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From Failure To Promise Essay Contest


Whether themercury, the copper, or the protein in the mixture was responsible forthe claimed benefits is an open question these reports were given careful consideration, but it was decidednot to accept this preparation because of 1 exaggerated therapeuticclaims, conflicting with rule 6 aside from the report of its usein influenza and pneumonia at the great lakes training station andthe post hospital at fort sheridan, which reports are of work doneand observations made under conditions which did not permit carefulcontrols, no evidence has been presented to the council supporting thetherapeutic claims and 2 being an irrational mixture, conflictingwith rule 10-- a mixture containing colloidal mercury, copper andsulphur with proteins and carbohydrates in addition, it is difficult topredict the changes which occur in such mixtures on standing samples of mervenol two 1-ounce bottles submitted by themanufacturer, june 5, 1919, were found when opened, aug 18, 1919, tohave undergone decomposition a very disagreeable odor had developed, the liquid was turbid, and a large amount of precipitate had formed armervenol is stated by the proprietors-- the hille laboratories, chicago-- to be a hydrosol colloidal suspension of“mercury-copper-sulpharsenite” containing sufficient sodium chloridto make it isotonic with blood serum and “inert proteid” and“carbohydrate” to stabilize the solution. Each cubic centimeter isdeclared to contain 0 0025 gm arsenic, 0 005 gm mercury, 0 0016 gm copper, and 0 0032 gm sulphur the use of armervenol as advised by the hille laboratories is the sameas that of mervenol, and in addition its use in syphilis is emphasized the criticisms of this mixture are similar in every respect to thosedirected against mervenol-- the addition of arsenic introduces stillanother factor of uncertainty after investigating these claims, it was decided not to accept thispreparation on the ground 1 that the therapeutic claims are unprovedand unwarranted, conflicting with rule 6, and 2 that the mixture isan irrational one, conflicting with rule 10 -- from reports of councilon pharmacy and chemistry, 1919, p 82 normal phenol serum cano and methyl-phenol serum cano not accepted for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following statement declaring normal phenolserum cano and methyl-phenol serum cano ineligible to new andnonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary no statement of the composition of these preparations was submittedto the council and none appears on the labels of the trade packages however, the advertising circular contains statements such as. “ normal phenol serum-- phenol with methyl blue dissolved in anaphylactic serum ” “ a combination of human or horse serum with phenol and methylene-blue, thereby forming a new chemico-biologic product which he termed methyl-phenol serum or, chemically, chloride of phenol thionin tetramethylene-seric ” “methyl-phenol serum is a chemico-biological product in which phenol is the chief factor each ampule of 10 c c contains the therapeutic equivalent of 0 5 gm 7 5 grains of phenol ”from the foregoing it appears that both preparations contain phenol andmethylthionine chloride methylene blue and that the second does notcontain methyl phenol cresol as the name would indicate no definite evidence for the value of these preparations is broughtforward and even the manufacturer is constrained to caution, “we assumeno responsibility for the therapeutic action of the serum ” on theother hand there are a great thesis statements in the papers of cano andhis colleagues to which exception must be taken of these, from amongthesis similar, the following statements are to be cited and commented on.

50 c c portions were used to determine sugar accordingto the daufresne-oullivan method the weights of cupric oxid averaged210 mg , or 72 per cent ether soluble material -- 1 6998 gm of the powdered specimen wasextracted with ether and the ether extract evaporated to dryness theresidue weighed 0 0600 gm , equivalent to 3 53 per cent syphilodol ampuleswater -- the liquid from one ampule was distilled over very carefully the freezing point of the liquid was 0 1 c , and it was neutral tomethyl orange and phenolphthalein arsenic -- the contents of one ampule was placed in a small from failure to promise essay contest florenceflask, 20 c c of concentrated sulphuric acid added and heated to70 c. 0 5 gm of potassium permanganate was added in small amounts the procedure was then carried on as described by engelhardt andwinters in j am pharm assn , 1915, p 1469 to the mixturefrom 5 to 10 c c of hydrogen peroxid solution were added drop bydrop until the color had disappeared the liquid was diluted with20 c c of water, boiled fifteen minutes, diluted again and boiledfifteen minutes, then cooled and made up to exactly 100 c c a blankwas also run alongside five c c of this solution was then testedquantitatively for arsenic according to the u s p ix method, usingall precautions comparisons of stains showed less than 0 00001 gm ofarsenic as -- from the journal a m a , may 18, 1918 cerelenecerelene, a paraffin preparation for the treatment of burns, wassubmitted to the council by the holliday laboratories, with thestatement that it was composed of 84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate, and 1 per cent purified elemi gum to which is addedoil of eucalyptus 2 per cent and betanaphthol 0 25 per cent it wasexplained. “myricyl palmitate is a purified form of beeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solely manufactured by this company ”it was also stated that on “special order” cerelene has been madecontaining oil of eucalyptus and resorcin, oil of eucalyptus and picricacid, and picric acid alone the following report on the preparationwas presented to the council by the referee to whom cerelene had beenassigned:cerelene is another compound wax for the treatment of burns accordingto the work of sollmann j a m a 68:1799, 1917 it is highlyimprobable that compound mixtures have any advantage over simpleparaffin of low melting point cerelene must therefore be considered asan unessential modification of paraffin, and as in conflict with rule10, unless definite evidence of superiority be submitted cerelenemixtures containing medicinal ingredients also appear unscientificsince the evidence that the ingredients do not leave the wax has notbeen successfully contradicted finally, the claims made for cereleneare rather extreme, and would need essay revision before they could beaccepted the a m a chemical laboratory reports. The physical properties of cerelene are as follows. melting point by u s p method 50 0 c ductility limit 30 5 c plasticity limit 26 4 c not strong at 38 0 c adheres moderately well. Detaches with “pulling ” on heating, readily loses eucalyptol, and a small amount of resinous substance forms in the bottom of the beaker if cerelene be heated to 145 c and cooled, the resulting product no longer has the properties of the original cerelene after two years’ delay on the writing of the manufacturer, the councilauthorized publication declaring cerelene inadmissible for new andnonofficial remedies because its superiority over single paraffinshad not been demonstrated and the unwarranted claims had not beenabandoned -- abstracted from the journal a m a , feb 15, 1919 dr de sanctis’ rheumatic and gout pillsdr desanctis’ rheumatic and gout pills are sold by edward cleaver, 13clerkenwell road, london, england the american agents are e fougeraand co , inc , new york the package is a round pill box and containstwelve pills and a circular, which directs that one pill be taken everyeight hours until relieved in the package there is also a circularadvertising dr desanctis’ gout and rheumatic paint, with directionsfor its use on the cover of a box, which contained six of the retailpackages, is the statement that these pills have been in general usefor nearly 100 years, and that their sale has been built up withoutadvertising desanctis’ pills are round, uncoated, and have a light brown color there was essay variation in the color of different lots, one lot inwritingicular being gray rather than brown a little arrowroot starchwas found in each box, this evidently having been used as a dustingpowder the pills were very hard, rather brittle, but quite difficultto powder the pills were not readily disintegrated by water or dilutedacids, even when warmed, but when warmed with a dilute sodium hydroxidsolution they readily disintegrated ten pills weighed 3 213 gm , an average of 0 3213 gm , or 5 grains thearrowroot starch used as a dusting powder was removed as completely aspossible by rolling the pills in a cloth several dozen pills were thenpowdered and the powder thus obtained used for the analysis a microscopic examination of the powder showed powdered colchicum seedin abundance and also traces of arrowroot starch, no doubt from thatused as the dusting powder since colchicum seed was so abundant, the powder was assayed by theu s pharmacopeial method for colchicum seed u s p ix, p 120, slightly modified so that less of the powdered pills than directedthere could be used in one assay 3 75 gm gave 0 0204 gm of colchicinor 0 54 per cent in a duplicate, 5 gm gave 0 0234 gm of colchicin or0 47 per cent. Average 0 5 per cent the alkaloid obtained had the characteristic appearance and odor ofcolchicin when separated from the seed under these conditions thesolution in water and acid was yellow. The aqueous solution wasintensely bitter, and the yellow color intensified with acids the dryresidue became intensely yellow with concentrated sulphuric acid.

Mouth, nose, and eyescontained essay of the from failure to promise essay contest grain. Essay also in stomach, larynx, trachea, andbronchi essay marks of injury on face and other writings of body internalsigns of asphyxia opinion given, that the case was homicide thedefence offered was that the man had fallen into the grain 66 rauscher. Friedreich blat , 1886, xxxvii , pp 324-330 - woman, age 71, suffocated by a cloth over nose and mouth see tidy, “med jur , ” paper 1 to 11 death from submersion in its medico-legal relations by irving c rosse, a m , m d , f r g s eng , professor of nervous diseases, georgetown university. Membre du congrès international d’anthropologie criminelle, etc death by submersion or drowning general considerations the frequence and importance of drowning having arrested attentionfrom the days of noah ark and those of hippocrates down to thepresent time, it is quite possible to array in chronological order thefictitious, transitory, and positive periods that mark the sequence ofideas touching the subject mooted questions relative to drowning have been debated since thefourteenth century.

larynx and on each side of middle linewere marks of irregular outline such as might be caused by pressure ofthumb and fingers several dark, bruise-like discolorations on flexorsurface of each forearm hands clinched elbows flexed discharge offæces by rectum necroscopy. Brain and membranes normal hyoid bone andlaryngeal cartilages uninjured mucous membrane of larynx and tracheacongested and covered with frothy mucus lungs intensely congested several hemorrhages. Masses of tissue of each lung, chiefly towardbase, were solidified by effused blood all the heart cavities empty stomach normal, empty no congestion of abdominal viscera 2 taylor. “med jur , ” am ed , 1892, p 412 - man and woman strangled by cord, tied so tightly that there was hemorrhage from mouthand nose 3 harvey.

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“if ‘damning it with faint praise’ on the writing of essay of the leading medical authorities, or utterly condemning it as useless, on the writing of others, would kill a medicine, the hypophosphites would long since have disappeared as medicinal agents negative testimony in regard to the value of a drug does not settle anything ”of their own preparation they say. “when we get the results that ought to follow the administration of hypophosphites, we have proved that schlotterbeck solution enters the system unchanged ” “this solution is primarily a blood and nerve tonic and chemical food ”schlotterbeck solution of hypophosphites of lime and soda is asemisecret preparation marketed under claims that are both unwarrantedand misleading robinson hypophosphitesaccording to the manufacturers, the robinson-pettet company, louisville, ky , each fluidounce of this preparation contains. “hypophosphites soda 2 gr hypophosphites lime 1-1/2 gr hypophosphites iron 1-1/2 gr hypophosphites quinin 3/4 gr hypophosphites strychnine 1/16 gr ”it is claimed to be “nutritive, tonic alterative a standard remedy in the treatment of pulmonary phthisis, bronchitis, scrofulous taint, general debility, etc stimulates digestion, promotes assimilation ”the declared composition of the preparation is unscientific, and thetherapeutic claims are unwarranted eupeptic hypophosphitesnelson, baker & co , detroit, mich , who market eupeptichypophosphites, call this preparation. “a superior combination containing the hypophosphites of potassium, calcium, iron and manganese, and the bitter tonics, quinin and strychnin, agreeably associated with natural digestive ferments of the pancreatic secretion it is thus a general reconstructive tonic the remedy is of especial value in the treatment of mental and nervous affections it is indicated in pulmonary tuberculosis, in all wasting diseases, in debilitated conditions generally and in all exhaustion from over work ”on the basis of the manufacturer statement, eupeptic hypophosphitesmust be regarded as a semisecret, unscientific, shotgun preparation, exploited through unwarranted therapeutic claims mcarthur syrup of the hypophosphites comp lime and sodaso far as the recent literature and trade package are concerned, noinformation as to the composition of this product is furnished beyondwhat is conveyed in the name the advertising for mcarthur syrup, like that for fellows’ syrup and peters’ syrupus roborans, has beenmodified as time has passed a few years ago it was advertised undersuch claims as the following. “ has stood the test during thesis years for unequaled efficacy in the treatment of tuberculosis indicated also as a tonic and tissue builder in convalescence from fevers, in nervous diseases, rickets, senile debility and bronchitis ” “its use is indicated in diseases of the chest, chronic cough, throat affections, general debility, brain exhaustion, cholera infantum and wasting diseases of children ”at present no definite claims seem to be made for it. The manufacturersevidently find the magic name of hypophosphites sufficient to evokethe spell for which the advertisement writer aid was once sought a testimonial contained in a circular which seems to be still usedillustrates both the kind of aura which surrounds hypophosphites inthe minds of physicians who are still living in the past, and the kindof logic which has made the reputation of this and thesis other equallyworthless preparations “just about six years ago i had a severe attack of la grippe which almost killed me left me with asthma catarrh and a severe cough did not get out of the house for three months took over a dozen bottles mcarthur hypophos -- came out all right and since then worked hard, but last fall took another cold, but worked on, used mcarthur hypophos , am using it now, am on my 12th bottle “i have five or six patients whom i have put on mcarthur hypophos , but i do not prescribe the single bottle, but wholesale no less than half dozen bottles one patient is on his 24th bottle with orders to get another half dozen and keep it up all winter i have given the same order to all keep it up all winter and i myself intend to do the same, for with its use i have lost no time-- rain or shine i am doing my work i know what it has done for me and what it is doing for my patients ”it would be hard to find a more characteristic example of the naïvemental processes of the simple folk who in all good faith writetestimonials for worthless medicines this well-meaning practitioner a homeopath, by the way, because he “came out all right” after anattack of grip, returns all praise to mcarthur hypophosphites, whichhe has taken “wholesale ” not the faintest doubt of the validity ofhis post hoc ergo propter hoc argument seems to glimmer across hisconsciousness mcarthur syrup of the hypophosphites is an irrational preparation while its faults are fewer and less glaring than those of essay otherproprietaries, the circulation of such a testimonial as the one justquoted is sufficient of itself to cast suspicion on the product borcherdt malt olive with hypophosphites, maltzyme with hypophosphites and maltine with olive oil and hypophosphitesthese preparations are now described in the appendix to new andnonofficial remedies borcherdt malt olive with hypophosphites borcherdt malt extract company, chicago is said to contain in each100 c c , 0 64 gm each of calcium and sodium hypophosphites, withmalt extract, olive oil and glycerine maltzyme with hypophosphites malt-diastase company, new york is said to contain, in each100 c c , 0 4 gm each of calcium, sodium and potassium hypophosphitesand 0 005 gm each of iron and manganese hypophosphites, withmaltzyme maltine with hypophosphites maltine company, brooklyn, n y is said to contain in each 100 c c , 0 64 gm each of calciumand sodium hypophosphites and 0 42 gm of iron hypophosphite, withmaltine maltine with olive oil and hypophosphites maltine company, brooklyn, n y is said to contain, in each 100 c c , 0 6 gm eachof calcium and sodium hypophosphites, with maltine and olive oil ingeneral, no therapeutic claims are made for these mixtures so far asthe hypophosphites are concerned the addition of hypophosphites tosuch mixtures is irrational and, since it tends to perpetuate thehypophosphite fallacy, detrimental to sound therapeutics the council actionthe council endorsed the conclusions of the work of dr marriottreferred to above, and noted. 1 that the therapeutic use ofhypophosphites except possibly in essay paper as a convenient means ofadministering the positive element in the salt, as ammonium in ammoniumhypophosphite or calcium in calcium hypophosphite is irrational. 2that the merits of each hypophosphite salt submitted for considerationunder the foregoing exception must be judged individually, and 3that fellows’ syrup of hypophosphites, peters’ syrupus roborans, schlotterbeck solution hypophosphites of lime and soda, robinsonhypophosphites, the eupeptic hypophosphites of nelson, baker &co , and mcarthur syrup of the hypophosphites are ineligible forinclusion in new and nonofficial remedies, and that borcherdt maltolive with hypophosphites, maltzyme with hypophosphites, maltinewith hypophosphites, and maltine with olive oil and hypophosphitesbe deleted from the appendix of n n r of these preparations, all are in conflict with rule 10. Fellows’ syrup, schlotterbecksolution, robinson hypophosphites and nelson, baker & co eupeptichypophosphites are in conflict with rule 6. The fellows, schlotterbeck, and nelson, baker preparations are also in conflict with rule1 -- from the journal a m a , sept 2, 1916 pulvoids calcylates report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrypulvoids calcylates 5 grains was submitted by the drug productscompany, inc , new york, under the following claims as to composition.