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Frankenstein Essay Prompts


And certainly a very frankenstein essay prompts profitable herb it is incramps, and therefore called militaris directions for making syrups, conserves, &c &c having in divers places of this treatise promised you the way of makingsyrups, conserves, oils, ointments, &c , of herbs, roots, flowers, &c whereby you may have them ready for your use at such times when theycannot be had otherwise. I come now to perform what i promised, and youshall find me rather better than worse than my word that this may be done methodically, i shall divide my directions intotwo grand sections, and each section into several chapters, and thenyou shall see it look with such a countenance as this is section i of gathering, drying, and keeping simples, and their juices chap i of leaves of herbs, &c chap ii of flowers chap iii of seeds chap iv of roots chap v of barks chap vi of juices section ii of making and keeping compounds chap i of distilled waters chap ii of syrups chap iii of juleps chap iv of decoctions chap v of oils chap vi of electuaries chap vii of conserves chap viii of preserves chap ix of lohochs chap x of ointments chap xi of plaisters chap xii of poultices chap xiii of troches chap xiv of pills chap xv the way of fitting medicines to compound diseases of all these in order chapter i of leaves of herbs, or trees 1 of leaves, choose only such as are green, and full of juice. Pickthem carefully, and cast away such as are any way declining, for theywill putrify the rest. So shall one handful be worth ten of those youbuy at the physic herb shops 2 note what places they most delight to grow in, and gather themthere. For betony that grows in the shade, is far better than thatwhich grows in the sun, because it delights in the shade.

N y medical journal 101:940, 1915 “aspects of inebriety in alcohol”. British journal of inebriety 13:9, 1915-1916 “the peace and war footing of alcohol”. Medical record 88:226, 1915 “alcohol and therapeutics”. Medical record 92:666, 1917 -- from the journal a m a , nov 30, 1918 biologic therapeutics and its commercial dominationthe danger of commercialized therapeutics has been enormously increasedby the introduction of biologic products these substances offer a richfield for the commercially minded, first, because of the remarkableresults which seem to have followed the use of certain products ofthis type. Second, because the field is new and the mode of actionof these substances not readily understood and, third-- and mostimportant-- because, by the very nature of the problems involved, fewphysicians are well informed concerning them the influenza epidemic oflast year was widespread and fatal in character it stimulated earnestresearch in methods of prevention and cure we were all in a frameof mind to grasp at any straw here and there essay worker would cry“eureka”-- only to be disappointed when his product was actually put tothe test however, there were more than enough manufacturers ready toplace any product on the market with specious claims that could notbe positively denied vaccines, serums, proteins-- all were advancedwith such glowing statements as to their properties that only thosephysicians who kept their feet firmly on solid ground could resistthe appeal now we have had another epidemic-- mild, it is true-- butthe memories of last year make the average physician ready to acceptanything which promises hope, and the manufacturers “make hay while thesun shines ” physicians have been and are being deluged with literatureon the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza so far as we know, fewpublications have contained any word of warning on these matters oneexception has just come to notice. The medico-military review, asemimonthly mimeographed publication sent to medical officers of thearmy by the surgeon general office this says. You are reminded that so far a comprehensive analysis of results obtained by the use of monovalent and polyvalent vaccines in the prevention of influenza has not demonstrated their value much carefully controlled experimental work is now being carried out on this subject both in civil institutions and in the army, and any worthwhile advances will be reported in the review from time to time if a prospective vaccine is developed, it will be prepared at the army medical school for general distribution and all medical officers will be duly notified the general use of the present commercial polyvalent protective against influenza is not considered desirable numerous telegrams and other requisitions are being received for influenza vaccine in view of the fact that no prophylactic influenza vaccine is available, such requisitions should be discontinued -- editorial from the journal a m a , feb 14, 1920 capell uroluetic test u s marine hospital, chicago to the editor:-- a member of the consultant staff of this hospital recently referred to us a “doctor” h f matthews, who was supposed to give demonstrations of a new test for syphilis-- “capell ‘uroluetic’ test ” the test was to be made of the urine of the patient the above mentioned consultant was under the impression that the said “doctor” matthews was a graduate physician “doctor” matthews came to the hospital according to the appointment made by the consultant, and proceeded to give his demonstration several of the junior officers and interns were present to witness it he was asked questions in an attempt to determine the scientific status of the test which he was demonstrating his answers were always vague and indefinite and not clothed in scientific words we became suspicious of him, and he was asked if he was a graduate physician he admitted that he was not he was further asked if he had studied chemistry and bacteriology. He stated that he had in 1888 inquiry was made as to where. He replied that it was at the university of illinois he was further asked if he was familiar with the wassermann reaction he stated that he was not this man is going around representing himself as a physician who has a new test which he claims is superior to, and more delicate than, the wassermann test.

In essay paper asbeing of a dark color and in others of a bright arterial hue deathby asphyxia or suffocation, by the deprivation of oxygen, and by theproducts of combustion, would be accompanied by a dark or venous hueof the blood an atmosphere containing an excess of carbon monoxide, resulting from combustion, would cause death by apnœa with an arterialhue to the blood 722 but other influences must be considered according to schjerning, 723 it is difficult to deduce positiveconclusions from the condition of the blood the changes induced by thespleen and kidneys, as well as the varying intensity of the degree ofheat to which the body may be subjected, tend to render positive andconstant conclusions from this source difficult falk724 refers to the bright red color of the blood found in essaypaper, and explains this condition in writing by the influence of chemicalchanges in the tissues surrounding the vessels wertheim725 describes certain conditions observed by him and mentionsan increase in the number of the leucocytes, together with the presenceof hæmoglobin and melanin hoppe seyler meets with similar results and arrives at the sameconclusions in his observations ponfik, 726 on the contrary, is doubtful of the constant presence ofessay of these conditions and also of their diagnostic value seliger727 confirms the conclusions of wertheim, in that he describesthe presence of crystalline bodies and of dark discolorations melanin essay spectroscopic analyses have disclosed the presence of bandsadditional to those of normal blood the lack of uniformity ofconditions described and of conclusions reached leaves the subject in aposition of uncertainty examination of the blood of those dying fromburns has not been so extensively and minutely followed as to enable usto decide questions which may arise in any case explanation of plate ii figure 1 - ante-mortem burn scald by steam from a boiler bursting, july, 1892 from a photograph taken sixty hours after the accident the injurycovered one-half of the surface of the body the red line is sharplymarked. The extensive blisters formed are broken and their contentshave escaped. The serum drying has produced yellowish discolorations;the blush of redness on adjacent writings is well marked death resultedon the fifth day figure 2 - post-mortem burn exp 1 appearances after application of a tin can containingboiling water the cuticle was raised by expansion the blisterscontained no serum and no red line is developed figure 3 - post-mortem burn exp 2 appearances after the application of iron at a dull redheat no proper blister formed. The cuticle was raised, as inprevious experiment there was no serum and no red line or redness ofadjacent writings the cuticle is charred at one point, where the iron wasbrought into contact with it illustration. Medical jurisprudence plate ii burn, two hours after death, by iron at a dull red heat burn, two hours after death, by tin can containing boiling water burn by steam, sixty hours after injury post-mortem and ante-mortem burns was death accidental, suicidal, or homicidal?. Nearly all deaths occurring from burning are accidental, very fewhomicidal, and hardly more than a few exceptional paper suicidal it is important in paper of legal investigation to note the position ofthe body when found and its relation to the apparent source of fire;the writings of the body and clothing burned, etc. Evidences of violenceshould be carefully observed, such as contusions, fractures of bones, wounds of the soft writings, evidences of strangling, etc case 22 these should be specially sought in the site of the burned portions, as burning and cremation of the victim are essaytimes a resort toconceal homicide in considering the character of the apparent wounds, it must be remembered that extensive injuries, resembling wounds, mayresult from the effects of fire, 728 and these must be carefullydistinguished inability to detect special marks of violence need not preclude thepossibility of its commission and of its being a possible cause ofdeath case 19 the writings burned, the character and depth of theburns, and their relation to the apparent source of burning, withconsideration of their probable simultaneous exposure, are allcircumstances of weight in forming an opinion the position of thebody in relation to the fire should also be considered in accidentalburning, except in paper of intoxication, epileptic seizures, or othersources of helplessness, the victim is quite likely to be found at adistance from the fire, owing to his efforts to escape paper case 1 death from cold accidental dr hilty in caspar vierteljahrschrift, ii , 1865, p 140 - male, æt 52. Intoxicated severe winter weather. Death from exposure post mortem. Blood crimson. Both sides of heart full. Internal organs congested case 2 criminal exposure to cold ann d’hygiene, 1868, vol ii , p 173 - girl, unmarried. Sudden delivery when at stool she stated that she had fainted, and found the child dead when she recovered the child had breathed and the cord was cut no marks of violence evidence of death being caused by wilful exposure imprisoned case 3 ill-treatment and criminal exposure ann d’ hygiene, vol vi , p 207, 1831 - man and wife tried for manslaughter of a child, æt 11 wife the stepmother starvation and ill-treatment by mother, followed by forcing the child, in a cold december day, to get into a barrel of cold water and remain there though removed by a servant, she was again placed in the cold water by the mother, death resulting the woman was sentenced to life imprisonment case 4 sunstroke, high temperature, etc dr a flint, jr , new york med jour , 1872, p 168.

Andof t southwood smith, at the webb street theatre of anatomy, in1837-38 107among the noteworthy contributions to the science previous to 1850are the writings of dease 1808, haslam 1817, 108 christison, thesuccessor of professor duncan in the university of edinburgh, and bestknown as a toxicologist, forsyth 1829, 109 chitty 1834, 110watson 1837, 111 brady 1839, 112 skae 1840, 113 pagan 1840, 114 and sampson 1841 115in 1836, dr alfred swaine taylor b 1806, d 1880, the firstprofessor of medical jurisprudence in guy hospital, published his“elements of medical jurisprudence ” this, the most important work uponthe subject in the english language, is now in its twelfth englishand eleventh american edition during forty years of devotion toforensic medicine dr taylor also contributed other important works andnumerous papers, published for the most writing in the reports of guyhospital 116 in 1844, dr wm a guy, professor of forensic medicinein king college, published the first edition of his excellentwork 117 in 1858, fr ogston, professor of medical jurisprudencein the university of aberdeen, published a syllabus and subsequently 1878 a complete report of his lectures 118 in 1882, c m tidy, professor of chemistry and forensic medicine in the london hospital, who had previously 1877 been associated with w b woodman in theauthorship of a valuable handbook, began the publication of a moreextended work, which was interrupted by his death in 1892 119the first spanish work on legal medicine was that of juan fernandezdel valles, printed in 1796-97 120 no further contribution tomedico-legal literature was furnished by spain until the appearance in1834 of the work of peiro and rodrigo, which went through four editionsin ten years 121 ten years later, in 1844, pedro mata, professor oflegal medicine and toxicology at madrid, published the first edition ofa work, which in the development of its subsequent editions, has becomethe most important on the subject in the spanish language 122the first portuguese medico-legal treatise was that of jose ferreiraborjes, first printed at paris in 1832 123a posthumously published report of the lectures of albrecht von hallerwas the earliest swiss work on forensic medicine 124in sweden the earliest medico-legal publication was a comprehensivetreatise by jonas kiernander, in 1776, 125 which was followed in 1783by a translation of hebenstreit, by r martin the voluminous writingsof the brothers wistrand a t and a h , including a handbook, were published at stockholm, between 1836 and 1871 between 1846 and1873, several articles upon medico-legal subjects were published athelsingfors, in finland, by e j bonsdorff, o e dahl, and j a estlander in 1838 skielderup126 published his lectures on legalmedicine, delivered at christiania, and orlamundt127 publisheda handbook at copenhagen in 1843 the earliest recognition ofmedico-legal science in russia was in the lectures of balk, 128 begunin 1802 at the then newly founded university of dorpat although dissertations upon subjects of medico-legal interest werepublished at the university of leyden as early as the middle of theseventeenth century, 129 and the works of pineau, 130 zacchias, 131ludwig, 132 von plenk, 133 and metzger134 were printed in holland, either in latin or in the vernacular, no original systematic work onlegal medicine in the dutch language has yet appeared the only belgian contribution to the literature of forensic medicine, other than articles in the journals, is a text-book by a dambre, firstpublished at ghent in 1859 135two medico-legal works have been printed in the japanese language, onea report of the lectures of professor ernst tiegel, at the universityof tokio, 136 the other a treatise by katayama 137in the united states the development of forensic medicine has kept pacewith that in the mother country in an introductory address deliveredat the university of pennsylvania in 1810, the distinguished dr benjamin rush dwelt eloquently upon the importance of the subject 138in 1813, dr james s stringham was appointed professor of medicaljurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of newyork, and a syllabus of his lectures was published in the followingyear 139 at the same period 1812-13 dr charles caldwell delivereda course of lectures on medical jurisprudence in the university ofpennsylvania 140 in 1815, dr t r beck was appointed lecturer onmedical jurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of thewestern district frankenstein essay prompts of the state of new york. And soon after dr waltercharming was appointed professor of midwifery and medical jurisprudencein harvard university in 1823, dr williams, in the berkshire medicalinstitute, and dr hale, of boston, each lectured upon the subject 141in 1819, dr thomas cooper, formerly a judge in pennsylvania, and atthat time professor of chemistry and mineralogy in the university ofpennsylvania, reprinted, with notes and additions, the english worksof farr, dease, male, and haslam 142 the works of ryan, chitty, traill, and guy were also reprinted in this country shortly after theirpublication in england in 1823, dr theodric romeyn beck published at albany the first editionof a treatise as admirable for scholarly elegance of diction as forprofound scientific research this remarkable work, facile princepsamong english works on legal medicine, has had twelve american andenglish editions, and has been translated into german and swedish 143papers upon medico-legal subjects or reports of lectures were publishedby j w francis, 144 j webster, 145 r e griffith, 146 r dunglison, 147 j bell, 148 and s w williams149 between 1823and 1835 in 1840, amos dean, professor of medical jurisprudence atthe albany medical college, published a medico-legal work, followedby another in 1854, which with the later work of elwell are the onlytreatises on forensic medicine upon the title-pages of which nophysician name appears 150numerous papers and tracts upon medico-legal subjects were published byj j allen, t d mitchell, h howard, d h storer, j s sprague, j s mulford, j f townsend, and a k taylor between 1840 and 1855 in the latter year appeared the first edition of the admirable work offrancis wharton and dr moreton stillé, the first american product ofthe collaboration of members of the two professions, now in its fourthedition 151between 1855 and 1860 no systematic treatises on legal medicine werepublished, although the medical journals contained numerous articlesbearing upon the subject in 1860 the first edition of a treatisewritten from the legal aspect was published by j j elwell 152 in1869 dr j ordronaux, recently deceased, widely known as a teacher oflegal medicine and a graduate in law as well as in medicine, publisheda treatise which has been extensively used as a text-book 153 at thepresent time the great number and variety of articles published inthe medical and legal journals, bearing upon every branch of forensicmedicine and of medical jurisprudence, and written for the most writingby specialists, is evidence of the assiduity with which the science iscultivated the wide appreciation of the importance of medico-legal science inthe united states is also indicated by the fact that at the presenttime there are but few medical schools in which the subject is nottaught to ascertain the extent of medico-legal instruction at thepresent time, a circular of inquiry was sent to the deans of 124medical schools and of 56 law schools in the united states and britishprovinces answers were received from 103 medical colleges of theseonly 3 are without a teacher of “medical jurisprudence ” in 38 theteacher is a physician, in 50 he is a lawyer, in 5 he is a graduatein both professions, and 3 have two teachers, one a lawyer, theother a physician the average number of lectures given is 21, andthe average in those schools in which the teacher is a lawyer, andtherefore presumably teaches only medical jurisprudence, is 15 themedico-legal relations of their subjects are taught in their lecturesby the neurologist in 62 schools, by the surgeon in 66, by theobstetrician in 69, and by the chemist toxicology in 91 it appearsfrom these reports that not only is the importance of medico-legalscience appreciated, but that in the majority of our medical schoolsthe distinction between medical jurisprudence and forensic medicineis recognized in the fact that the instructor is a lawyer, whopresumably teaches medical jurisprudence, while the different branchesof forensic medicine and toxicology are taught by the specialistsmost competent to deal with them every practising physician requiresthorough instruction in medical jurisprudence, which, being strictlylegal, is best taught by one whose profession is the law the generalpractitioner only requires so much knowledge of the different branchesof forensic medicine as will enable him to intelligently fulfil hisobligations in such medico-legal paper as will be forced upon him asresults of his ordinary practice he can become a medical expert onlyby a writingicular study of and a large experience in essay writingicularbranch of the subject in our law schools the teaching of medico-legal science is not asgeneral as in schools of medicine of 35 law schools, only 10 haveprofessors of medical jurisprudence of these 6 are lawyers, 1 is aphysician, 2 are graduates in both professions, and 1 is a doctor ofdivinity in this work the existence of specialists in the various branchesof medico-legal science has been recognized for the first time in atreatise in the english language each branch has been assigned toa specialist in that subject, or at least to one who has made it awritingicular study in the arrangement of the matter, the primary division into the threesciences of medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine, and toxicologyhas been adopted the division of pure medical jurisprudence iscontained in the present volume, while the legal aspects of neurology, obstetrics, etc , will be treated of in future volumes along with thesubjects to which they relate in the division of forensic medicine theclassification of casper has been followed. I e , thanatological;including those branches in which the subject of inquiry is a dead body contained in the present volume bio-thanatological. Relating toquestions concerning both dead bodies and living persons in the secondvolume biological. Relating to living persons in the second andthird volumes the applications of the microscope to forensic medicinewill be treated of in the second volume the fourth volume will containthe division relating to toxicology r a w medical jurisprudence the legal relations of physicians and surgeons, including their acquirement of the right to practise medicine and surgery. Their legal duties and obligations. Their right to compensation. Their privileges and duties when summoned as witnesses in courts of justice, and their liability for malpractice by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , counsellor-at-law. Professor of criminal law and medical jurisprudence in the law dewritingment of the university of buffalo. Chairman executive committee new york state bar association, etc legal status of physicians chapter i of the right to practise medicine and surgery legal definition and history of the terms physician and surgeon at common law the right to administer drugs or medicines or to performsurgical operations was free to all and such was the rule of theroman civil law but the importance of prescribing certain educationalqualifications for those who made such practices their means of gaininga livelihood soon became apparent, and as early as the year 1422, during the reign of henry the fifth in england, an act of parliamentwas adopted forbidding any one, under a penalty of both fine andimprisonment, from “using the mysterie of fysyck unless he hath studiedit in essay university and is at least a batchellor of science ”as a result of this and other statutory regulations, a class ofprofessional men grew up, who were called “physicians, ” because theyprofessed to have the qualifications required by such legal regulationsto wisely prescribe drugs and medicines for the cure of diseases a chirurgeon or surgeon latin, chirurgus. Greek, χειρουργος, compounded of χειρ, the hand, and ἐργειν, to work as thederivation of the word shows, was one who professed to cure disease orinjuries by manual treatment and appliances it would be more interesting than profitable to trace the historyof these terms, and of the professions of medicine and surgery fromthe early times, when the clergy administered healing to the body aswell as to the soul, and when barbers were generally surgeons, andblood-letting by the knife-blade and the use of leeches caused thecommon application of the term “leech” to those who practised surgery definition - for the purposes of this treatise, however, it willbe sufficient to define the term “physician, ” as meaning any one whoprofesses to have the qualifications required by law to practisethe administration of drugs and medicines, and the term “surgeon, ”as meaning any one who professes to have the like qualifications toperform surgical operations, for the cure of the sick or injured for a list of the early statutes of england relating to the practice ofmedicine the reader may consult ordronaux’ “jurisprudence of medicine, ”p 5, note 2 the present statutory regulations throughout the united states and inengland and canada will be more writingicularly referred to and synopsizedhereafter in this volume chapter ii acquirement of legal right to practise medicine and surgery now generally regulated by statute - in nearly all of the unitedstates, as well as in england, france, gerthesis, and other civilized andintelligent communities, the legal right to practise the administrationof drugs and medicines, or to perform operations in surgery for thepurpose of curing diseases or injuries, has for thesis years been theobject of statutory legislation the necessity and propriety ofregulating by law such practices is generally conceded it is manifestto all that a person engaging in the practice of medicine or surgeryas a profession is holding himself out to the world, and especially tohis patients, as one qualified by education and experience to possessmore than ordinary skill and ability to deal with the great problemsof health and life he professes to the world that he is competent andqualified to enter into the closest and most confidential relationswith the sick and afflicted, and that he is a fit and proper person tobe permitted freely, and at all hours and all seasons, to enter thehomes, the family circle, and the private chamber of persons sufferingfrom disease or injury all this he professes and does upon his ownaccount, and for his own profit statutory regulation of the right to practise, constitutional - theexercise by the states of these statutory powers is upheld as a validexercise of the “police power, ” to protect the health of the community when the constitutionality of such enactments has been questioned, it has been attacked upon the alleged ground that the statutes underquestion unjustly discriminated in favor of one class of citizens andagainst another class. And as depriving those already engaged in thepractice of medicine or surgery of “their property without due processof law ” state v pennoyer, 18 atl rep , 878. Ex writinge spinney, 10 nev , 323. People v fulda, 52 hun n y , 65-67. Brown v people, 11 colo , 109 opinion of united states supreme court - this subject has beencarefully considered by the united states supreme court in a recentcase, and the broad extent of the legislative powers of the states toregulate such matters clearly and fully declared dent v west va 129 u s , 114 the court say pp 121 et seq - mr justice fielddelivering the opinion, in which all the other justices concur. “theunconstitutionality asserted consists in its the statutes allegedconflict with the clause of the fourteenth amendment, which declaresthat no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. The denial to the defendant of the right topractise his profession, without the certificate required, constitutingthe deprivation of his vested right and estate in his profession, whichhe had previously acquired “it is undoubtedly the right of every citizen of the united statesto follow any lawful calling, business, or profession he may choose, subject only to such restrictions as are imposed upon all personsof like age, sex, and condition this right may in thesis respects beconsidered as a distinguishing feature of our republican institutions here all vocations are open to every one on like conditions all maybe pursued as sources of livelihood, essay requiring years of study andgreat learning for their successful prosecution the interest, or, as it is essaytimes termed, the estate acquired in them, that is, theright to continue their prosecution, is often of great value to thepossessors, and cannot be arbitrarily taken from them, any more thantheir real or personal property can be thus taken but there is noarbitrary deprivation of such right where its exercise is not permittedbecause of a failure to comply with conditions imposed by the statefor the protection of society the power of the state to provide forthe general welfare of its people authorizes it to prescribe all suchregulations as, in its judgment, will secure or tend to secure themagainst the consequences of ignorance and incapacity as well as ofdeception and fraud as one means to this end it has been the practiceof different states, from time immemorial, to exact in thesis pursuitsa certain degree of skill and learning upon which the community mayconfidently rely, their possession being generally ascertained uponan examination of the writingies by competent persons, or inferred froma certificate to them in the form of a diploma or license from aninstitution established for instruction on the subjects, scientificand otherwise, with which such pursuits have to deal the nature andextent of the qualifications required must depend primarily upon thejudgment of the state as to their necessity if they are appropriateto the calling or profession, and attainable by reasonable study orapplication, no objection to their validity can be raised because oftheir stringency or difficulty it is only when they have no relationto such calling or profession, or are unattainable by such reasonablestudy and application, that they can operate to deprive one of hisright to pursue a lawful vocation “few professions require more careful preparation by one who seeksto enter it than that of medicine it has to deal with all thosesubtle and mysterious influences upon which health and life depend, and requires not only a knowledge of the properties of vegetable andmineral substances, but of the human body in all its complicatedwritings, and their relation to each other, as well as their influenceupon the mind the physician must be able to detect readily thepresence of disease, and prescribe appropriate remedies for itsremoval every one may have occasion to consult him, but comparativelyfew can judge of the qualifications of learning and skill which hepossesses reliance must be placed upon the assurance given by hislicense, issued by an authority competent to judge in that respect, that he possesses the requisite qualifications due consideration, therefore, for the protection of society, may well induce the state toexclude from practice those who have not such a license, or who arefound upon examination not to be fully qualified the same reasonswhich control in imposing conditions, upon compliance with which thephysician is allowed to practise in the first instance, may call forfurther conditions as new modes of treating disease are discovered, ora more thorough acquaintance is obtained of the remedial propertiesof vegetable and mineral substances, or a more accurate knowledgeis acquired of the human system and of the agencies by which it isaffected it would not be deemed a matter for serious discussion thata knowledge of the new acquisitions of the profession, as it from timeto time advances in its attainments for the relief of the sick andsuffering, should be required for continuance in its practice, butfor the earnestness with which the plaintiff in error insists that, by being compelled to obtain the certificate required, and preventedfrom continuing in his practice without it, he is deprived of his rightand estate in his profession without due process of law we perceivenothing in the statute which indicates an intention of the legislatureto deprive one of any of his rights no one has a right to practisemedicine without having the necessary qualifications of learning andskill. And the statute only requires that whoever assumes, by offeringto the community his services as a physician, that he possesses suchlearning and skill, shall present evidence of it by a certificate orlicense from a body designated by the state as competent to judge ofhis qualifications as we have said on more than one occasion, it maybe difficult, if not impossible, to give to the terms ‘due processof law’ a definition which will embrace every permissible exertionof power affecting private rights and exclude such as are forbidden they come to us from the law of england, from which country ourjurisprudence is to a great extent derived, and their requirementwas there designed to secure the subject against the arbitraryaction of the crown and place him under the protection of the law they were deemed to be equivalent to ‘the law of the land ’ in thiscountry the requirement is intended to have a similar effect againstlegislative power, that is, to secure the citizen against any arbitrarydeprivation of his rights, whether relating to his life, his liberty, or his property legislation must necessarily vary with the differentobjects upon which it is designed to operate it is sufficient, forthe purposes of this case, to say that legislation is not open to thecharge of depriving one of his rights without due process of law, ifit be general in its operation upon the subjects to which it relates, and is enforceable in the usual modes established in the administrationof government with respect to kindred matters. That is, by process orproceedings adapted to the nature of the case ”early common-law rule concerning suits by physicians the common-law rule was that the physician could not sue and recoverfor his services, though he might for the medicines he furnished thetheory of the law followed the etiquette of his profession and forbadehim from making a specific contract for pay for his services, andobliged him to receive what his patient chose to give him, which wascalled his “honorarium ”the early common-law rule no longer in force - as time went on thistheory vanished from the law for thesis years it has lost its placeamong the rules of professional etiquette in its stead statutoryprovisions have been adopted which forbid a recovery for servicesperformed by persons not legally authorized to practise the right tocontract with the patient or with those who employ the medical man, andhis remedies to enforce such contracts, will be treated of hereafter statutory regulations in new york state - most of the states of theunited states have enacted statutory regulations prescribing in oneform or another the necessary qualifications which entitle a physicianor surgeon to practise, and prescribing penalties for practisingwithout having complied with such statutory requirements in the stateof new york such matters were regulated for the first time by statutein 1787 this was followed by a general enactment on the subject ofthe organization of county medical societies, and of state medicalsocieties having boards of censors, to whom was committed the power toexamine applicants for license to practise, and of issuing licenses laws of 1813, p 94 this law remained in force, with certainmodifications, until 1844, when all acts regulating the practiceof medicine and surgery were repealed a history of the statutoryregulations in new york state up to the act of 1844 on this subjectwill be found in the case of bailey v mogg, 4 denio, 60 154at the time of the passage of the act of 1813, and for thesis yearsafterward, nearly all of the physicians in new york state practisedin accordance with the theories and precepts of what is now calledthe regular or allopathic school of medicine that act provided thatthe physicians in the respective counties of the state of new yorkshould meet in the respective counties and organize county medicalsocieties as a consequence of the fact that the physicians of that daywere chiefly of the allopathic school, they necessarily obtained thecontrol of the county medical societies and state medical societies hence it became difficult, if not impossible, for physicians whowished to practise upon other theories and tenets than those obtainingin that school, to obtain licenses to do so with the growth of thehomœopathic school of medicine and the eclectic school of medicine, came applications to the legislature asking for those practising underthose schools the same rights and privileges of organizing county andstate societies as had been extended to physicians generally by theact of 1813.

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And first i shall begin with the garden kinds government and virtues what a pother have authors made with roses!. What a racket have they kept?. i shall add, red roses are under jupiter, damask under venus, white under the moon, and provence under the kingof france the white and red roses are cooling and drying, and yet thewhite is taken to exceed the red in both the properties, but is seldomused inwardly in any medicine. The bitterness in the roses when theyare fresh, especially the juice, purges choler, and watery humours. Butbeing dried, and that heat which caused the bitterness being consumed, they have then a binding and astringent quality. Those also that arenot full blown, do both cool and bind more than those that are fullblown, and the white rose more than the red the decoction of redroses made with wine and used, is very good for the head-ache, andpains in the eyes, ears, throat, and gums. As also for the fundament, the lower writing of the belly and the matrix, being bathed or put intothem the same decoction with the roses remaining in it, is profitablyapplied to the region of the heart to ease the inflammation therein;as also st anthony fire, and other diseases of the stomach beingdried and beaten to powder, and taken in steeled wine or water, ithelps to stay women courses the yellow threads in the middle ofthe roses which are erroneously called the rose seed being powderedand drank in the distilled water of quinces, stays the overflowing ofwomen courses, and doth wonderfully stay the defluctions of rheumupon the gums and teeth, preserving them from corruption, and fasteningthem if they be loose, being washed and gargled therewith, and essayvinegar of squills added thereto the heads with the seed being usedin powder, or in a decoction, stays the lask and spitting of blood red roses do strengthen the heart, the stomach and the liver, and theretentive faculty. They mitigate the pains that arise from heat, assuage inflammations, procure rest and sleep, stay both whites andreds in women, the gonorrhea, or running of the reins, and fluxes ofthe belly. The juice of them doth purge and cleanse the body fromcholer and phlegm the husks of the roses, with the beards and nailsof the roses, are binding and cooling, and the distilled water ofeither of them is good for the heat and redness in the eyes, and tostay and dry up the rheums and watering of them of the red roses areusually made thesis compositions, all serving to sundry good uses, viz electuary of roses, conserve, both moist and dry, which is more usuallycalled sugar of roses, syrup of dry roses, and honey of roses thecordial powder called diarrhoden abbatis, and aromatica rosarum the distilled water of roses, vinegar of roses, ointment, and oil ofroses, and the rose leaves dried, are of great use and effect towrite at large of every one of these, would make my book smell toobig, it being sufficient for a volume of itself, to speak fully ofthem but briefly, the electuary is purging, whereof two or three dramstaken by itself in essay convenient liquor, is a purge sufficient fora weak constitution, but may be increased to six drams, according tothe strength of the patient it purges choler without trouble, it isgood in hot fevers, and pains of the head arising from hot cholerichumours, and heat in the eyes, the jaundice also, and joint-achesproceeding of hot humours the moist conserve is of much use, bothbinding and cordial.