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French Essay


1 large french essay section knife. 2 scalpels. 3 enterotome for openingintestines and stomach.

“saloform is a definite chemical compound the component writings of which are hexamethylene tetramine, salicylic acid and lithia ” “as a uric acid solvent it is indicated in rheumatism, gout, in phosphaturia, in gravel, and in renal colic ” “as a genito-urinary antiseptic it limits suppuration anywhere along the urinary tract, from the kidneys down to the orifice of urethra ”as, even after diligent search, no description of a compound ofhexamethylenamine hexamethylenetetramine, salicylic acid and lithiawas found in chemical literature, it seemed probable that saloformis merely a mixture of hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate accordingly the separation of saloform into its component writings bymeans of selected solvents was attempted by triturating the powderwith chloroform, filtering and evaporating the filtrate, a residuewas obtained which gave satisfactory tests for hexamethylenaminebut contained only traces of salicylic acid or lithium salicylate the portion insoluble in chloroform was dissolved in water thesolution gave satisfactory tests for lithium salicylate but not forhexamethylenamine from french essay these tests it is evident that saloformis a simple mixture of hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate quantitative examination indicated that the two ingredients, hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate, are present in approximatelyequal amounts referee recommendationthe report of our chemical laboratory shows that saloform is not adefinite compound as claimed, but a simple mixture of hexamethylenaminand lithium salicylate it is therefore in conflict with rule 1 it isalso in conflict with rule 6, for neither hexamethylenamin, lithium, nor salicylate are therapeutically effective “uric acid solvents”. Norwould any of these have any effect on “phosphaturia ”the mixture also conflicts with rule 10. For it is inadvisable toadminister the ingredients in fixed, but unknown proportions it is recommended that saloform be deemed inadmissible to n n r the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 71 secretogen report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryabout a year ago the council declared secretogen, 103 a product theactive ingredient of which was stated to be “pancreatic secretin” andadvertised as a remedy for certain conditions of defective digestionand assimilation, to be ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies the reasons for this decision were stated at the time as follows:103 j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 “1 no evidence has been presented that the absence of secretin is acause of gastro-intestinal diseases it is usually present, and if notpresent, as in achylia gastrica, there is evidently essay compensatingarrangement by which the pancreas is stimulated to perform its regularfunctions “2 there is no evidence that secretin in any form is physiologicallyactive when administered by mouth ”since secretogen was not the only so-called secretin preparation onthe market, and since the use of secretin preparations was recommendedby certain writers, notwithstanding the lack of evidence of its value, the council caused an experimental investigation of the question to bemade this was carried out by prof a j carlson of the university ofchicago no secretin was found in the commercial products examined, namely, secretogen tablets, secretogen elixir and duodenin furthermore, carlson results104 confirmed the council previous conclusionas to the inertness of secretin administered by mouth the councilendorsed professor carlson findings 105104 carlson a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlman, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208. Reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 96 the g w carnrick company has replied to the publication of thisreport in the letter printed below a portion of this letter, whichconsists of a communication from an unnamed correspondent of the g w carnrick company and the company comment thereon, has been omitted the council offered to publish this if the carnrick company wouldfurnish the name of the writer this it has not done as will be seen, the company now shifts ground, abandoning entirely the claim thatsecretogen contains secretin the council has authorized publicationof the letter omitting the writing just mentioned, together with thecomment that follows w a puckner, secretary “the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation “gentlemen:-- the opinion of the council and the contribution byprofessor carlson which appeared in the journal of the american medicalassociation for jan 15, 1916, have been read by us with interest the column of current comment dealing with ‘tiger-bone therapy andclinical experience’ has appealed to our good nature and, under thecircumstances, our sense of humor “professor carlson seems to have quite well established that theso-called secretin preparations do not contain secretin to anyappreciable extent, and that they are inert in laboratory experimentson normal animals at the same time, to do away with an apparentdiscrimination on the writing of the management of the council, it wouldhave been well if professor carlson had included the so-called secretinpreparations belonging to another well-known firm which markets such aproduct this discrimination has already been referred to by us “had professor carlson stopped at the determination of the therapeuticavailability of secretin given by mouth, his work might have beenaccepted without comment, even if we should have thought it advisableto object to the matter published by the council but the professorwent beyond his province entirely when, in commenting on the findingsobtained by using secretogen clinically, he said. ‘it is, perhaps, impertinent for laboratory men to comment on these clinical results ’it is his point was well taken and it is a profound pity thatprofessor carlson did not observe his own ruling “in the words of a correspondent of the journal of the american medicalassociation, in discussing professor carlson criticism of dr crile‘kinetic drive, ’ ‘it behooves the laboratory man to be circumspect inhis criticism of clinical theories, since going beyond the bounds ofwell-established things weakens his position, not merely with referenceto the writingicular subject under discussion, but with reference toclinical phenomena in general ’ clinical results have definitelyestablished the value of secretogen as the matter now stands thisstatement is beyond criticism “when secretogen was first introduced we assumed that it depended onsecretin for results produced in this assumption we were in goodcompany, as witnessed by the testimony of moore, edie and abram when, in the course of their investigations as to the value in diabetesof a secretin-bearing extract given by mouth, 106 they said. ‘inthe majority of these paper there has been no appreciable fallin the output of sugar in essay of these negative paper there hasbeen noted, however, improvement in the digestion and, in certainpaper, the patient weight has increased ’ they also state thatthe secretin-bearing product ‘appears to stimulate the functionalactivity of the duodenum ’106 they give a most significantreport 107 we quote from the paper as follows:106 all italics are ours g w carnrick company 107 bio-chem jour 1:28, 1906 “‘the patient had been under observation for six months beforetreatment and the sugar was not reducible by diet almost at once thedyspepsia from which he was suffering was relieved and his generalnutrition improved to such an extent that he regained over eighteenpounds in weight, which he had previously lost, and this improvementwas accompanied by complete recovery of his physical and mentalenergies ’106“inasmuch as this improvement could not have been due to the containedsecretin it must have been due to essay other principle containedin the extract our experience and that of the physicians who haveused secretogen establish the fact that moore, edie and abram madeno mistake when they came to the conclusion that what they termed asecretin-bearing extract stimulates the functional activity of theduodenum and improves the digestion “when professor carlson was investigating secretogen he must haverealized that he was dealing essentially with an extract of theduodenal mucosa it is, therefore, all the more surprising, consideringhis extensive researches into the literature, that he should haveignored the testimony of essay of his own authorities, writingicularlyhallion, as to the value of extracts of the duodenal mucosa in duodenalinsufficiencies the meticulous carefulness with which this evidencewas avoided is hardly worthy of the best traditions of physiology, ascience which has truth for its first and last aim “hallion in his ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ says that the ‘aims ofduodenal opotherapy are. 1, to supply deficient duodenal juice 2, above all to stimulate and to relieve this organ-- notably to aid theproduction of secretin4-- and so profit by the stimulating actionwhich duodenal extract exercises on the duodenal mucosa which actionwe, enriquez and myself, believe and have experimentally proved, conforms to the general principles of opotherapy 3, by means of theproduction of secretin, to reinforce the biliary, pancreatic andintestinal secretions 4, to stimulate intestinal peristalsis “‘principal indications. Intestinal dyspepsias, intestinalautointoxications, certain forms of constipation and duodenalinsufficiency ’“at the international congress of medicine, madrid, 1903, hallionsaid that he felt justified in stating that duodenal opotherapycorrectly carried out must be classed under the very best methods oftreating dyspepsia 106 the results had been satisfactory and, inthesis paper, remarkable it had been nil in a few paper but it hadnever been harmful in any degree he pointed out that marfan was thefirst to employ this substance clinically marfan had had writingicularlyexcellent results in children of 15 months to 4 years suffering withmarked malnutrition, anorexia and constipation marfan prescribedthe duodenal extract given in milk 106 hallion further remarks that, as he is not a practitioner, he had had only one opportunity to testduodenal opotherapy clinically the case was that of a man of 26 yearswith obstinate intestinal dyspepsia and severe constipation which hadpersisted from childhood this patient had been treated by enemas, laxatives, diet, etc treatment with duodenal extract resulted ina complete cure 106 hallion points out that the most satisfactoryaspect of duodenal opotherapy is the permanent effect produced, 106which bears out his statement that these extracts have the power to aidin the restoration of function and structure of an organ “this has been so well established that the principle is now embodiedin a law which is frequently referred to as ‘hallion law’. ‘extractsof an organ exert on the same organ an exciting influence which lastsfor a longer or shorter time when the organ is insufficient it isconceivable that this influence augments its action and, when it isinjured, that it favors its restoration ’“in ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ hallion points out that ‘theopotherapeutic product which corresponds to the affected organrepresents in essay way the stimulating and elective food for thatorgan, and if we supply the organ with a food which is more completethan it necessarily needs, the affected organ can exercise its electiveaction and take up only those substances of which it is in need ’“hallion observations on this point are beautifully borne out bythe classic work of j w draper, as reported in the journal of theamerican medical association, sept 26, 1914 this report gives resultsin both laboratory and clinical experiments “in order to show that fed jejunal and ileac epithelium exerciseessay special detoxicating power, not yet understood but definitelyrecognizable, draper fed a control series of dogs with intestinalobstruction, experimentally produced, on emulsified cells of liver, spleen, pancreas and muscle tissue these animals lived a few hourslonger than not-fed controls, but draper says that it is evidentthat these cells had either no detoxicating action, or a very feebleone compared with intestinal epithelium he used jejunal and ileacepithelium clinically in two instances. 1st, in a female dog which hadhad ‘chronic stomach trouble’ for six months when draper saw her shehad had complete intestinal obstruction for five days, with symptoms oftachycardia, extreme nervousness and great weakness in the hind legs draper removed a pebble from her intestine but her condition was stillgrave “she was immediately put on small-intestine epithelium derived fromtwo dogs of different breed draper says that from a long experiencewith duodenally obstructed dogs, he should not have expected her torecover, but the symptoms gradually subsided and she lived the secondinstance in which he used the epithelium therapeutically was in thecase of a man who suffered from an annular cancer of the intestine withdefinite symptoms of obstruction after the operation, and realizingthat the patient was in a desperate condition, he fed him an emulsionof intestinal epithelium from a dog the pulse improved and the patientlived “essay of draper conclusions are as follows:“‘autotoxemia in intestinal obstruction undoubtedly arises from aninterference with cellular reactions of the intestinal epithelium when small-intestine epithelial cells of healthy animals are placedin the stomach106 of duodenally obstructed animals, such animals havelived nearly twice as long as not-fed controlled animals this evidenceis strongly opposed to the bacterial theory of origin of toxins ’“the point to be emphasized is this. If this emulsion of intestinalepithelium had been fed to a normal dog and a normal man, what wouldhave happened?.

Compound hypophosphites, gr 1 including quinine hypophosphites, gr 1/36 and strychnine hypophosphites, gr french essay 1/256, with iodinized emulsion scott m 30 ”as in the case of iodinized emulsion scott, the advertising makesexaggerated therapeutic claims for the individual constituents of thepreparation and for the heterogeneous mixture of guaiacol and creosotesulphonates, hypophosphites, quinin, strychnin, turpentine, phenol, iodin, “lactated pepsin, ” etc thus, while it is well established thatin guaiacol sulphonate and creosote sulphonate the phenolic constituentis bound so firmly that, when administered, but very little is splitoff in the organism, yet the advertising claims “that the system canbe saturated in a shorter time and with smaller doses of creosote andguaiacol sulphonates than with any other form of these drugs” and that on the false premise that the guaiacol and creosote from these drugswill permeate the tissues of the lungs “they help to clear up thelocal infection and thus aid in returning to normal the diseased mucousmembrane ”in the advertising pamphlet, following a discussion of the effect ofclimate and food in the treatment of the tuberculous, we read. “while admitting the great importance of the foregoing points, we are firmly of the opinion that proper medication is a great aid in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, and, with this in view, we offer to the profession creosotonic scott believing that in it we have a superior preparation for this purpose ”this is unwarranted of course suitable medication to meet specialconditions is proper in the treatment of tuberculosis, but the routineadministration of a complex and irrational mixture such as creosotonic scott is bound to cause inattention to the prime requisites for theproper treatment of the tuberculous-- hygienic surroundings and goodfood creosotonic scott is an irrational mixture, sold under misleading andunwarranted claims it is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesfor conflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 -- from the journal a m a , aug 24, 1918 campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 has beenadopted by the council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary the following report of the a m a chemical laboratory on“campetrodin” and “campetrodin no 2, ” sold by the a h robinscompany, richmond, va , was submitted to the council by a referee ofthe committee on pharmacology:campetrodin and campetrodin no 2, double strength, are called “ethicalmedicinal specialties” by the a h robins company, richmond, va , which sells them an advertisement in the maryland medical journal december, 1917 contains the following claim for composition. “campetrodin made in two strengths of iodine this preparation is an oleaginous solution of iodine in camphor ”a booklet describing the “specialties” of the robins company containsthe following in reference to campetrodin. “composition. Camphor, iodine element, oleaginous solvent ” from this it appears that thepreparations are claimed to contain elementary free iodine in an“oleaginous solvent ” since free iodin, as is well known, readilycombines with fats, it was decided to determine the form in which theiodin was present in these preparations the examination demonstratedthat both preparations contained but a trace of free iodin on steamdistillation there was obtained from both preparations a distillateamounting to about 35 per cent by volume which had an odor stronglysuggestive of turpentine, while the residue contained the iodin and hadthe characteristics of an iodized fatty oil quantitative determinations indicated that campetrodin containedapproximately 0 03 per cent of free iodin and 1 3 per cent of iodinin combination with the fatty oil campetrodin no 2, double strength, contained approximately 0 03 per cent free iodin and 2 per cent ofiodin in combination with the fatty oil thus, contrary to the published statements, campetrodin is not apreparation of free elementary iodin and campetrodin no 2, doublestrength, does not contain twice as much iodin as campetrodin the report of the chemical laboratory shows that the statements madein regard to the composition of campetrodin and campetrodin no 2are incomplete in essay respects and false in others in view of thelaboratory findings it appears superfluous to inquire into thetherapeutic claims made for the preparations. It is evident, however, that a solution containing practically no free iodin is not, as claimedby the robins company, “adapted for use wherever iodin is indicatedexternally ”it is recommended that campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because of falsestatements as to chemical composition and therapeutic action, constituting conflicts with rules 1 and 6 the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from the journal a m a , sept 21, 1918 carminzym report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following which explainswhy carminzym was not accepted for new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary carminzym is a tablet sold by fairchild bros and foster, new york each tablet contains, according to claims made, approximately 32 mg of an extract of pancreas, 50 mg sodium bicarbonate, 172 mg preparedchalk, 1 5 mg powdered ipecac and “aromatics q s ” withoutconsidering other possible conflicts with its rules, the council heldthe preparation inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rule 10 which holds that unscientific or useless articlesare not acceptable products the council holds that complex mixtures of remedial agents are, fromevery point of view, inimical to therapeutic progress and therefore tothe public welfare such mixtures are especially objectionable becauseit is impossible accurately to determine the effects which follow thesimultaneous administration of a number of drugs having dissimilaractions.

Besides they are good to cure horses of thebots calamintha, montana, palustris mountain and water calamint. Forthe water calamint. See mints, than which it is accounted stronger mountain calamint, is hot and dry in the third degree, provokes urineand the menses, hastens the birth in women, brings away the placenta, helps cramps, convulsions, difficulty of breathing, kills worms, helpsthe dropsy. Outwardly used, it helps such as hold their necks on oneside. Half a dram is enough at one time galen, dioscorides, apuleius calendula, &c marigolds the leaves are hot in the second degree, and essaything moist, loosen the belly. The juice held in the mouth, helps the toothache, and takes away any inflammation or hot swellingbeing bathed with it, mixed with a little vinegar callitricum maiden-hair see adianthum caprisolium honey-suckles. The leaves are hot, and therefore naughtfor inflammations of the mouth and throat, for which the ignorantpeople oftentime give them. And galen was true in this, let modernwriters write their pleasure if you chew but a leaf of it in yourmouth, experience will tell you that it is likelier to cause, thanto cure a sore throat, they provoke urine, and purge by urine, bringspeedy delivery to women in travail, yet procure barrenness and hinderconception, outwardly they dry up foul ulcers, and cleanse the facefrom morphew, sun-burning and freckles carduncellus, &c groundsell cold and moist according to tragus, helps the cholic, and gripings in the belly, helps such as cannot makewater, cleanses the reins, purges choler and sharp humours. The usualway of taking it is to boil it in water with currants, and so eat it i hold it to be a wholeessay and harmless purge outwardly it easethwomen breasts that are swollen and inflamed. As also inflammations ofthe joints, nerves, or sinews ægineta carduus b mariæ our ladies thistles they are far more temperatethan carduus benedictus, open obstructions of the liver, help thejaundice and dropsy, provoke urine, break the stone carduus benedictus blessed thistle, but better known by the latinname. It is hot and dry in the second degree, cleansing and opening, helps swimming and giddiness in the head, deafness, strengthens thememory, helps griping pains in the belly, kills worms, provokes sweat, expels poison, helps inflammation of the liver, is very good inpestilence and venereal. Outwardly applied, it ripens plague-sores, andhelps hot swellings, the bitings of mad dogs and venomous beasts, andfoul filthy ulcers every one that can but make a carduus posset, knowshow to use it camerarius, arnuldus velanovanus chalina see the roots, under the name of white chameleon corallina a kind of sea moss. Cold, binding, drying, good for hotgouts, inflammations. Also they say it kills worms, and therefore byessay is called maw-wormseed cussutha, cascuta, potagralini dodder see epithimum caryophyllata avens, or herb bennet, hot and dry. They help thecholic, rawness of the stomach, stitches in the sides, stoppings of theliver, and bruises cataputia minor a kind of spurge see tythymalus cattaria, nepeta nep, or catmints the virtues are the same withcalaminth cauda equina horse-tail. Is of a binding drying quality, cureswounds, and is an admirable remedy for sinews that are shrunk. It is asure remedy for bleeding at the nose, or by wound, stops the menses, fluxes, ulcers in the reins and bladder, coughs, ulcers in the lungs, difficulty of breathing caulis, brassica hortensis, silvestris colewort, or cabbages, gardenand wild they are drying and binding, help dimness of the sight. Helpthe spleen, preserve from drunkenness, and help the evil effects of it:provoke the menses centaurium, majus, minus centaury the greater and less they say thegreater will do wonders in curing wounds. See the root the less is apresent remedy for the yellow jaundice, opens stoppings of the liver, gall, and spleen.

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Because infants and weakly persons may be strangled bythe pressure of the hands on the throat even a strong man, suddenlyassaulted, may lose his presence of mind and, with that, his power ofresistance. With approaching insensibility his strength still furtherdiminishes this is true even if his assailant is the less powerful itrequires more address to place a ligature on the neck than to stranglewith the hand a victim may be made insensible by drugs or blows and then strangled bya small amount of compression. Or suffocation by gags and strangulationmay both be attempted the importance of considering the position and number of the knots in acord is mentioned under suicidal strangulation in homicide, in addition to the marks on the neck, there is likely tobe evidence of a struggle and marks of violence elsewhere on the body it is important, therefore, to notice any evidence of such a struggle the nature of the cord may assist in identifying the assailant it must be remembered that homicidal strangulation may be committedwithout disturbing noise even when other persons are near simulation - false accusations of homicidal strangulation are on record tardieu796 states that a distinguished young woman for essay political purpose was found one evening at the door of her room apparently in great trouble and unable to speak she first indicated by gestures and then by writing that she had been assaulted by a man who tried to strangle her with his hand, and also struck her twice in the breast with a dagger she was absolutely mute did not even attempt to speak quite contrary to what is always observed in unfinished homicidal strangulation on examination by tardieu, no sign of attempt to strangle was found, and the so-called dagger-openings in her dress and corset did not correspond in position she confessed that she had attempted deception the celebrated roux-armand797 case was another instance of attempted deception a servant named roux was found on the ground in the cellar of his employer armand. His hands and legs were tied and there was a cord around his neck he was writingly asphyxiated, but after removal of the ligature from his neck he rapidly recovered, except that he was weak and voiceless he stated by gestures that he had been struck by his employer on the back of the head with a stick and then bound as described the next day he could speak armand was imprisoned tardieu examined carefully into the case and the results may be stated as follows. The asphyxia was incipient, else he could not have so rapidly recovered the cord around his neck had not been tied simply wound around several times. The mark was slight and there was no ecchymosis although the legs and hands were tied, the hands behind the back, there was no doubt but that roux could and did tie them himself he had stated that he had been eleven hours in the cellar, in the situation in which he was found this could not be true, for a very much shorter time, an hour probably at the furthest, would have caused death, in view of the condition of asphyxia in which he was found again, if his limbs had been bound for so long, they would have been swollen and discolored.