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Four Paragraph Essay


‘inthe majority of these paper there has been no appreciable fallin the output of sugar in essay of these negative paper there hasbeen noted, however, improvement in the digestion and, in certainpaper, the patient weight has increased ’ they also state thatthe secretin-bearing product ‘appears to stimulate the functionalactivity of the duodenum ’106 they give a most significantreport 107 we quote from the paper as follows:106 all italics are ours g w carnrick company 107 bio-chem jour 1:28, 1906 “‘the patient had been under observation for six months beforetreatment and the sugar was not reducible by diet almost at once thedyspepsia from which he was suffering was relieved and his generalnutrition improved to such an extent that he regained over eighteenpounds in weight, which he had previously lost, and this improvementwas accompanied by complete recovery of his physical and mentalenergies ’106“inasmuch as this improvement could not have been due to the containedsecretin it must have been due to essay other principle containedin the extract our experience and that of the physicians who haveused secretogen establish the fact that moore, edie and abram madeno mistake when they came to the conclusion that what they termed asecretin-bearing extract stimulates the functional activity of theduodenum and improves the digestion “when professor carlson was investigating secretogen he must haverealized that he was dealing essentially with an extract of theduodenal mucosa it is, therefore, all the more surprising, consideringhis extensive researches into the literature, that he should haveignored the testimony of essay of his own authorities, writingicularlyhallion, as to the value of extracts of the duodenal mucosa in duodenalinsufficiencies the meticulous carefulness with which this evidencewas avoided is hardly worthy of the best traditions of physiology, ascience which has truth for its first and four paragraph essay last aim “hallion in his ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ says that the ‘aims ofduodenal opotherapy are. 1, to supply deficient duodenal juice 2, above all to stimulate and to relieve this organ-- notably to aid theproduction of secretin4-- and so profit by the stimulating actionwhich duodenal extract exercises on the duodenal mucosa which actionwe, enriquez and myself, believe and have experimentally proved, conforms to the general principles of opotherapy 3, by means of theproduction of secretin, to reinforce the biliary, pancreatic andintestinal secretions 4, to stimulate intestinal peristalsis “‘principal indications. Intestinal dyspepsias, intestinalautointoxications, certain forms of constipation and duodenalinsufficiency ’“at the international congress of medicine, madrid, 1903, hallionsaid that he felt justified in stating that duodenal opotherapycorrectly carried out must be classed under the very best methods oftreating dyspepsia 106 the results had been satisfactory and, inthesis paper, remarkable it had been nil in a few paper but it hadnever been harmful in any degree he pointed out that marfan was thefirst to employ this substance clinically marfan had had writingicularlyexcellent results in children of 15 months to 4 years suffering withmarked malnutrition, anorexia and constipation marfan prescribedthe duodenal extract given in milk 106 hallion further remarks that, as he is not a practitioner, he had had only one opportunity to testduodenal opotherapy clinically the case was that of a man of 26 yearswith obstinate intestinal dyspepsia and severe constipation which hadpersisted from childhood this patient had been treated by enemas, laxatives, diet, etc treatment with duodenal extract resulted ina complete cure 106 hallion points out that the most satisfactoryaspect of duodenal opotherapy is the permanent effect produced, 106which bears out his statement that these extracts have the power to aidin the restoration of function and structure of an organ “this has been so well established that the principle is now embodiedin a law which is frequently referred to as ‘hallion law’. ‘extractsof an organ exert on the same organ an exciting influence which lastsfor a longer or shorter time when the organ is insufficient it isconceivable that this influence augments its action and, when it isinjured, that it favors its restoration ’“in ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ hallion points out that ‘theopotherapeutic product which corresponds to the affected organrepresents in essay way the stimulating and elective food for thatorgan, and if we supply the organ with a food which is more completethan it necessarily needs, the affected organ can exercise its electiveaction and take up only those substances of which it is in need ’“hallion observations on this point are beautifully borne out bythe classic work of j w draper, as reported in the journal of theamerican medical association, sept 26, 1914 this report gives resultsin both laboratory and clinical experiments “in order to show that fed jejunal and ileac epithelium exerciseessay special detoxicating power, not yet understood but definitelyrecognizable, draper fed a control series of dogs with intestinalobstruction, experimentally produced, on emulsified cells of liver, spleen, pancreas and muscle tissue these animals lived a few hourslonger than not-fed controls, but draper says that it is evidentthat these cells had either no detoxicating action, or a very feebleone compared with intestinal epithelium he used jejunal and ileacepithelium clinically in two instances.

The advertising for the russell emulsion and the russell prepared greenbone is dangerous because it appeals to the thoughtless-- layman andphysician, alike -- from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 brom-i-phos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybrom-i-phos national drug company, philadelphia was submitted to thecouncil with a label bearing the following statement. “‘alcohol 25 per cent ’ composition-- per fluidounce iodin 1 gr bromin 1 gr phosphorus 8-100 gr aromatic base q s ”a request for further information in regard to the composition ofbrom-i-phos was sent to the national drug company it was suggestedthat since the preparation cannot contain the stated amounts of freebromin, free iodin and free phosphorus, the form of combination inwhich these elements are present should be set forth in reply, the firm said, first, that “brom-i-phos consists of bromin, iodin, phosphorus, glycerin, wine, water and volatile oils the iodin isrubbed up with a small percentage of potassium iodid and 95 per cent alcohol, which solution is mixed with a solution of bromine andspirits of phosphorus which are combined with the base and aromatics ”the manufacturer also admitted that phosphorus reacts with brominand iodin and that other reactions might occur, but maintained thatit was “justified in assuming the greater writing, if not all of theseelements, are actually existent in the nascent state, ” and assertedthat its “printed formula complies with our working formula in point ofquantities involved as well as existence of elements in an uncombinedstate ”the a m a chemical laboratory reported, on the contrary, thatno free phosphorus, free bromin or free iodin could be found inbrom-i-phos, and that no bromate or iodate could be found. Bromid andiodid were present the addition of silver nitrate to an acidulatedportion, diluted with water, gave an amount of silver halid roughlyagreeing with that which would be obtained had the claimed amount ofbromin and iodin together with essay potassium iodid been used in thepreparation of brom-i-phos and in the process of manufacture becomeconverted to bromid and iodid the council declared brom-i-phos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies, for conflict with rules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10 the statement of composition is unsatisfactory and misleading in thatit suggests that the preparation contains bromin, iodin and phosphorusin the free elementary state the presence of the potent elementaryphosphorus is especially suggested by the small amounts of “phosphorus”declared the following statement on the label of the trade package constitutesan indirect advertisement to the public. “indications. Scrofula, coryza, hay fever necrosis, bronchial and throat affections, catarrhal pneumonia, glandular enlargements of the spleen, thyroid, and lymphatics, rickets and syphilis ”the following claims are therapeutic exaggerations. “the ideal alterative” “ indicated in all paper where an alterative is desired ” “the association of bromin with iodin in brom-i-phos materially enhances the product in the treatment of chronic affections of the skin, depraved conditions of the mucous membranes, tertiary syphilis, glandular enlargements, etc ”in that it suggests that the phosphorus in brom-i-phos is more readilyassimilated than ordinary phosphate, the following is misleading.

You may take it inwhite wine, and keep yourself warm if you would have my opinion of it, i do not like it confectio hamech college take of the bark of citron, myrobalans two ounces, myrobalans, chebs and blacks, violets, colocynthis, polypodium of theoak, of each one ounce and an half, wormwood, thyme, of each half anounce, the seeds of annis, and fennel, the flowers of red roses ofeach three drams, let all of them being bruised, be infused one dayin six pounds of whey, four paragraph essay then boiled till half be consumed, rubbed withyour hands and pressed out. To the decoction add juice of fumitory, pulp of prunes, and raisins of the sun, of each half a pound, whitesugar, clarified honey, of each one pound, boil it to the thicknessof honey, strewing in towards the end agarick trochiscated, sena ofeach two ounces, rhubarb one ounce and an half, epithimum one ounce, diacrydium six drams, cinnamon half an ounce, ginger two drams, theseeds of fumitory and annis, spikenard, of each one dram, make it intoan electuary according to art culpeper the receipt is chiefly appropriated as a purge formelancholy and salt flegm, and diseases thence arising, as scabs, itch, leprosies, cancers, infirmities of the skin, it purges adust humours, and is good against madness, melancholy, forgetfulness, vertigo itpurges very violently, and is not safe given alone i would advise theunskilful not to meddle with it inwardly. You may give half an ounce ofit in clysters, in melancholy diseases, which commonly have astringencya constant companion with them electuarium lenitivum or lenitive electuary college take of raisins of the sun stoned, polypodium of theoak, sena, of each two ounces, mercury one handful and an half, jujubes, sebestens, of each twenty, maidenhair, violets, frenchbarley, of each one handful, damask prunes stoned, tamarinds of eachsix drams, liquorice half an ounce, boil them in ten pounds of watertill two writings of the three be consumed. Strain it, and dissolve inthe decoction, pulp of cassia, tamarinds, and fresh prunes, sugar ofviolets, of each six ounces, sugar two pounds, at last add powder ofsena leaves, one ounce and an half, annis seeds in powder, two drams toeach pound of electuary, and so bring it into the form of an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it gently opens and molifies the bowels, brings forthcholer, flegm, and melancholy, and that without trouble, it is cooling, and therefore is profitable in pleurisies, and for wounded people. Aman of reasonable strength may take an ounce of it going to bed, whichwill work next morning electuarium passulatum college take of fresh polypodium roots three ounces, freshmarsh-mallow roots, sena, of each two ounces, annis seeds two drams, steep them in a glazed vessel, in a sufficient quantity of springwater, boil them according to art. Strain it and with pulp of raisinsof the sun half a pound, white sugar, manna, of each four ounces, boilit to the thickness of a cydoniate, and renew it four times a year culpeper it gently purges both choler and melancholy, cleanses thereins and bladder, and therefore is good for the stone and gravel inthe kidneys electuarium e succo rosarum or electuary of the juice of roses college take of sugar, the juice of red roses clarified, of each apound and four ounces, the three sorts of sanders of each six drams, spodium three drams, diacydonium twelve drams, camphire a scruple, letthe juice be boiled with the sugar to its just thickness, then add therest in powder, and so make it into an electuary according to art culpeper it purges choler, and is good in tertian agues, anddiseases of the joints, it purges violently, therefore let it be warilygiven hiera picra simple college take of cinnamon, xylobalsamum, or wood of aloes, the rootsof asarabacca, spikenard, mastich, saffron, of each six drams, aloesnot washed twelve ounces and an half, clarified honey four pounds andthree ounces, mix them into an electuary according to art also you maykeep the species by itself in your shops culpeper it is an excellent remedy for vicious juices which liefurring the tunicle of the stomach, and such idle fancies and symptomswhich the brain suffers thereby, whereby essay think they see, othersthat they hear strange things, especially when they are in bed, andbetween sleeping and waking. Besides this, it very gently purges thebelly, and helps such women as are not sufficiently purged after theirtravail hiera with agarick college take of species hiera, simple without aloes, agaricktrochiscated, of each half an ounce, aloes not washed one ounce, clarified honey six ounces, mix it, and make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper look but to the virtues of agarick and add them to thevirtues of the former receipt, so is the business done without anyfurther trouble hiera logadii college take of coloquintida, polypodium, of each two drams, euphorbium, poley mountain, the seeds of spurge, of each one dramand an half, and six grains, wormwood, myrrh, of each one dram andtwelve grains, centaury the less, agarick, gum ammoniacum, indian leafor mace, spikenard, squills prepared, diacrydium of each one dram, aloes, thyme hermander, cassia lignea, bdellum, horehound, of eachone scruple and fourteen grains, cinnamon, oppopanax, castorium, longbirthwort, the three sorts of pepper, sagapen, saffron, parsley of eachtwo drams, hellebore black and white, of each six grains, clarifiedhoney a pound and a half, mix them, and make of them an electuaryaccording to art let the species be kept dry in your shops culpeper it takes away by the roots daily evils coming ofmelancholy, falling-sickness, vertigo, convulsions, megrim, leprosies, and thesis other infirmities. For my writing i should be loth to take itinwardly unless upon desperate occasions, or in clysters it may welltake away diseases by the roots, if it takes away life and all hiera diacolocynthidos college take of colocynthis, agarick, germander, white horehound, stœchas, of each ten drams, opopanax, sagapen, parsley seeds, roundbirthwort roots, white pepper of each five drams, spikenard, cinnamon, myrrh, indian leaf or mace, saffron, of each four drams, bruise thegums in a mortar, sift the rest, and with three pounds of clarifiedhoney, three ounces and five drams, make it into an electuary accordingto art culpeper it helps the falling-sickness, madness, and the pain inthe head called kephalalgia, pains in the breast and stomach whetherthey come by sickness or bruises, pains in the loins or back-bone, hardness of womens breasts, putrefaction of meat in the stomach, andsour belchings it is but used seldom and therefore hard to be gotten triphera the greater college take of myrobalans, chebs, bellericks, inds and emblicks, nutmegs, of each five drams, water-cress seeds, asarabacca roots, persian origanum, or else dittany of crete, black pepper, olibanum, ammi, ginger, tamarisk, indian nard, squinanth, cypress roots of eachhalf an ounce, filings of steel prepared with vinegar twenty drams, let the myrobalans be roasted with fresh butter, let the rest, beingpowdered, be sprinkled with oil of sweet almonds, then add musk onedram, and with their treble weight in honey, make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it helps the immoderate flowing of the menses in women, and the hæmorrhoids in men, it helps weakness of the stomach, andrestores colour lost, it frees the body from crude humours, andstrengthens the bladder, helps melancholy, and rectifies the distempersof the spleen you may take a dram in the morning, or two if your bodybe any thing strong triphera solutive college take of diacrydium, ten drams, turbith, an ounce and anhalf, cardamoms the less, cloves, cinnamon, honey, of each three drams, yellow sanders, liquorice, sweet fennel seeds, of each half an ounce, acorns, schœnanth, of each a dram, red roses, citron pills preserved, of each three drams, violets two drams, penids four ounces, white sugarhalf a pound, honey clarified in juice of apples one pound, make anelectuary according to art culpeper the diacrydium and turbith, are a couple of untowardpurges, the rest are all cordials athanasia mithridatis galen college take of cinnamon, cassia, schœnanth, of each an ounce andan half, saffron, myrrh, of each one ounce, costus, spignel, meum, acorus, water-flag perhaps they mean see the root in the catalogue ofsimples, agarick, scordium, carrots, parsley, of each half an ounce, white pepper eleven grains, honey so much as is sufficient to make itinto an electuary according to art culpeper it prevails against poison, and the bitings of venomousbeasts, and helps such whose meat putrifies in their stomach, staysvomiting of blood, helps old coughs, and cold diseases in the liver, spleen, bladder, and matrix the dose is half a dram electuarium scoriaferri rhasis college take of the flakes of iron infused in vinegar seven daysand dried, three drams, indian spikenard, schœnanth, cypress, ginger, pepper, bishop weed, frankincense, of each half an ounce, myrobalans, indian bellericks, and emblicks, honey boiled with the decoction ofemblicks, sixteen ounces, mix them together, and make of them anelectuary culpeper the medicine heats the spleen gently, purges melancholy, eases pains in the stomach and spleen, and strengthens digestion people that are strong may take half an ounce in the morning fasting, and weak people three drams it is a good remedy for pains and hardnessof the spleen confectio humain mesua college take of eyebright two ounces, fennel seeds five drams, cloves, cinnamon, cubebs, long pepper, mace, of each one dram, beatthem all into powder, and with clarified honey one pound, in which boiljuice of fennel one ounce, juice of celandine and rue, of each half anounce, and with the powders make it up into an electuary culpeper it is chiefly appropriated to the brain and heart, quickens the senses, especially the sight, and resists the pestilence you may take half a dram if your body be hot, a dram if cold, in themorning fasting diaireos solomonis nich college take of orris roots one ounce, pennyroyal, hyssop, liquorice, of each six drams, tragacanth, white starch, bitter almonds, pine-nuts, cinnamon, ginger, pepper, of each three drams, fat figs, thepulp of raisins of the sun, and dates, of each three drams and an half, styrax, calamitis two drams and an half, sugar dissolved in hyssopwater, and clarified honey, of each twice the weight of all the rest, make them into an electuary according to art culpeper the electuary is chiefly appropriated to the lungs, andhelps cold infirmities of them, as asthmaes, coughs, difficulty ofbreathing, &c you may take it with a liquorice stick, or on the pointof a knife, a little of it at a time, and often diasaiyrion nich college take of the roots of satyrion fresh and sound, gardenparsnips, eringo, pine-nuts, indian nuts, or if indian nuts be wanting, take the double quantity of pine-nuts, fistic-nuts, of each one ounceand an half, cloves, ginger, the seeds of annis, rocket, ash keys, ofeach five drams, cinnamon, the tails and loins of scincus, the seeds ofbulbus nettles, of each two drams and an half, musk seven grains, ofthe best sugar dissolved in malaga wine, three pounds, make it into anelectuary according to art culpeper it helps weakness of the reins and bladder, and such asmake water with difficulty, it provokes lust exceedingly, and speedilyhelps such as are impotent in the acts of venus you may take twodrams or more at a time matthiolus great antidote against poison and pestilence college take of rhubarb, rhapontic, valerian roots, the rootsof acorus, or calamus aromaticus, cypress, cinquefoyl, tormentil, round birthwort, male peony, elecampane, costus, illirick, orris, white chamelion, or avens, of each three drams, the roots of galanga, masterwort, white dictamni, angelica, yarrow, fillipendula or dropwort, zedoary, ginger, of each two drams, rosemary, gentian, devil-bit, ofeach two drams and an half, the seeds of citrons, and agnus castus, the berries of kermes, the seeds of ash-tree, sorrel, wild parsnips, navew, nigella, peony the male, bazil, hedge mustard, irio treaclemustard, fennel, bishop-weed, of each two drams, the berries ofbay, juniper, and ivy, sarsaparilla, or for want of it the doubleweight of cubebs, cubebs, of each one dram and an half, the leaves ofscordium, germander, chamepitys, centaury the less, stœchas, celticspikenard, calaminth, rue, mints, betony, vervain, scabious, carduusbenedictus, bawm, of each one dram and an half, dittany of cretethree drams, marjoram, st john wort, schœnanth, horehound, goatsrue, savin, burnet, of each two drams, figs, walnuts, fistic-nuts, ofeach three ounces, emblicks, myrobalans half an ounce, the flowersof violets, borrage, bugloss, roses, lavender, sage, rosemary, ofeach four scruples, saffron three drams, cassia lignea ten drams, cloves, nutmegs, mace, of each two drams and an half, black pepper, long pepper, all the three sorts of sanders, wood of aloes, of eachone dram and an half, hart-horn half an ounce, unicorn-horn, orin its stead, bezoar stone, one dram, bone in a stag heart, ivory, stag pizzle, castoreum, of each four scruples, earth of lemnos threedrams, opium one dram and an half, orient pearls, emeralds, jacinth, red coral, of each one dram and an half, camphire two drams, gumarabic, mastich, frankincense, styrax, turpentine, sagapenum, opopanax, laserpitium, or myrrh, of each two drams and an half, musk, ambergris, of each one dram, oil of vitriol half an ounce, species cordialestemperatæ, diamargariton, diamoscu, diambra, electuarij de gemmis, troches of camphire, of squills, of each two drams and an half, trochesof vipers two ounces, the juice of sorrel, sow thistles, scordium, vipers bugloss, borrage, bawm, of each half a pound, hypocistis twodrams, of the best treacle and mithridate, of each six ounces, old winethree pounds, of the best sugar, or choice honey eight pounds sixounces these being all chosen and prepared with diligence and art, letthem be made into an electuary just as treacle or mithridate is culpeper the title shews you the scope of the author in compilingit, i believe it is excellent for those uses the dose of this is froma scruple to four scruples, or a dram and an half. It provokes sweatingabundantly, and in this or any other sweating medicine, order your bodythus. Take it in bed, and cover yourself warm, in your sweating, drinkposset-drink as hot as you can, if it be for a fever, boil sorrel andred sage in posset-drink, sweat an hour or two if your strength willbear it, then the chamber being kept very warm, shift yourself all butyour head, about which your cap which you sweat in being kept on wrapa hot napkin, which will be a means to repel the vapours back this ihold the best method for sweating in fevers and pestilences, in whichthis electuary is very good i am very loth to leave out this medicine, which if it were stretched out, and cut in thongs, would reach roundthe world requies nicholaus college take of red rose leaves, the whites being cut off, blueviolets, of each three drams, opium of thebes, dissolved in wine, the seeds of white henbane, poppies white and black, the roots ofmandrakes, the seeds of endive, purslain, garden lettuce, psyllium, spodium, gum tragacanth, of each two scruples and five grains, nutmegs, cinnamon, ginger, of each a dram and an half, sanders, yellow, white, and red, of each a dram and an half, sugar three times their weight, dissolved in rose-water. Mix them together, and make of them anelectuary according to art culpeper i like not the receipt taken inwardly electuarium reginæ coloniens college take of the seeds of saxifrage and gromwell, juice ofliquorice, of each half an ounce, the seeds of caraway, annis, smallage, fennel, parsley of macedonia, broom, carrots, bruscus, asparagus, lovage, cummin, juniper, rue, siler mountain, the seeds ofacorus, pennyroyal, cinquefoyl, bayberries, of each two drams, indianspikenard, schœnanth, amber, valerian, hog fennel, lapis lincis, ofeach a dram and an half, galanga, ginger, turbith, of each two drams, sena an ounce, goat blood prepared half an ounce, mix them together:first beat them into powder, then make them into an electuary accordingto art, with three times their weight in sugar dissolved in white wine culpeper it is an excellent remedy for the stone and wind cholic, adram of it taken every morning. I assure such as are troubled with suchdiseases, i commend it to them as a jewel pills culpeper pills in greek are called, katopotia, in latin, pilulæ. Which signifies little balls, because they are made up insuch a form, that they may be the better swallowed down, by reason ofthe offensiveness of their taste pilulæ de agarico or pills of agarick college take of agarick three drams, our own blue orris roots, mastich, horehound, of each one dram, turbith five drams, specieshiera picra half an ounce, colocynthis, sarcocol, of each two drams, myrrh one dram, sapa as much as is sufficient to make it into a massaccording to art culpeper it was invented to cleanse the breast and lungs of flegm, it works pretty strongly half a dram at a time keeping yourselfwarm, cannot well do you harm, unless your body be very weak pilulæ aggregativæ college take of citron, myrobalans, rhubarb, of each half anounce, juice of agrimony and wormwood made thick, of each two drams, diagridium five drams, agarick, colocynthis, polypodium of each twodrams, turbith, aloes, of each six drams, mastich, red roses, sal gem epithymum, annis, ginger, of each a dram, with syrup of damask roses, make it into a mass according to art culpeper it purges the head of choler, flegm and melancholy, andthat stoutly. It is good against quotidian agues, and faults in thestomach and liver, yet because it is well corrected if you take buthalf a dram at a time, and keep yourself warm, i suppose you may takeit without danger pilulæ alœphanginæ college take of cinnamon, cloves, cardamoms the less, nutmegs, mace, calamus aromaticus, carpobalsamum, or juniper berries, squinanth, wood of aloes, yellow sanders, red roses dried, wormwood, of each halfan ounce, let the tincture be taken out of these, being grossly bruisedin spirit of wine, the vessel being close stopped. In three pounds ofthis tincture, being strained, dissolve aloes one pound, which beingdissolved, add mastich, myrrh, of each half an ounce, saffron twodrams, balsam of peru one dram, the superfluous liquor being consumed, either over hot ashes, or a bath, bring it into a mass of pills culpeper it cleanses both stomach and brain of gross and putrifiedhumours, and sets the senses free when they are thereby troubled, itcleanses the brain offended by ill humours, wind, &c helps vertigo andhead-aches, and strengthens the brain exceedingly, helps concoction, and strengthens the stomach, one dram taken at night going to bed, will work gently next day. If the writingy be weak, you may give less, ifstrong more if you take but half a dram, you may go abroad the nextday.

And is also very effectual for all the diseases ofthe lungs, as shortness of breath, wheezing, hoarseness of the throat, and the cough. And to expectorate tough phlegm, or any other writingsthereabout the fig-tree to give a description of a tree so well known to every body that keepit in his garden, were needless they prosper very well in our englishgardens, yet are fitter for medicine than for any other profit which isgotten by the fruit of them government and virtues the tree is under the dominion of jupiter the milk that issues out from the leaves or branches where they arebroken off, being dropped upon warts, takes them away the decoctionof the leaves is excellently good to wash sore heads with. And thereis scarcely a better remedy for the leprosy than it is it clears theface also of morphew, and the body of white scurf, scabs, and runningsores if it be dropped into old fretting ulcers, it cleanses out themoisture, and brings up the flesh. Because you cannot have the leavesgreen all the year, you may make an ointment of them whilst you can adecoction of the leaves being drank inwardly, or rather a syrup madeof them, dissolves congealed blood caused by bruises or falls, andhelps the bloody flux the ashes of the wood made into an ointment withhog grease, helps kibes and chilblains the juice being put into anhollow tooth, eases pain. As also pain and noise in the ears, beingdropped into them. And deafness an ointment made of the juice andhog grease, is an excellent remedy for the bitten of mad dogs, orother venomous beasts as most are a syrup made of the leaves, or greenfruit, is excellently good for coughs, hoarseness, or shortness ofbreath, and all diseases of the breast and lungs. It is also extremelygood for the dropsy and falling sickness they say that the fig tree, as well as the bay tree, is never hurt by lightning. As also, if youtie a bull, be he ever so mad, to a fig tree, he will quickly becometame and gentle as for such figs as come from beyond sea, i havelittle to say, because i write not of exoticks the yellow water-flag, or flower-de-luce descript this grows like the flower-de-luce, but it has much longerand narrower sad green leaves, joined together in that fashion. Thestalk also growing oftentimes as high, bearing small yellow flowersshaped like the flower-de-luce, with three falling leaves, and otherthree arched that cover their bottoms. But instead of the threeupright leaves, as the flower-de-luce has, this has only three shortpieces standing in their places, after which succeed thick and longthree square heads, containing in each writing essaywhat big and flat seed, like those of the flower-de-luce the root is long and slender, of apale brownish colour on the outside, and of a horseflesh colour on theinside, with thesis hard fibres thereat, and very harsh in taste place it usually grows in watery ditches, ponds, lakes, and moorsides, which are always overflowed with water time it flowers in july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon theroot of this water-flag is very astringent, cooling, and drying. Andthereby helps all lasks and fluxes, whether of blood or humours, asbleeding at the mouth, nose, or other writings, bloody flux, and theimmoderate flux of women courses the distilled water of the wholeherb, flowers and roots, is a sovereign good remedy for watering eyes, both to be dropped into them, and to have cloths or sponges wettedtherein, and applied to the forehead. It also helps the spots andblemishes that happen in and about the eyes, or in any other writings:the said water fomented on swellings and hot inflammations of womenbreasts, upon cancers also, and those spreading ulcers called noli metangere, do much good. It helps also foul ulcers in the privities ofman or woman.

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That the facts themselves must appear tothe court, and it might be developed on proper cross-examination thatdiscrimination could be made 467but it would seem that because of four paragraph essay the necessarily delicate nature ofthe inquiry, to avoid disclosing what the statute forbids, the burdenis overcome with slight evidence, and inferences and presumptionsare freely indulged in aid of the privilege. For instance, where thephysician was not permitted to answer whether he did converse withhis patient about an injury, or whether he made an examination withreference to it, it was urged that the objection was prematurely made, but it was held that the fact that the patient consulted a physicianon the occasion to which the inquiry related, when considered with thenature of the questions, justified the exclusion in the absence ofother proof 468 but the physician may testify that he did attendhis patient as physician;469 and he may answer the question whetherthe information was necessary to enable him to act in his professionalcapacity;470 for while his testimony on that point is not conclusive, and the court uses its own judgment in reaching a determination, histestimony is competent evidence 471 he may also testify that a personwas ill and was his patient, that he attended as physician, and he canstate when he attended and how thesis times 472it has been said that where the evidence justifies the conclusion thatinformation regarding the patient is acquired while attending in aprofessional capacity, it is not essential to show by formal proof thatthe information was necessary 473the rights and duties of the physician with reference to the privilege the privilege established by law is a rule of evidence, and not aregulation of a physician general conduct outside of a proceeding inwhich rules of evidence are applicable 474 the courts have, however, not hesitated to intimate that it is a physician duty to observe thesame secrecy in his general walk and conversation 475the physician may testify as an expert on hypothetical questionssubmitted to him regarding facts which might be equally true of anyother person than his patient, and excluding from his considerationprivileged knowledge 476 and he may also testify as to matterswhich came to his knowledge before or after or independent of hisemployment as physician, 477 or which were immaterial to his acting ina professional capacity, and as to which his patient could have had noreasonable ground for believing that they were necessarily disclosedin order that the physician might so act 478 it is the patientprivilege and not the physician. And, therefore, the physician isnot absolutely incompetent as a witness, and has no right to refuse totestify 479 but where he is a writingy he may object and then he willnot be forced to disclose his patient confidence 480in indiana it has been held that where the patient testifies in anaction against his physician for malpractice the physician is thenat liberty to testify or to introduce any other witness to testifyconcerning the matters in controversy 481in michigan, a physician who was plaintiff in a libel suit was notpermitted to insist upon the privilege to prevent the disclosure of hismaltreatment of his patient or what other physicians had discoveredwith regard to it by visits to his patients 482the measure of the physician exemption and liability in testifyingis the language of the statute, and not his idea of his duty to hispatient or the patient injunctions of confidence or secrecy 483in essay of the states there are statutory provisions entitlingphysicians to sue for compensation for their professionalservices 484 the statutes regarding privileged communications areto be construed together with these there seems to be no reason whya physician right of action for his services and medicines shouldnot survive the prohibition of his evidence. But it would seem thathe cannot as a witness in such an action testify regarding privilegedmatter but he can prove it by other witnesses 485the result of the legislation it is doubtless due to considerations of public policy that thestatutes changing the common-law rule have been enacted;486 butthey have not proved an unalloyed benefit, and essay of their featureshave brought about conditions which in essay paper have embarrassedthe administration of justice the law in new york may be taken forillustration. It formerly cut off the safest means of ascertaining themental condition and competency of a testator;487 it now precludes aphysician from disclosing the condition of his patient who is a lunaticor habitual drunkard, 488 though it be the most satisfactory evidence;it shuts out much testimony tending to show fraud in insurancepaper;489 it precludes a physician from stating the cause of hispatient death, 490 though there is no longer any secrecy connectedwith it, for the law makes it the duty of the physician to make, forfiling with the local board of health, a certificate of the probablecause of the death of a patient 491 it has been the subject of muchadverse criticism, 492 but all such considerations are properly to beaddressed to the legislature and not to the courts it seems to be themost far-reaching in its exclusion, and though it has been the longestin existence, was modified at the legislative sessions of 1891, 1892, and 1893, a fact which tends to show that there was sound reason in thecriticisms a synopsis of the laws of the several states and territories of the united states of america, and of great britain and ireland, and of the north american provinces of great britain, regulating the practice of medicine and surgery, prepared from the latest statutes by william a poste, late first deputy attorney-general of the state of new york, and charles a boston, esq , of the new york city bar synopsis of the existing statuteswhich regulate the acquirement of the right to practise medicine and surgery in the united states, great britain and ireland, and the canadian provinces note - this synopsis is designed to contain especially thoseprovisions of the statutes which regulate the right to practisemedicine and surgery it is not intended to include provisionsregulating apothecaries, druggists, chemists, and dentists, or the saleof drugs, medicines, and poisons. Nor provisions for the organizationand procedure of boards of medical examiners, except so far as theyregulate the requirements demanded from applicants for permission topractise.