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Gilman Scholarship Essay


If hedo, he does no more than he can gilman scholarship essay cure. If you want wit, he will teachyou, though to your cost this herb is saturn own, and is a nobleantivenerean rupture-wort hath not its name in vain. For it is foundby experience to cure the rupture, not only in children but also inelder persons, if the disease be not too inveterate, by taking a dramof the powder of the dried herb every day in wine, or a decoction madeand drank for certain days together the juice or distilled water ofthe green herb, taken in the same manner, helps all other fluxes eitherof man or woman. Vomitings also, and the gonorrhea, being taken any ofthe ways aforesaid it doth also most assuredly help those that havethe stranguary, or are troubled with the stone or gravel in the reinsor bladder the same also helps stitches in the sides, griping painsof the stomach or belly, the obstructions of the liver, and cures theyellow jaundice. Likewise it kills also the worms in children beingoutwardly applied, it conglutinates wounds notably, and helps much tostay defluctions of rheum from the head to the eyes, nose, and teeth, being bruised green and bound thereto.

That which grows upon time, is hotter and dryer than that which grows upon flax, even in the thirddegree, opens obstructions, helps infirmities of the spleen, purgethmelancholy, relieves drooping spirits, helps the rickets. That whichgrows on flax, is excellent for agues in young children, strengthensweak stomachs, purgeth choler, provokes urine, opens stoppings inthe reins and bladder that which grows upon nettles, provokes urineexceedingly the way of using it is to boil it in white wine, orother convenient decoction, and boil it very little ætias, mesue, actuarius, serapio, avincena eruch rocket, hot and dry in the third degree, being eaten alone, causeth head-ache, by its heat procures urine galen eupatorium see ageratum euphragia eyebright is essaything hot and dry, the very sight of itrefresheth the eyes. Inwardly taken, it restores the sight, and makesold men eyes young, a dram of it taken in the morning is worth apair of spectacles, it comforts and strengthens the memory, outwardlyapplied to the place, it helps the eyes filix fœmina } filicula, polypidium } see the roots filipendula }malahathram indian-leaf, hot and dry in the second degree, comfortsthe stomach exceedingly, helps digestion, provokes urine, helpsinflammations of the eyes, secures cloaths from moths fæniculum fennel, encreaseth milk in nurses, provokes urine, breaksthe stone, easeth pains in the reins, opens stoppings, breaks wind, provokes the menses. You may boil it in white wine fragaria strawberry leaves, are cold, dry, and binding, a singularremedy for inflammations and wounds, hot diseases in the throat. Theystop fluxes and the terms, cool the heat of the stomach, and theinflammations of the liver the best way is to boil them in barleywater fraxinus, &c ash-trees, the leaves are moderately hot and dry, curethe bitings of adders, and serpents.

Cough. Oppression of the chest 52 dysmenorrhea. Affections of the testicles. Costal pains 53 ophthalmia. Dysmenorrhea. Amenorrhea. Skin eruptions such therapy, detached entirely from the actual requirements of thecase and based only upon observation of the sky, was bound to beattended with the most unfortunate results the suffering public wasfrequently but little cheered by the assistance of its physicians, andoften felt the desire to find out what another physician could do itappears that such a condition occurred quite frequently, for ptolemy, in number 57 of his “centiloquium, ” gives special directions underwhat astral conditions such a change of physician could take place hesays. “cum septimum locum atque ejus dominum in ægritudine afflictumvideris, medicum mutato ” it appears certain, accordingly, that ageneral change of physicians was inaugurated by the public so soon asthe above conjunction was noted in the sky those who desired to be very careful in the choice of their physiciandid not change only when the conjunction of the stars recommended it asadvisable, but they also attempted to ascertain the horoscope of thenewly chosen medical adviser, for medical wisdom was found in greatestabundance in a man whose aspects showed a certain form “perfectusmedicus erit, cui mars et venus fuerint in sexta, ” says almansor this condition of astrologia medica was such as to weigh likean oppressive nightmare upon mankind, not only for centuries butfor thousands of years, and in this way medical superstition hasslaughtered more human beings than the most bloody wars ever did however, astrology has not always ruled our kind with equal strength there were periods during which belief in the fate-determining power ofthe stars was more dominant, and others in which it was feebler theancient world, which was blindly devoted to all kinds of superstition, had also cherished and fostered astrology but when the ancient theoryof life was demolished later on, and the christian god of love hadtaken possession of the world, the belief in the fate-determining powerof the stars was shaken, and centuries, followed during which medicinaastrologica, altho it did not by any means disappear entirely, wasforced more or less to the rear astrology did not become resurrecteduntil scholasticism and dogmatism had held back the activity ofthe mind from independent investigation, thus bringing about theintellectual darkness which for centuries prevailed this use ofastrology truly forms one of the most wonderful pages in the history ofthe development of our race, for an actual furor astrologicus seizedupon the world in the course of the thirteenth century the movementoriginated at the court of emperor frederick ii the great ghibellinewas so positive and so enthusiastic an adherent of all astrologicdoctrines that he did not decide upon any undertaking until he hadfirst learned the opinion of the stars regarding his enterprise it washis firm belief that the stars prophesied for him a political rôlewhich was to shake the entire world, and of his astrological predictionhe apprised his adversary, the pope, in the following words.

And we find such crimes in antipodal writings of the world, amongvaried sociological conditions, no matter whether it be the northamerican indian, who scalps and mutilates his enemy and places thesevered penis in the mouth, or the civilized european, who cuts up thebody of his victim and serves it in a curry at a feast of assembledfriends 584this new point of judiciary medicine has lately been elaborated byeuropean writers under the title of dépeçage criminel, a term whichapplies to the operation resorted to by an assassin having for its endthe getting rid of the body of the victim and to render more difficultthe establishment of its identity the cleverness of experts scarcely keeps pace nowadays with the morecomplicated proceedings adopted by criminals in fact, at a trial ofthis kind truth and science are often the under dogs in a fight, thanwhich none in forensic medicine is longer and more embarrassing tocause a rapid disappearance of the proofs of a homicide, with a viewto escape the investigations of justice, murderers have been knownliterally to make hash of the victim which was subsequently eaten bythemselves and others gruner relates the case of a man who, havingkilled and cut into pieces his victim, boiled and roasted the fragmentsand ate them with his wife such examples, however, suggest morbidrather than passional phenomena, which manifestly call for rigidscrutiny into the mental state of the culprit, who may be more of alunatic than a malefactor in paper of infanticide new-born children are essaytimes cut into piecesand the fragments burnt in order to facilitate the disappearance of thecadaver there does not appear to be, however, any well-authenticatedinstance of the operation having been done on a living child generallythe dismemberment is done in order to cause more ready disappearance ofthe remains the medico-legal problem to be solved in paper of criminal mutilationis to establish the identity of the victim and that of the author ofthe crime thesis apparently trivial circumstances may assist in the formation of anopinion as to the identity of the culprit if the victim be an adult, a man is the author of the deed. If an infant, a woman, the mother, isalmost always the guilty one the london lancet may 30th, 1863, p 617 reports a case in which the body of a child, of apparently four tosix months, was found in the sewage of a water-closet, minus an arm cutoff below the shoulder, presumably that a vaccination-mark might not beadduced as evidence a young woman was suspected several women deposedhaving seen a dusky-brown mother mark near the child navel aftersteeping in pure water a portion of the skin said to include the mark, and after washing, the mark gradually reappeared at the end of threedays, perfectly distinct it was recognized by witnesses and producedat the trial as corroborative evidence the accused was found guilty in a case of infanticide at tarare, in 1884, the upper extremity of afœtus was found to have been disarticulated after the manner of carvingthe wing of a fowl this having suggested to dr lacassagne a cook asthe author of the crime, she was speedily discovered and convicted afew years later an analogous case occurred in florence and was reportedby dr a montalti the instrument used for mutilating the body may furnish a suggestionof identity, to be dispelled or affirmed upon further investigation the mode of section observed in various instances has led to therecognition of a butcher as the culprit an expert would have butlittle trouble in distinguishing the hacking and mangling of a bodyfrom the careful cutting and preservation of muscles and blood-vesselsin dissections made by medical students, whom the public, by the way, invariably suspect in paper of mutilation if it can be ascertainedthat the instrument used was operated either by a left-handed person orby an ambidexter, such a fact may prove of importance essaytimes thefragments are tied or sewn up in a package the manner in which theknot is tied may indicate the occupation of the culprit in one casethe regularity of the sewing revealed that it was the work of a woman examination of the remains of clothing and of neighboring objects wherethe crime was committed may result in the identification of the victimor of the murderer indeed, it is the careful noting of trivial factsand their combination that is so valuable in all investigations ofthis class a compound fact made up of minor facts, which consideredseverally would possess but little value, may essaytimes solve thepuzzle in a case where no single fact of conclusive value is obtainable having collected as much of the mutilated remains as possible, thefirst step toward identification is to replace the pieces in anatomicalorder, to note carefully their correspondence or otherwise, and toascertain whether the fragments belong to the same body or to two orseveral individuals this is often a delicate and difficult matter, especially where decomposition is advanced or where the horror has beenpushed to its utmost limits, as in the case of a fratricide committedin france by several persons, who fragmented the cadaver with a saw andhatchet. Boiled the remains and fed them to hogs. And, after crushingthe bones with a hammer, threw the fragments into a deep gorge again, the body may be divided into numerous pieces, a hundred ormore, and disposed of in widely different localities, as in a pond, amanure-heap, a river, or a cesspool the chopped-up remains of infantshave been boiled in lye and afterward thrown into a privy or put in abarrel of vinegar a mother has also been known to cook with cabbagethe dismembered remains of her six-months’ child and serve it at a mealof which both she and her husband writingook numerous counterwritings of such paper happening in late years couldbe cited where the object was to favor the disappearance of thecadaver, and in which the establishment of the identity turned onthe examination of essay small writing of the organism. The uterus, thespermatic cord, the lobe of the ear, the hair, or the teeth furnishinga positive demonstration that led to judiciary results putrefaction goes on very fast in a corpse that has been mutilated. Butit is slower in writings which, on being separated just after death, havebecome bloodless in consequence of the hemorrhage after submersionthe outward signs of putrefaction put a notable obstacle in theway of identification, and after drowning the body becomes rapidlyunrecognizable supposing it impossible to reconstitute the cadaver in all itsessential writings, it is always possible, by following the instructionsalready given for examining the skeleton, to infer from one orseveral writings of the cadaver the sex, age, height, and essaytimespathological peculiarities of the victim examination of the skeletonand teeth is of capital importance in an investigation of this class the indications furnished thereby having already been touched upon, and being about all that we are justified in saying, it is onlynecessary to repeat that thesis of the details relative to these specialindications are so confusing as to suggest caution in using thestatistical tables of even high authority, as the observations theyrest on are not of sufficient extent to deserve confidence a survey of the head, limbs, trunk, and genital writings will give themost useful indications the head, in fact, is the surest indexfor justice, and one that lends promptness in the discovery of theassassin typical illustrations of this occur in the goss-udderzookcase and in the recent example of the bomb-thrower, norcross in thecase of a woman murdered by her husband at antwerp in 1877 and cutinto one hundred and fifty-three pieces and her remains thrown intoa privy, the color of the hair, the lobule of a torn ear, and theuterus of a woman having had children furnished special signs thatled to identity and condemnation examination of the brain and itsmembranes, though furnishing no very notable characteristics in thematter of identification, may nevertheless be regarded as a naturalcorollary to that of the skull brain weight, which is greatestbetween thirty and forty years, 1, 200 to 1, 450 grams in man, 1, 100 to1, 500 in woman, diminishes toward the sixtieth year it is said thatthe diminution takes place a few years sooner in the opposite sex the estimated loss of weight in a person of eighty years is admittedto be from 90 to 150 grams another sign of age is the tendency todegeneration found in the pineal gland, the cortical substance, theoptic and striate thalami, and in the brain capillaries the state of the eyes, if not too decomposed, may still become a signof identity for instance, the color of the iris, an arcus senilis, a pterygium, a cataract or an operation for the same, an iridectomy, etc , are signs that occasion may utilize the trunk may show, as it has in several instances, incised woundsthat caused death before the mutilation besides, the organs thereincontained may by their weight, dimension, and tissue alterationindicate the progress of age and of degeneration modifications of thecirculatory and respiratory apparatus are obviously characteristic asage advances the only organ whose weight increases with the number ofyears, the heart, may become hypertrophied or dilated. Its coronaryarteries may undergo an alteration. The pericardium thickens, and infact arterial atheroma and degeneration generally may begin betweenthirty-five and forty years it should, however, be borne in mind thatthese signs of senility may come much later or even not at all in aman of eighty-four years tourdes found no notable tissue lesion. Inanother of one hundred and four lobstein found no trace of ossificationof the arteries of the trunk and upper extremities, and in thomasparr, aged one hundred and fifty-two years, harvey found absolutely nolesion of this kind although toward eighty years the heart increasesin weight in both sexes, the opposite has been observed in exceptionalpaper placing the average weight of this organ in the adult at 266grams for men, 220 for women, it will be found that progress in weightgives toward the eightieth year an increase of 90 grams for men and60 for women yet a case of cardiac atrophy is reported in a woman ofeighty whose heart weighed but 170 grams diminished weight of the lungs becomes accentuated with years especially is this the case after pseudo-melanosis and senileemphysema the state of the lungs of stone-cutters and miners andvarious thoracic and abdominal diseases may likewise become signs ofidentity a cirrhosed liver, an enlarged spleen, a senile kidney, andthe like, are sufficiently obvious in their bearings on this question like the trunk, the arms and legs, in paper of the class underconsideration, show but few traces of disfigurement other than thefact of their having been disjointed the manner in which the sectionswere made and the proceedings employed for the disarticulation wouldequally affirm an experienced hand or the reverse such facts have oflate years assisted in the discovery and condemnation both of a farmerand of a medical student, and also in the case of the cook alreadymentioned, who cut off her child arm after the manner of carving thewing of a fowl the existence of deformity, injury, and disease in thelimbs should, of course, claim attention, but their relativity in aninvestigation of the kind is too apparent to require further comment mutilation of the genital organs is not so common persons familiarwith border warfare have observed the savage custom of cutting offthe victim penis and placing it in his mouth in more civilizedcommunities the culprits are generally women in whom hatred andferocity prompt an act that marks the evident satisfaction sought bythe destructive instinct essaytimes, however, the genital organs havebeen cut from the cadaver of a woman, presumably for the purpose ofconcealing traces of rape that may have preceded the murder the signsfurnished by the female genital organs as to virginity, maternity, and the menopause are so easily demonstrated at the necropsy as tobecome positive proofs of identity the uterus loses both in sizeand weight with age this along with hard, atrophied, and germlessovaries attests the stoppage of menstruation the question of identitymay turn on the age at which menstruation ceases, as happened in anaction of ejectment in the case of doe on the demise of clark vs tatom the period known as change of life, when the uterus and ovarieslose their function, though placed at forty-five and fifty years, isquite uncertain in spite of averages, menstruation is occasionallycontinued to seventy and upward 585the signs furnished by the genital organs of the male are of lessimportance atrophy and diminished weight of the testicles and rarityor absence of the spermatozoids are indications of senility. Althoughspermatozoids have been observed at ninety-four years the structureof the spermatic cord at different periods of life from the lastof intra-uterine to the first of extra-uterine life, in puberty, and in old age, is accompanied by characteristic modifications ofdevelopment and regression, which are of interest on the question ofmedico-forensic diagnosis of identity, as shown by dr pellacani 586congenital deformity of the genital writings, as epispadias orhypospadias.

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The leaves applied to thehead, help hot diseases there, and frenzies sampsucum marjoram sunicula sanicle gilman scholarship essay. Hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses woundsand ulcers saponaria sope-wort, or bruise-wort, vulgarly used in bruises andcut fingers, and is of notable use in the veneral disease satureia savory summer savory is hot and dry in the third degree, winter savory is not so hot, both of them expel wind sazifragia alba white saxifrage, breaks wind, helps the cholic andstone scabiosa scabious. Hot and dry in the second degree, cleanses thebreast and lungs, helps old rotten coughs, and difficulty of breathing, provokes urine, and cleanses the bladder of filthy stuff, breaksaposthumes, and cures scabs and itch boil it in white wine scariola an italian name for succory schœnanthus schœnanth, squinanth, or chamel hay. Hot and binding it digests and opens the passages of the veins. Surely it is as greatan expeller of wind as any is scordium water-germander, hot and dry, cleanses ulcers in the inwardwritings, it provokes urine and the menses, opens stopping of the liver, spleen, reins, bladder, and matrix, it is a great counter poison, andeases the breast oppressed with flegm.