laws, 1891, ch 129 n dak , laws, 1890, ch 92 ohio, r s , sec 3, 763 ore , hill am laws, sec 3, 730 et seq pa , bright pen dig , p 94, sec 1 et seq vt , laws, 1884, ch 85 va , code, ch 80 wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 2, 428 et seq wash , s & b am stat , sec 1, 437 duty of burial, etc ariz , pen code, sec 493 cal , pen code, sec 292 minn , gen stat , sec 6, 221 n dak , comp laws, secs 6, 550, 6, 556 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 189 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable col , mill stat , sec 1, 195 fla , r l , sec 2, 393 mass , pub stat , ch 207, sec 11 mich , how am stat , sec 9, 284 mont , crim l , sec 41 neb , consol stat , sec 5, 582 nev , gen stat , sec 4, 597 n h , pub stat , ch 278, sec 14 n dak , comp l , sec 6, 947 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 179 ore , crim code, sec 649 pa , bright pen digest, 431, sec 158 r i , pub stat , ch 244, sec 8 wis , s & b am stat , sec 4, 585 is a misdemeanor minn , gen stat , sec 6, 210 n j , rev stat , p 241, sec 83 is a felony mo , r s , sec 3, 479 whether born dead or alivealabama removal of body wantonly for dissection or sale, purchase of abody unlawfully disinterred, violating grave with intent to stealbody, etc , or wantonly mutilating body, is punishable by fine orimprisonment code, secs 4, 023, 4, 028 coroner, or in his absence justice of the peace, to hold inquest anddirect examination of body by surgeon, etc code, sec 4, 801 etseq arizona mutilation, etc , of dead body is a felony pen code, sec 491 removal of a writing of body unlawfully is punishable pen code, sec 492 duty of burying body is, if a married woman, on husband.

Practicallynon-toxic. Lower temperature, often crisis like. Lower pulse, withbetter elimination. Greatly accelerated recovery from influenza;fewer pneumonia complications. Lower mortality rate in influenza andpneumonia. Remarkable leucocyte stimulation ” administration by mouthand by intramuscular and intravenous injection are advocated in the recent influenza epidemic, it is reported that therapeuticresults of essay value were obtained at the great lakes trainingstation and at fort sheridan the reports of certain medical officersindicate that this preparation seemed to have essay effect on thecourse of pneumonia and influenza, on the temperature, and on theleukocyte count but those conducting the experiments state that it was“absolutely impossible” to fulfil ideal conditions as to controls andother observations at the time the experiments were conducted so far as the council knows, no effort has been made to determine thepotent constituent, or constituents, of this preparation. Whether themercury, the copper, or the protein in the mixture was responsible forthe claimed benefits is an open question these reports were given careful consideration, but it was decidednot to accept this preparation because of 1 exaggerated therapeuticclaims, conflicting with rule 6 aside from the report of its usein influenza and pneumonia at the great lakes training station andthe post hospital at fort sheridan, which reports are of work doneand observations made under conditions which did not permit carefulcontrols, no evidence has been presented to the council supporting thetherapeutic claims and 2 being an irrational mixture, conflictingwith rule 10-- a mixture containing colloidal mercury, copper andsulphur with proteins and carbohydrates in addition, it is difficult topredict the changes which occur in such mixtures on standing samples of mervenol two 1-ounce bottles submitted by themanufacturer, june 5, 1919, were found when opened, aug 18, 1919, tohave undergone decomposition a very disagreeable odor had developed, the liquid was turbid, and a large amount of precipitate had formed armervenol is stated by the proprietors-- the hille laboratories, chicago-- to be a hydrosol colloidal suspension of“mercury-copper-sulpharsenite” containing sufficient sodium chloridto make it isotonic with blood serum and “inert proteid” and“carbohydrate” to stabilize the solution. Each cubic centimeter isdeclared to contain 0 0025 gm arsenic, 0 005 gm mercury, 0 0016 gm copper, and 0 0032 gm sulphur the use of armervenol as advised by the hille laboratories is the sameas that of mervenol, and in addition its use in syphilis is emphasized the criticisms of this mixture are similar in every respect to thosedirected against mervenol-- the addition of arsenic introduces stillanother factor of uncertainty after investigating these claims, it was decided not to accept thispreparation on the ground 1 that the therapeutic claims are unprovedand unwarranted, conflicting with rule 6, and 2 that the mixture isan irrational one, conflicting with rule 10 -- from reports of councilon pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 82 normal phenol serum cano and methyl-phenol serum cano not accepted for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following statement declaring normal phenolserum cano and methyl-phenol serum cano ineligible to new andnonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary no statement of the composition of these preparations was submittedto the council and none appears on the labels of the trade packages however, the advertising circular contains statements such as. “ normal phenol serum-- phenol with methyl blue dissolved in anaphylactic serum ” “ a combination of human or horse serum with phenol and methylene-blue, thereby forming a new chemico-biologic product which he termed methyl-phenol serum or, chemically, chloride of phenol thionin tetramethylene-seric ” “methyl-phenol serum is a chemico-biological product in which phenol is the chief factor each ampule of 10 c c contains the therapeutic equivalent of 0 5 gm 7 5 grains of phenol ”from the foregoing it appears that both preparations contain phenol andmethylthionine chloride methylene blue and that the second does notcontain methyl phenol cresol as the name would indicate no definite evidence for the value of these preparations is broughtforward and even the manufacturer is constrained to caution, “we assumeno responsibility for the therapeutic action of the serum ” on theother hand there are a great thesis statements in the papers of cano andhis colleagues to which exception must be taken of these, from amongthesis similar, the following statements are to be cited and commented on. “accepting that the gonorrheal infection gives systemic toxemia from absorption of the toxins ”it is the general opinion that in the majority of instances there is nosystemic toxemia “the technique of intraprostatic injection, while less simple than that of the intravenous, is by no means so difficult or complicated as to place it exclusively in the category of the urologist ”this obviously is an attempt to encourage the general use of thesepreparations and to minimize the necessity for careful study andspecial skill in their employment it is most unwise for one to attemptintraprostatic injections unless he is specially trained in thetechnique of this procedure “this injection to be performed after the 5th or 6th intravenous injection of methyl-phenol serum ”intravenous injections have a place in sane therapy only when themedicament to be so administered is of known composition and whenevidence is available which gives assurance that definite results shallfollow its use in the absence of these conditions it is manifestlyunwise and even unexcusable to employ any medicament in this manner, and its repeated use is reprehensible “intravenous injection of methyl-phenol serum alternating with intravenous injections of mercury should be given every 48 hours until infection is under control ”this quotation further emphasizes that the treatment, as advised, carries with it a certain element of danger “methylene blue prevents the phenol from exerting its usual action upon the red blood corpuscles, and ensures rapid elimination through healthy kidneys it preserves the antiseptic power of the phenol and prevents the phenol from interfering with the chemico-biological function of the white and red blood cells the serum component favors chemotaxis, it strengthens bodily defense, it prevents anaphylaxis even in debilitated patients, and it replaces the resistance which has been impaired by the demands that have already been made upon it ”no evidence is submitted to substantiate these claims it seems strangethat phenol should lose its power and that this should be restored bythe methylene blue “it has a refractory chemico-biological action, and exercises no vicious effect on the red blood corpuscles in the circulation, but, on the contrary, by its inoffensive presence, it wholly preserves all of the physiological properties of the blood ”what “a refractory chemico-biologic action” is, is not clear, butthere is no evidence that this preparation has any action which mightbe defined as “refractory chemico-biological, ” that its presence isinoffensive or that it wholly preserves all the physiologic propertiesof the blood “the treatment of gonorrhea by cano theory is firmly based upon chemico-biological facts and accepted authoritative theories and bears the same relation to gonorrhea that intravenous injections of arsenicals bear to syphilis ”quite an exaggerated and unwarranted statement in the same way, objection is taken to the following quotations. “phenol administered intravenously in combination with methylene blue, to protect the red-blood globule, undergoes no change, and preserves all of its actual antiseptic effect on the gonococcus and its toxins as though employed in the test tube ” “when thus introduced into the human body its elimination is unique, effective, antiseptic, germicidal, being completely and exclusively thrown off through the kidneys in a period varying from one-half to twelve hours without local injury or disturbance to the general economy ” “combinations of phenol are unstable, but they do have the advantage of mitigating direct action on the cells and globules it is also known that ordinary phenol has a coagulant action on the albumins and an oxidizing power on the tissues, which power, if permanent, produces gangrene by virtue of this dual action it therefore acts as a modifier. By its oxidizing power on the germ it is germicidal, and prevents the growth of the gonococcus. And by its coagulant power on the toxins it relieves paragonococcal lesions mono- and poly-arthritides and affections of the serous organs endo- and pericarditis, meningitis, and essay definite systemic disturbances, the pathology of which is often confused with that of other infections ” “lymphocytosis is often persistent in essay individuals in whom the internal secretions and the processes of assimilation and disassimilation are deficient. And because of the lack of these the organic physiological ferments are insufficient for the mechanism of nutrition and the phenomena of hematopoiesis ”until proof is available showing that phenol, administeredintravenously in the quantities employed in cano normal phenol serumand cano methyl-phenol serum, acts as a germicide and methylthioninechloride “methylene blue” prevents the deleterious effects of phenolon the red blood corpuscles. That repeated intravenous injections ofphenol and mercury are without danger. That there is no danger ofanaphylaxis.

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Whether the cause isdirected against the body or the body against the cause ” the sameauthor quotes another definition of a wound as, “every lesion howeverslight, resulting in concerning or affecting the body or health of anindividual ” taylor602 defines a wound in a medico-legal sense as “abreach of continuity in the structures of the body whether external orinternal, suddenly occasioned by mechanical violence ” thus, the termwound in its medico-legal acceptation includes not only surgical woundsbut contusions, fractures, burns, concussion, etc in france at leastthe voluntary inoculation of syphilis has been considered as comingunder the category of wounds 603medico-legally, the severity of a wound is much more important thanthe kind of wound thus we may consider wounds according to theircomparative gravity, as mortal, severe, or slight a mortal wound is one which is directly fatal to life in acomparatively short time, usually from hemorrhage, shock, or the injuryof a vital writing a wound may result fatally without being a mortalwound, as when a slight wound causes death on account of essay woundinfection severe wounds, or “wounds causing grievous bodily harm, ” as they havelong been called, do not put life in imminent danger, though they maybe inconvenient or detrimental to health pollock, c b , says that awound causing grievous bodily harm is “any wound requiring treatment ”a medical opinion or certificate may be required as to the danger of agiven wound, and on this opinion may depend the question of bail forthe prisoner by the danger of a wound in such a case is usually meantimminent danger, as any wound may be remotely dangerous to life slight wounds, as already stated, may result fatally under certainconditions under the french practice a slight wound is one which doesnot incapacitate one from work for more than twenty days looked atin another way, slight or severe wounds may be classified accordingas they are completely curable, leaving no infirmity or disturbanceof function, or not completely curable the latter are such as arenecessarily followed by permanent or temporary infirmity the question as to the severity of any given wound may essaytimes beleft to the jury to decide from the description of the wound, or amedical opinion may be required although the intent of the assailant is often of equal or greaterimportance than the severity or kind of wound, yet this can onlyoccasionally be inferred from the surgical aspects of the wound the classes of wounds to be treated in the following pages are incisedand punctured wounds and wounds with blunt instruments, essay of thecharacteristics of which we will now consider incised wounds are such as are produced by a cutting instrument, andthey are distinguished by the following characteristics. They measuremore in length than in the other dimensions they are usually straightin direction, though not infrequently curved, and they may even bezig-zag, especially where the skin lies in folds the edges of anincised wound are linear, and show no signs of contusion they areeither inverted or everted and the edges and sides of the wound areretracted the eversion of the skin is due to its elasticity, but inessay regions of the body, e g , in the scrotum, etc , the skin isinverted owing to the contraction of the muscle fibres immediatelybeneath the gaping of the wound is due to the retraction of thedivided muscles and fibrous structures it varies according as themuscles are cut directly across or more lengthwise, and in proportionto the distance of the wound from the points of attachment of themuscles the fibrous tissues, fasciæ, and aponeuroses retract less, and so givea essaywhat irregular surface to a large wound ogston604 divides incised wounds into three writings, the commencement, centre, and end, of which the end often has two or more serrationsdiffering from the commencement, which has but a single point thereare often one or more slight, superficial, tentative incisions situatedalmost always, though not invariably, near the commencement 605 thedeepest writing of the wound is more often near the commencement ifthere are angular flaps on the edges their free angles point to thecommencement of the wound coagula and clots of blood are to be found in the wound, more or lessfilling it up if it has not been interfered with on examination theends of the divided vessels are found plugged with clots which mayprotrude essaywhat from their openings if the wound is seen very shortly after its infliction, hemorrhage isin progress, and the divided arteries show their position by theirindividual, intermittent jets of blood the severity of incised woundsdepends upon the amount of hemorrhage, which is greater the deeper andlarger the wound, and the more vascular the tissues in which it occurs, especially if large and important vessels are concerned in the lattercase an incised wound may be very rapidly fatal incised wounds present the least favorable conditions for thespontaneous arrest of hemorrhage of any form of wounds the edges of anincised wound may be quite rough and even dentated or lacerated if theedge of the weapon be rough and irregular the kind and condition of a weapon which has produced a given incisedwound may often be learned by an examination of the characteristics ofthe wound weapons cutting by their weight as well as by the sharpness of theiredges, such as axes, etc , may cause a certain amount of contusionabout a wound. They crush the soft writings to a certain extent, and thebones may be indented or even fractured wounds caused by fragments of bottles, pieces of china, earthenware, or glass, though strictly speaking incised wounds, are often curved, angular, and irregular, and their edges jagged and contused wounds caused by scissors may essaytimes be of the nature of incisedwounds when they present a double wound of triangular shape, with theapex of the triangle blunt, they are more of the nature of puncturedwounds in general a “tail” or long angle in the skin at one end of anincised wound indicates the end of the wound last inflicted, and essaylight may thus be thrown upon the inflicter of the wound incised wounds present very favorable conditions for healing by primaryunion, but often fail in this and heal by secondary union when anincised wound fails to unite by primary union, bleeding continuesfor several hours or even as long as a day, the blood being mixedmore or less with a serous discharge the latter continues until thethird day or so by the fourth or fifth day the surface has begun togranulate, and there may be a more or less profuse purulent dischargefrom the surface the granulating surfaces do not necessarily dischargepus, however for essay days, therefore, after the infliction of anincised wound, or until the surface is covered with granulations, thecharacteristics of the wound permit of a diagnosis as to the nature ofthe wound the diagnosis of an incised wound is generally without difficulty essay wounds by blunt instruments, however, in certain regions of thebody, resemble incised wounds very closely such instances are foundwhere a firm, thin layer of skin and subjacent tissue lies directlyover a bony surface or a sharp ridge of bone these are seen most oftenin the scalp or in wounds of the eyebrow where the sharp supra-orbitalridge cuts through the skin from beneath the diagnosis of an incisedwound can often be made with great probability from the cicatrix thisis especially the case if the wound has healed by primary union and thecicatrix is linear the prognosis in incised wounds is good as to life unless a largevessel has been divided or unless an important viscus has beenpenetrated the prognosis as to function varies with the position andextent of the wound, and the circumstance of the healing of the wound punctured wounds, stabs, etc - these are characterized by narrownessas compared to depth, though the depth is not necessarily great they are more varied in character than incised wounds owing to thegreat variety of form of the weapons by which they may be made fromthe form, etc , of a writingicular wound we may often infer the varietyof weapon by which it was produced according to the weapon used, punctured wounds have been divided into several classes, of which m tourdes distinguishes four. 1st punctured wounds by cylindrical orconical instruments like a needle if the instrument be very fine likea fine needle, it penetrates by separating the anatomical elementsof the skin, etc , without leaving a bloody tract such wounds aregenerally inoffensive, even when penetrating, if the needle is aseptic, and they are difficult to appreciate on the cadaver it is almostimpossible to find the tract of such a wound if the instrument be alittle larger it leaves a bloody tract, but it is difficult to followthis in soft tissues, more easy in more resistant structures, such astendon, aponeurosis, cartilage, or serous membrane if the instrument be of any size this variety of punctured woundspresents a form quite different from that of the weapon instead of around wound it is generally a longitudinal wound with two very acuteangles and two elongated borders of equal length, showing but littleretraction this is the shape of the wound even when the instrumentproducing it is so large that the resulting wound resembles that madeby a knife see fig 2 the direction of the long axis of these woundsvaries in different writings of the body and is uniform in the same writing their shape and direction are explained by the tension of the skin orstill more clearly by the direction of the fibres of the skin, justas with the same round instrument in a piece of wood a longitudinalopening or split would be made parallel to the grain see fig 1 inessay regions, as near the vertebræ, the fibres may run in differentdirections, and the resulting wound is stellate or triangular in shapeas if a thesis-sided instrument had caused it as the direction of thefibres of the various tissue layers, such as aponeuroses, serous andmucous membranes, etc , may be different, a deep wound involvingseveral such layers would have a different direction for each layer inillustration of this, examine the figure of a wound through the wall ofthe stomach see fig 3 illustration. Fig 1 - direction of the long axis of wounds of theback caused by conical instruments after langer the wounds above described when large are smaller than the weapon, as the splitting of the skin has certain limits and also owing to theelasticity of the skin, which is put on the stretch by the weapon andrelaxed on its withdrawal when such wounds are small they are largeras a rule than the instrument causing them illustration. Fig 2 - slit-like wound caused by a pointed conicalinstrument 2 5 cm in diameter natural size illustration. Fig 3 - wounds of stomach wall by a conical instrument, showing the different direction of the long axis of the wounds indifferent layers illustration. Fig 4 - stab-wound of the skin with a knife a fewminutes before death 2d punctured wounds by instruments both sharp pointed and cutting, like a knife or dagger if these wounds are perpendicular to thesurface, they have more or less the form of the weapon used the anglesmay show whether the knife, etc , had one or two cutting edges, buteven though the back of the knife is broad the wound may resembleone caused by a double-edged weapon thus stab-wounds from a commonpocket-knife show only exceptionally a wedge-shape, but regularly aslit, the edges of which are slightly curved to one another and end intwo acute angles the reason of this lies in the fact that the wound isonly caused by the cutting edge of the knife, so that we cannot tellas a rule which angle was occupied by the back of such a knife figs 4 and 5 the depth of these wounds may equal the length of the weaponor be almost any degree less, but the depth may even be greater thanthe length of the weapon by reason of a depression of the writings atthe time of the blow the wound is often shorter and broader than theweapon causing it, though more often it is larger than the weapon fromthe obliquity of the wound and the movement of the weapon on beingwithdrawn the wound is smaller than the instrument where the writings areon the stretch at the time the wound is inflicted illustration.