History

Global History Regents Thematic Essay


The professional and social standing of dr ogden is such that he does not need to offer any “as to ‘the ogden method’ and its value to you in your professional work global history regents thematic essay. What others say or think has little if any weight you are your own man you do your own thinking you decide for yourself-- do you not?. ”illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of anadvertisement of the burleson concern with which ogden was connectedprevious to 1914, and which connection he is capitalizing in hispresent advertising the booklet gives an outline of the “course of instruction, ” which isalmost identical, word for word, with the outline given in the letteradvertising the mail-order course previously referred to the booklet further states that “the ogden method has entirelyeliminated the use of cautery, the ligature or any injections, in thetreatment of hemorrhoids, ” but that “the use of the electric currenthas proved to be the very correct method in such paper, as will bedemonstrated at the clinic ” the booklet reiterates the statement thatogden association with the burleson and burleson concern at grandrapids makes him “eminently well qualified to instruct members of themedical profession in this important branch of the medical science!. ”in addition to this booklet there is a four-page advertisingleaflet illustrating and describing the “ogden rectal cabinet” andalso the “ogden rectal table and stool ” there is also a littlepostcard-- addressed, of course, to “h l roberts”-- for the physicianto fill in stating that “you may enroll me as intending to attend dr ogden clinic in proctology, to be held at-- -- ” should the recipientnot fill in and mail this enrolment card he gets another form lettercalling attention to the fact that the enrolment card has not beenreceived and stating further that “available hotel facilities make itnecessary to limit our enrolment to twenty students ”careful search fails to disclose that dr willard ealon ogden has everdistinguished himself in the practice of the specialty in which he nowwishes to instruct physicians equally careful search fails to showthat dr ogden has ever published a paper either on any proctologicsubjects or on any other phase of medicine or surgery neither doesthere seem to be any evidence for the claim that dr ogden “has beenassociated with the leading proctologists of america ”-- from thejournal a m a , feb 4, 1922 “patents” patent laws and patent office practicethe inequity of our patent laws, or possibly it would be more correctto say, of the interpretation of our patent laws, has been commented onthesis times in the journal the journal also has had occasion to callattention to patents that have been issued for obviously unscientificand quackish devices and preparations the paper of the preposterousgas-pipe fake “oxydonor” and the creatinin mixture for the allegedconferring of immunity against diphtheria, pneumonia, scarlet fever, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc , are paper in point in a patent issued the early writing of this year for the “discovery” ofa method of flavoring epsom salt, the patent office has, in fatuity, piled pelion on ossa the “inventor” declares that his inventionrelates to a pharmaceutical preparation and a special method oftreatment of the medicinal agents whereby said agent will be renderedmuch more efficient in character he further avows that the “primeobject” of his “invention” is to “disguise the normal taste and imwritingan agreeable odor or smell to salts commonly employed as a cathartic ”parenthetically it may be said that probably not a day passes thatessay physician in the united states does not do substantially the samething when writing a prescription the “inventor” further claims thatthe object of his “invention” is to utilize the salts as a vehicleto carry an antiseptic and anesthetic agent whereby the salts whenadministered as a cathartic “will also act beneficially on the entiredigestive tract” and “whereby cramped and spasmodic conditions are atonce relieved with a resulting cure of flatulency, indigestion, sickand sour stomach, colic and the destruction of worms, etc ”such claims are so absurd that the only excuse for commenting onthem is the effect they have on the public mind the layman readingthe specifications of this patent would naturally conclude that aninvention of great importance had been made-- of such importance as towarrant the government in rewarding its inventor by granting him aseventeen-year monopoly on the sale of his invention the law requires that, to be patentable, inventions shall be new anduseful and shall show a higher degree of skill in their inception thanis naturally to be expected from those who are skilled in the arts towhich the inventions belong it has been decided again and again thatphysicians’ prescriptions are not patentable because it is assumedthat an educated physician will utilize his knowledge of pharmacy indevising proper compounds of medicines to meet the indications ofdisease when a physician prescribes a dose of epsom salt to be takenin one of the official aromatic waters, he does not produce or create anew invention by so doing of course, in one sense every prescriptionis an invention-- an invention to meet the conditions presented by thepatient-- but such inventions are not patentable, because they representthe ordinary skill of a physician in carrying on his vocation if the patent office goes on granting patents for such “inventions” asflavored epsom salt, and it should be found financially profitable tosecure such patents and place the products on the market, it will onlybe a matter of time before the materia medica will be so restrictedthat a physician will be unable to write a prescription withoutinfringing on essaybody patent the splendid conception of the framers of our constitution in providinga plan for promoting progress in science and useful arts by grantingto inventors for a limited time the exclusive use of their inventions, in exchange for the publication of full knowledge thereof, is beingdebased no branch of our government is of greater importance to theprogress of the country than the patent office, provided that office isintelligently administered when the patent office is used, however, for an extention of the nostrum business, founded on the abuse ofpatent and trade-mark laws, it becomes a menace to the public health the objects of the patent law are being defeated by the practices ofthe patent office -- editorial from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 our archaic patent lawsin this issue we publish two reports of the council on pharmacy andchemistry which illustrate the weaknesses of the present working of theunited states patent laws in the first report the council presentsan investigation of a recently granted patent, and shows that thepatent was issued on the mere claims of the applicant and without thepresentation of any evidence for such claims the second report-- “needfor patent law revision”-- is an appeal to the patent office for amore enlightened administration of the patent law, and it presents afew illustrations of the unfair protection which has been granted bythe patent office the protest of the council appears at an opportunetime in science299 the “patent office society, ” an associationof employees of the u s patent office, announces that a committeehas been created on request of the national research council to makea study of the u s patent office and its service to science andarts it states that this committee will meet in washington shortlyto consider the adequacy of the present patent office equipment andthe simplification of procedure as well as responsiveness to presentnational and international requirements the committee also hopesto coordinate, in the interest of an improved public service, theendeavors of the various national societies, manufacturing interests, patent bar associations and all others aiming at genuine patent reform unquestionably, there is a growing conviction that in the case ofmedicines the monopoly given by the patent laws, if granted at all, should be granted with greater consideration of the public welfare too often the united states patent law has been used to obtain anunfair monopoly on a medicament or to abet quackery there is noquestion that one of two things is needed. Either a radical changein the patent law itself or the application of more brains in itsadministration -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 12, 1918 299 dec 28, 1917, p 629 patents perpetuated by trade namesthe patent on aspirin300 acetylsalicylic acid, controlled bythe bayer company, american representative of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld company, will expire next year 1917 the journal haspreviously stated that the grant of this patent was regrettable andworked injustice to american citizens it is unnecessary again to gointo the grounds for this statement. Neither in the farbenfabrikenhome country, gerthesis, nor in any other country except in the unitedstates, has a patent been granted for this product owing to theirmonopoly, the manufacturers have been able to exact a much higherprice for acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, in this country, thanelsewhere naturally, the bayer company, the american agents, view withdisfavor the prospect of being compelled to share this rich field withcompetitors the foregoing furnishes the answer to inquiries which havereached us from all over the country with regard to the campaign ofpublicity which the bayer company has inaugurated in the lay press apresumably authentic and apparently candid exposition of the methodsused and the motives behind the aspirin advertising is furnished inprinters’ ink:301300 granted feb 27, 1900 301 printers’ ink, june 29, 1916, p 189. July 13, 1916, p 100 “the manufacturers of aspirin are about to launch an extensive advertising campaign to clinch the market as far as possible before the expiration of their patent rights next year the purpose of the campaign is to identify the product with the trademark of the bayer company and to this extent hamper competition after the expiration of the patent ”the business of the bayer company, the article goes on to say, has beenhurt by the sale of worthless or even harmful imitations put on themarket by irresponsible and unauthorized persons when the present warstopped importations from gerthesis “the public knew aspirin, but did not know who made it italics ours when the bayer company, inc , took over the manufacture of aspirin in this country, the first steps were taken to identify the product with the firm who made it of course, there are good reasons why the makers were loth to advertise the product or to exploit their trademark as every one knows, the advertising of a medical proposition is an extremely ticklish subject it is easy to make a misstep aspirin is one of those proprietary drugs that are extensively prescribed by physicians if anything were done that might possibly associate this drug with the patent medicines that are in disfavor with the profession, the valuable influence and cooperation of thousands of doctors might be lost it is believed that this knotty phase of the question is being answered in the present advertising since nothing is mentioned about ‘medicine, ’ ‘cures’ or ‘ailments, ’ it is anticipated that there will be but little objection to the copy all that the advertising attempts to do is to link up the name ‘bayer’ with aspirin the nearest the copy gets to medical talk is in this sentence in very small type at the bottom of the advertisement, ‘the trademark “aspirin” reg u s patent office is a guarantee that the monoacetic acid ester of salicylic acid in these tablets is of the reliable bayer manufacture ’”from this it appears that, not content with seventeen years ofmonopoly, the aspirin people are attempting to retain a hold onthe market in perpetuo by associating the name of the companywith the trade name “aspirin ” there can be no better time than thepresent, therefore, for the medical profession to substitute, forthe nondescriptive name “aspirin, ” the descriptive and correct nameacetylsalicylic acid -- editorial from the journal a m a , aug 12, 1916 patenting therapeutic agentsin the past, therapeutic agents and apparatus have been controlledby patents and trademarks for profit if there have been exceptions, they have been rare the principles of medical ethics of the americanmedical association contain this statement. “it is unprofessionalto receive remuneration from patents for surgical instruments ormedicines ” this does not mean that the patenting is wrong in itself;there are occasions when it is wise, if not necessary, to obtain apatent in the interest of the public, and, in the case of surgicalinstruments and medicines, of the medical profession in certaininstances it is absolutely necessary that the article produced shallmaintain a definite standard of quality and purity-- and, it may beadded, shall be sold at a reasonable price enterprising pharmaceuticalmanufacturers have usually been ready to appropriate the results ofscientific research by investigators or therapeutic measures suggestedby practicing physicians not infrequently, in such instances, thedesire for financial gain has caused the marketing of such productswith extravagant, if not false, claims as to their value yet thepatent laws may be used so as to protect and benefit the public and themedical profession in research laboratories, work is being carried onresulting in the production of new therapeutic agents it is importantthat these agents shall be so controlled that they may be madeavailable without subordination to commercial interests it has becomepractically necessary, therefore, for research workers to protecttheir products in the interest of the public welfare and scientificmedicine it has not been an easy matter to decide how best to bringabout the desired results this question has been before the board oftrustees of the american medical association. And, in 1914, the houseof delegates passed a resolution authorizing the board to accept at itsdiscretion patents for medical and surgical instruments and appliances;as trustees, for the benefit of the profession and the public, provided that neither the association nor the patentee should receiveremuneration from these patents the rockefeller institute for medicalresearch has solved the problem in a similar manner in connection withthe report of the discovery of several new arsenic compounds, jacobsand heidelberger, 302 working in the rockefeller institute, say:302 jacobs, w a , and heidelberger, m.

Control period, 896 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 30 c c nutrolactis mixed with oats, 658 gm milk av daily yield for 9 days control period, 666 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days dog 1. Control period, 176 gm milk av daily yield for 7 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 55 gm milk av daily yield for 12 days dog 2. Control period, 189 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 72 gm milk av daily yield for 11 days dog 3. Control period, 93 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis on bread, 17 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days dog 4. Control period, 28 gm milk av daily yield for 7 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 47 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 43 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days control period, 41 5 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 33 5 gm milk av daily yield for 4 days dog 5. Control period, 67 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis on bread, 81 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days dog 6. Control period, 40 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 33 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days control period, 26 gm milk av daily yield for 4 days dog 7. Control period, 283 gm milk av daily yield for 9 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 155 gm milk av daily yield for 15 days 15 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 82 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days control period, 33 gm milk av daily yield for 3 days dog 8. Control period, 238 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days nutrolactis period 20 c c nutrolactis on bread, 223 gm milk av daily yield for 4 days 20 c c nutrolactis on bread, 46 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days dog 9. Control period, 223 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis on bread, 178 gm milk av daily yield for 15 days 15 c c nutrolactis on bread, 146 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days comment and conclusiongoat 1 had already been lactating for over two months, and the yieldwas gradually decreasing at the time the observations were begun theadministration of galega did not check this decrease goat 2 shouldhave been a very favorable subject, for the kid was about a week oldat the time the observations were begun both galega and nutrolactiscaused a decrease in milk yield of this animal this decrease isperhaps writingly due to the animal distaste for the drugs and herconsequent failure to eat as well as during the control periods administration of nutrolactis was accompanied by an increase in milkin only two animals, dog 4 and dog 5 a detailed examination of therecords of these two dogs shows that in both paper there was aprogressive increase in milk yield during the control period and thatadministration of the drug failed to accelerate this increase on thecontrary, the curve for dog 5 takes a sudden drop immediately after thefirst administration of the drug the records of dogs 6 and 7 show that the yield during the secondcontrol period is lower than that of the preceding periods althoughthe administration of the drug in both paper was followed by a decreasein the yield, it may be urged that the drug has essay lactagogue action, for its discontinuance was followed by a decrease in yield thiseffect, however, is also apparent rather than real, for the data show agradual falling off in yield during the period of administration of thedrug, which decrease was not accelerated by withdrawing the drug our data show that galega and nutrolactis, when taken by mouth, and the elements of suggestion excluded, had no beneficial effecton lactation-- at least in so far as the quantity of milk isconcerned -- from the journal a m a , may 26, 1917 the russell emulsion and the russell prepared green bone report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on “the russell emulsion” and “the russellprepared green bone, ” marketed by the standard emulsion company, wassubmitted to the council by a referee the council endorsed the reportand authorized its publication w a puckner, secretary the russell emulsion is put up in a neat package and advertised in anattractive pamphlet, on the cover of which we are told.

Outwardly it helpsthe shingles and st anthony fire hyppoglossum horse-tongue, tongue-blade or double-tongue the rootshelp the stranguary, provoke urine, ease the hard labour of women, provoke the menses, the herb helps ruptures and the fits of the mother:it is hot in the second degree, dry in the first. Boil it in white wine hyppolapathum patience, or monk rhubarb. See the root hypposclinum alexanders, or alisanders. Provoke urine, expel theplacenta, help the stranguary, expel wind sage either taken inwardly or beaten and applied plaister-wise to thematrix, draws forth both menses and placenta horminum clary. Hot and dry in the third degree. Helps the weaknessin the back, stops the running of the reins, and the fluor albus, provokes the menses, and helps women that are barren through coldnessor moisture, or both.

“the hypophosphites are especially useful in all diseases where there is a lack of nutrition they are the best of all remedies in rachitis, non-union of fractures, osteomalacia global history regents thematic essay and syphilitic periostitis ”as for syrupus roborans itself. “this elegant preparation is the best general tonic and reconstructive known ”the unwarranted therapeutic claims formerly made for it seem to be nolonger circulated syrupus roborans is an unscientific, shotgun mixture schlotterbeck solution hypophosphites of lime and soda liq hypophosphitum, schlotterbeckthe schlotterbeck & foss co , portland, maine, the manufacturers, sayof their preparation. “this solution contains 30 grains of the combined hypophosphites of lime and soda to the ounce it contains no sugar, no acid and it is perfectly neutral ” “indications for use -- galactostasis, imperfect metabolism, neurasthenia, nervous dyspepsia, insomnia, convalescence, acetonuria, cyclic vomiting in infants, diabetes, starvation, deficiency of lime, mother teeth during pregnancy, dentition of infants, rachitis, furunculosis, vomiting of pregnancy, obesity ” “migraine is often caused by conditions for which this solution is one of the most satisfactory remedies:” “in insomnia due to advancing age, it will often act as a hypnotic ”of the hypophosphites the schlotterbeck & foss company say. “if ‘damning it with faint praise’ on the writing of essay of the leading medical authorities, or utterly condemning it as useless, on the writing of others, would kill a medicine, the hypophosphites would long since have disappeared as medicinal agents negative testimony in regard to the value of a drug does not settle anything ”of their own preparation they say. “when we get the results that ought to follow the administration of hypophosphites, we have proved that schlotterbeck solution enters the system unchanged ” “this solution is primarily a blood and nerve tonic and chemical food ”schlotterbeck solution of hypophosphites of lime and soda is asemisecret preparation marketed under claims that are both unwarrantedand misleading robinson hypophosphitesaccording to the manufacturers, the robinson-pettet company, louisville, ky , each fluidounce of this preparation contains. “hypophosphites soda 2 gr hypophosphites lime 1-1/2 gr hypophosphites iron 1-1/2 gr hypophosphites quinin 3/4 gr hypophosphites strychnine 1/16 gr ”it is claimed to be “nutritive, tonic alterative a standard remedy in the treatment of pulmonary phthisis, bronchitis, scrofulous taint, general debility, etc stimulates digestion, promotes assimilation ”the declared composition of the preparation is unscientific, and thetherapeutic claims are unwarranted eupeptic hypophosphitesnelson, baker & co , detroit, mich , who market eupeptichypophosphites, call this preparation. “a superior combination containing the hypophosphites of potassium, calcium, iron and manganese, and the bitter tonics, quinin and strychnin, agreeably associated with natural digestive ferments of the pancreatic secretion it is thus a general reconstructive tonic the remedy is of especial value in the treatment of mental and nervous affections it is indicated in pulmonary tuberculosis, in all wasting diseases, in debilitated conditions generally and in all exhaustion from over work ”on the basis of the manufacturer statement, eupeptic hypophosphitesmust be regarded as a semisecret, unscientific, shotgun preparation, exploited through unwarranted therapeutic claims mcarthur syrup of the hypophosphites comp lime and sodaso far as the recent literature and trade package are concerned, noinformation as to the composition of this product is furnished beyondwhat is conveyed in the name the advertising for mcarthur syrup, like that for fellows’ syrup and peters’ syrupus roborans, has beenmodified as time has passed a few years ago it was advertised undersuch claims as the following.

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But the use of lettuce is chiefly forbidden to those that areshort-winded, or have any imperfection in the lungs, or spit blood water lily of these there are two principally noted kinds, viz the white andthe yellow descript the white lily has very large and thick dark greenleaves lying on the water, sustained by long and thick foot-stalks, that arise from a great, thick, round, and long tuberous black rootspongy or loose, with thesis knobs thereon, green on the outside, but aswhite as snow global history regents thematic essay within, consisting of divers rows of long and essaywhatthick and narrow leaves, smaller and thinner the more inward they be, encompassing a head with thesis yellow threads or thrums in the middle;where, after they are past, stand round poppy-like heads, full of broadoily and bitter seed the yellow kind is little different from the former, save only that ithas fewer leaves on the flowers, greater and more shining seed, and awhitish root, both within and without the root of both is essaywhatsweet in taste place they are found growing in great pools, and standing waters, and essaytimes in slow running rivers, and lesser ditches of water, insundry places of this land time they flower most commonly about the end of may, and their seedis ripe in august government and virtues the herb is under the dominion of the moon, and therefore cools and moistens like the former the leaves andflowers of the water lilies are cold and moist, but the roots and seedsare cold and dry. The leaves do cool all inflammations, both outwardand inward heat of agues. And so doth the flowers also, either by thesyrup or conserve.