History

First Essay


gas first essay given off then higher when t80. The fraction comes liquid distilled over at 178 c. at 173 c. The distillate has distillate did sharp odor, is not have much acid, but frees odor. No hcl very little gas detected. i₂ from ki;  no i₂ from distillation ki. Distillate not completed was neutral distillation not completed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the addition of chlorlyptus to a mixture of 10 per cent potassiumiodide, 10 per cent potassium iodate solution, brings about theliberation of iodine, increasing perceptibly on standing this showsthat the hydrogen chloride is gradually split off, and in time willcause a solution having a considerable degree of acidity when thistest is carried out on chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott, a small amountof iodine is liberated in a few minutes but does not increase, showinga slight initial acidity without further hydrolysis chlorinatedeucalyptol-squibb yields no free iodine after standing three hours when the chlorine content of chlorlyptus is determined according tothe method of carius, the amount is found to be 29 6 per cent themanufacturers give a method of determining chlorine by hunter fusionmethod it is believed that in this method hydrogen chloride maybe lost, and this opinion is substantiated by the firm statement, “chlorlyptus analyzed in this manner shows approximately 25 per cent of chlorine ” the chlorine content of chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott isfound to be 0 67 per cent , and that of the squibb brand to be 0 62 percent about one-fiftieth as much as in chlorlyptus to sum up. Chlorlyptus differs from chlorinated eucalyptol in odor, color, density, in reaction to silver nitrate, potassium iodide, sulphuric acid and the aqueous solution of potassium iodate andpotassium iodide the distillation of the two products occursdifferently chlorlyptus contains nearly 30 per cent of chlorine, which is approximately fifty times as much as in chlorinatedeucalyptol thus it appears to have considerable chlorine in thenegative form cl^- which may be relatively easily split off ashydrogen chloride b the persistence of the acid reaction of chlorlyptus in the body by the refereethis “chlorinated ozonized eucalyptus oil” is distinctly acid to litmuspaper it is claimed that further quantities of acid are liberated oncontact with water this is credited with producing a continuous acidreaction on the surface of tissues to which the oil may be applied andthis in turn is stated to be antiseptic or germicidal this theoretical speculation does not take into account the largequantity of reserve alkali in the body by which it combats attempts toalter its normal reaction it is therefore not convincing, unless it issupported by direct evidence in the absence of such data on the writing of the promoters of thepreparation, experiments were made to determine whether the oilpreserves its acid reaction in contact with mucous and serousmembranes the answers were clearly in the negative in the mouth, the reaction becomes neutral within ten or fifteenminutes. In the pleura and peritoneum within half an hour, and probablyin much shorter periods more detailed data follow.

Found buried inearth mother stated that the child had not breathed putrefaction hadbegun there was a brownish tint of skin of upper front writing of neckbelow jaw. Drops of sanious fluid flowing from nose. Umbilical cord hadnot been tied.

thus isthe basis laid for its general use by the laity, when this process ismultiplied sufficiently the statement is susceptible of easy proofby any one who cares to investigate the matter for himself there isprobably no physician worthy of the name who will attempt to denythat the promiscuous use of hypnotics and narcotics is dangerous, andcertainly no careful physician will deliberately place a narcotic inthe hands of patients to be used freely and without control since we have selected neurosine at random, so far as this writingiculardiscussion is concerned, it is worth first essay while to inquire into itscomposition, the claims that have been made for it and the evidence, ifany exists, for or against its therapeutic value even the most activeof hypnotics are worse than useless if they are inferior to otherreadily available hypnotics, or if they have undesired side-actionsthat outweigh any advantages that they might otherwise have the council on pharmacy and chemistry investigated the literaturerelating to neurosine and published its report in the journal, jan 9, 1915, p 165 according to this report the manufacturers of neurosineclaimed that each fluidounce contained. Bromid of potassium, c p 40 grains bromid of sodium, c p 40 grains bromid of ammonium, c p 40 grains bromid of zinc 1 grain extract lupulin 32 grains cascara sagrada, fl ex 40 minims extract henbane 0 075 grain extract belladonna 0 075 grain extract cannabis indica 0 60 grain oil bitter almonds 0 60 grain aromatic elixirthis chemical blunderbuss was recommended for use in insomnia, hysteria, neurasthenia, migraine, neuralgia, delirium tremens, epilepsyand thesis other conditions also it was called an ideal calmative forchildren suffering from chorea, the exploiters claiming that “allauthorities recommend the bromids, hyoscyamus and cannabis indica inthis disease ” oliver t osborne, professor of therapeutics in yalemedical school, does not mention one of these three drugs in hisdiscussion of the medicinal treatment of chorea, in the handbook oftherapy, though he quotes several authorities in this article indeed, he does not mention one of the ten drugs included in the above formulaof neurosine in connection with the treatment of this disease it is acurious fact that osborne gives the greatest prominence to the use ofthat drug which is claimed to be wanting in the formula of neurosine, namely, hydrated chloral perhaps you may have seen temporary relief follow the administrationof neurosine in chorea, and may argue that theorizing is of littlevalue in the face of personal experience we shall not deny that essaymay have had that experience, for osborne calls attention to the factthat the success of any medicinal treatment must be judged in thelight of the fact that chorea is self-limited, and the intensity ofthe symptoms will abate in from two to four weeks in view of this, wewould hardly dispute the claim that one may administer narcotics, suchas those contained in neurosine, and the symptoms of chorea may abatein spite of such mistreatment in all the years that neurosine has beenexploited to physicians with such remarkable claims, we have never seena report of a careful clinical study in which the product has been usedunder the conditions which scientific investigation demands would youprescribe any nonproprietary preparations which had never been studiedclinically, if a horse-shoer or grocer boy told you it would cureepilepsy or malaria?. According to an editorial note appended to the report of the councilon neurosine, the dios chemical company consisted at that time 1915of j h chambers, his wife and two sons it appeared that chambersnever claimed to have any special knowledge of chemistry, pharmacy ormedicine, yet we find that he arrogated to himself or to his employeesthe right to offer therapeutic advice to the medical profession, andeven to direct them as to how they should prescribe a given mixture we essaytimes fail to see the forest because of the trees it may helpus to obtain a better perspective, in a problem that concerns usintimately, by resorting to a hypothetic case, if a close analogy ismaintained in order that we may see ourselves as others see us insuch a situation, let us consider the following imaginary case. Youbecome involved in a lawsuit in which an effort is made to deprive youof your property and your liberty you seek what you had reason tobelieve was competent legal advice. But, nevertheless, you lose yourcase and find yourself deprived of your property and your liberty nowlet us suppose further that you discover, when too late to permit youto correct your mistake, that your legal adviser we can hardly callsuch a man a lawyer had been acting all along under the guidance of aplumber who made no pretense of knowing anything about law how wouldyou feel regarding that pretended lawyer?. would you feel that you hadbeen treated fairly?. would you feel disposed to speak with all charityof him, to recommend him to those in need of legal advice?. You would probably feel toward such a lawyer as patients must feeltoward physicians who prescribe proprietary nostrums based oninformation and advice offered by those who, though without any specialknowledge of chemistry, pharmacy or medicine, will be benefitedfinancially if their information and advice are accepted and actedon -- from the journal a m a , april 27, 1918 anasarcin advertisingi i see index for other articles on anasarcin to the editor:-- as an old fellow of the a m a i beg to presentthe following facts to you, and to ask if anything can be done by youto expose the methods of these people. A concern calling itself “theanasarcin chem co ” of winchester, tenn , has caused to be sent tophysicians a chart on the subject of “diagnostics of renal diseases ”this chart contains eighteen plates, which were all taken withoutknowledge or permission of either myself or my publishers, williamwood & co , from the third edition of my book on “urinary analysisand diagnosis ” the plates are writingly composite plates, but mostlyportions of plates, exactly reproduced from my book i at once causedmy publishers to write to the anasarcin company. And a few days ago ireceived a letter from a dr h elliott bates of 118 east twenty-eighthstreet, new york, whose letterhead says, “medical advertising ” in thisletter the writer says that it was he who suggested the sending of sucha chart, and admits that all the plates were taken from my book inthis letter he offers to have a letter sent to every physician of thecountry “in which it is explicitly stated that the cuts on the chartwere taken from your book, and that complete information regardingthe matters treated on the chart can be found in your book ” in otherwords he offers to advertise my book free of cost to me, so that ishould take no further steps in the matter i consider this entirematter an outrage, and thought it best to write to you for advice, since my publishers seem to think that in spite of the violation of thecopyright nothing can be done besides the cuts, essay of the text on the chart is bodily taken frommy book, while essay of the other text, not taken from my book, butapparently compiled from different articles, is in writing entirely wrong, so much so that i must be ashamed of its being associated with any ofmy own work by giving this letter your early consideration, and advising me whatyou think it best for me to do, you would greatly oblige louis heitzman, m d , new york comment -- readers of the journal are, of course, familiar with thearticles246 that have been published on “anasarcin, ” the “dropsycure”!. knowing the standard of ethics that the anasarcin concern adoptsin the exploitation of its ridiculous squill mixture, our readerswill not be surprised at the standard of commercial ethics whichwould justify the appropriation of copyrighted scientific materialfor nostrum advertising purposes the statement of dr heitzmannpublishers that “in spite of a violation of copyright nothing can bedone” is, of course, incorrect essaything can be done by those whohold the copyright -- ed -- from the journal a m a , oct 18, 1919 246 j a m a 46:288 jan 27 1906. Ibid 48:1535 may 4 1907;ibid 48:1614 may 11 1907, and ibid 49:1992 dec 8 1917 antimeristem-schmidtessay, possibly thesis, of our readers have received a letter fromcologne, gerthesis, from the “bakteriologisch-chemisches laboratoriumwolfgang schmidt ” the letter contains a circular directing theattention of american physicians to “antimeristem-schmidt ” it alsocontains essay advertising leaflets one physician in sending thismaterial to the journal writes. “a copy of the enclosed circulars has been sent to thesis of the physicians in this city, and probably elsewhere perhaps it has already been called to your attention let us be as liberal as possible with our recent enemies the sooner the old channels of scientific communication are re-opened, the better but let us not allow such blatant commercialism from a foreign country to go unprotested, any more than we should if it were from our own ”it should be noted in passing that the envelop in which the wolfgangschmidt letter came has on its face a rubber-stamped impress to theeffect. “concerns cancer treatment ” the circular letter declares thatby means of antimeristem-schmidt “either a cure or improvement has beeneffected in numerous inoperable paper” of malignant tumors americanphysicians are asked “to employ the preparation when occasion arises”and are assured that “every medical man in city or country will beable to carry out treatment without preliminary knowledge ” with theletter are two leaflets discussing the use and administration of theproduct. One contained what was called a “synopsis of essay of the morerecent publications regarding the employment of antimeristem-schmidt ininoperable malignant tumors ” the “recent” publications comprised threearticles published in 1910 and one published in 1912!. Antimeristem-schmidt was rather widely exploited essay six or sevenyears ago as was explained in the journal, march 8, 1913, p 766, itis a preparation claimed to be useful in the treatment of inoperablecancer and as a supplementary treatment after operations for cancer the treatment is founded on a theory advanced by one o schmidt thatthe cause of cancer is found in a fungus, mucor racemosus, which, schmidt at first asserted, carried a protozoon which he regarded asthe real cause of the disease the vaccine is said to be prepared fromcultures from this fungus while schmidt claims that he has been ableto produce cancer by means of the organism, scientific research has notverified his claims extensive clinical trials have shown the treatmentto be without effect the journal also advised its readers on april 19, 1913, that no license for the sale of antimeristem-schmidt had beengranted by the treasury dewritingment and, therefore, its importation intothis country was prohibited neither the therapeutic nor the legalstatus of the product has been changed since then -- from the journala m a , dec 6, 1919 antiphlogistineto the editor:-- last september, my chief, dr j s millard, received a letter from the denver chemical mfg co , manufacturers of“antiphlogistine ” this letter purported to quote thesis large commercialconcerns as testifying to the value of antiphlogistine recently, idoubted the veracity of these claims and wrote to essay of those quoted i quote from the original letter of the antiphlogistine company. “the surgeon to the electric light and electric railroad company in new orleans says that antiphlogistine is the finest thing he has ever used in burns, especially flash and brush burns “the physician to the new york edison co makes a similar statement he says that the application gives speedy relief and the burns heal quickly without scars ”i wrote to dr john woodman, the physician to the new york edison co , who replied in writing as follows.

Or in chronic paper, 1/100 to 1/30 grain per day, continued indefinitely this dosage appears high, if a really activepreparation is used finally, the name “rheumalgine” encourages thoughtless and first essay unscientificprescribing if a mixture is used at all, the prescriber should beconstantly reminded of its composition it is therefore recommended that rheumalgine be held in conflict withrules 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims, 8 nondescriptive name and10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , june 26, 1915 gray glycerine tonic report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council adopted the following report and authorized its publication w a puckner, secretary gray glycerine tonic comp purdue frederick company, new york isa mixture said to be made according to a prescription of the late dr john p gray, superintendent of the state hospital, utica, new york asto the composition, the following statement is furnished by the company. “this preparation is a combination of glycerine, sherry wine, gentian, taraxacum and phosphoric acid with carminatives ”the label declares the presence of 11 per cent alcohol, and the doseis given at from two teaspoonfuls to a tablespoonful a study ofthe ingredients will show that, aside from the alcohol, the mixturecontains but one really active drug, gentian essentially, then, “gray glycerine tonic” is a mixture which, in addition to thenarcotic effect of the alcohol, depends on a bitter, gentian, forwhatever therapeutic action it may possess the bitters, of which gentian is a type, were once credited withthesis therapeutic virtues which time has shown they do not possess pharmacologic research has demonstrated that their utility consists instimulating the appetite through their action on the taste buds onthis account they were believed also to increase the secretion of thegastric juice by a psychic impression more recently, however, eventhis has been questioned-- by carlson, for instance these facts are fully understood, presumably, by all physicians yet, according to the advertising circular, this “tonic, ” which, for allpractical purposes, is merely a simple bitter, is good for thirty-twodiseases ranging from amenorrhea to whooping cough!. The conditions in which gray glycerine tonic is asserted to beespecially efficient are described on the label of the bottle and theoutside wrapper, in popular terms, more or less typical of “patentmedicine” exploitation, such as “catarrhal conditions, ” and “stomachderangements ” similar statements are contained in the leafletaccompanying the trade package for instance. “it is, therefore, an effective, reliable tonic in nervous exhaustion, general debility, impoverished conditions of the blood and nervous system, bright disease, diseases of the liver, disorders of the urinary organs, etc ” “it is an unexcelled restorative in that very common class of paper in which there is no positive organic disease, but the patient complains that he ‘does not feel well’ or ‘is out of sorts ’”here are essay of the claims made in other advertising matter. “all stages of bronchitis are rapidly improved by the use of gray glycerine tonic comp this remedy has a direct tonic influence upon the circulation of the respiratory mucous membrane. It relieves congestion and restores tone to weakened blood vessels ” “ improves the appetite, gives valuable aid to the digestive and absorptive processes, and reinforces cellular nutrition in ways that insure a notable gain in vitality and strength ” -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - | in gastro-intestinal catarrh | | | | -- and other afflictions of the stomach and bowels characterized | | by muscular weakness and glandular insufficiency-- there is no | | remedy more prompt and effective in its action than | | | | gray's glycerine tonic comp | | | | under its systematic administration the appetite is restored, | | the alimentary processes greatly improved, the nutrition | | promoted and every vital function throughout the body given a | | new and substantial impetus as the digestive and assimilative | | functions are restored to their normal efficiency, a notable | | increase in the restorative and recuperative powers of the body | | naturally follow | | | | the purdue frederick co | | 135 christopher street, new york city | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - mention illinois medical journal when writing to advertisers illustration. This appeared in a journal owned and controlled by thesecond largest state medical association of the country even granting that gentian may improve the appetite, how absurd itis to claim that this mixture “relieves congestion, ” “restores toneto weakened blood vessels, ” “gives aid to the absorptive processes, ”“reinforces cellular nutrition, ” or increases vitality!. Neither the composition of gray glycerine tonic nor the clinicalevidence warrants the belief that it has any therapeutic value otherthan that due to the psychic effect of the bitter drug gentian physicians who have prescribed it have done so because of theadvertising this nostrum has been kept so constantly before the eyesof medical men that they think of gray glycerine tonic when theycannot remember the official drugs that may be indicated in the case the moral is that liberal advertising will sell anything it is recommended that gray glycerine tonic comp be declared noteligible for inclusion in new and nonofficial remedies on account ofconflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 editorial note -- an old practice in hospitals-- happily now practicallyobsolete-- was to have certain stock mixtures prepared in bulk amongthese there was usually a so-called tonic mixture, used in a more orless haphazard manner when nothing in writingicular seemed indicated sucha stock mixture was used in the state hospital for the insane at utica, n y , during the thesis years that dr john p gray was superintendent from the early fifties to the early eighties, although it is verydoubtful whether he originated the mixture after the death of dr gray-- so the story runs-- one of his sons, with a writingner, formed thefirm of purdue frederick company, and began the exploitation of theelder dr gray name, in connection, presumably, with this stockpreparation as indicated in the council report, gray glycerinetonic comp -- and what an absurd name!.

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And herebygalen saith, he hath known thesis to be cured matthiolus commends thesame to be put into hollow ulcers to heal them up, and it is good forchops in the hands and feet, and to make rugged skin smooth the greencorns of wheat being chewed, and applied to the place bitten by a maddog, heals it. Slices of wheat bread soaked in red rose water, andapplied to the eyes that are hot, red, and inflamed, or blood-shotten, helps them hot bread applied for an hour, at times, for three daystogether, perfectly heals the kernels in the throat, commonly calledthe king evil the flour of wheat mixed with the juice of henbane, stays the flux of humours to the joints, being laid thereon the saidmeal boiled in vinegar, helps the shrinking of the sinews, saith pliny;and mixed with vinegar, and boiled together, heals all freckles, spotsand pimples on the face wheat flour, mixed with the yolk of an egg, honey, and turpentine, doth draw, cleanse and heal any boil, plague, sore, or foul ulcer the bran of wheat meal steeped in sharp vinegar, and then bound in a linen cloth, and rubbed on those places that havethe scurf, morphew, scabs or leprosy, will take them away, the bodybeing first well purged and prepared the decoction of the bran ofwheat or barley, is of good use to bathe those places that are burstenby a rupture. And the said bran boiled in good vinegar, and appliedto swollen breasts, helps them, and stays all inflamations it helpsalso the biting of vipers which i take to be no other than our englishadder and all other venomous creatures the leaves of wheat mealapplied with essay salt, take away hardness of the skin, warts, and hardknots in the flesh wafers put in water, and drank, stays the laskand bloody flux, and are profitably used both inwardly and outwardlyfor the ruptures in children boiled in water unto a thick jelly, andtaken, it stays spitting of blood. And boiled with mint and butter, ithelps the hoarseness of the throat the willow tree these are so well known that they need no description i shalltherefore only shew you the virtues therof government and virtues the moon owns it both the leaves, bark, and the seed, are used to stanch bleeding of wounds, and at mouth andnose, spitting of blood, and other fluxes of blood in man or woman, and to stay vomiting, and provocation thereunto, if the decoction ofthem in wine be drank it helps also to stay thin, hot, sharp, saltdistillations from the head upon the lungs, causing a consumption theleaves bruised with essay pepper, and drank in wine, helps much the windcholic the leaves bruised and boiled in wine, and drank, stays theheat of lust in man or woman, and quite extinguishes it, if it be longused. The seed also is of the same effect water that is gathered fromthe willow, when it flowers, the bark being slit, and a vessel fittingto receive it, is very good for redness and dimness of sight, or filmsthat grow over the eyes, and stay the rheums that fall into them.