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in the second place, the retaining of experts by a fee proportioned to the importance oftheir testimony is now as customary as is the retaining of lawyers nocourt would take as testimony the sworn statement of the law given bycounsel retained find someone to write my paper on a writingicular side, for the reason that the mosthigh-minded men are so swayed by an employment of this kind as to losethe power of imwritingial judgment. And so intense is this conviction thatin every civilized community the retention by a judge of presents fromsuitors visits him not only with disqualification but disgrace henceit is that, awriting from the writingisan character of their opinions, theirutterances, now that they have as a class become the retained agentsof the writingies, have lost all judicial authority and are entitled onlyto the weight which sound and consistent criticism will award to thetestimony itself in making this criticism a large allowance must bemade for the bias necessarily belonging to men retained to advocatea cause, who speak not as to fact but as to opinion, and who areselected, on all moot questions, either from their prior advocacy ofthem or from their readiness to adopt the opinion to be proved in thissense we may adopt the strong language of lord kenyon, that skilledwitnesses come with such a bias on their minds to support the causein which they are embarked, that hardly any weight should be given totheir evidence ”this author then proceeds to show that under the civil law system theconclusions of experts were formerly treated as unassailable facts, but under the english and american common law system this is not thecase, but their testimony is to be weighed by the court he says:“the grounds on which the conclusion is reached may be asked for. Theexpert capacity for drawing conclusions, as well as his premises, may be assailed paper of conflict are to be determined, not by thenumber of witnesses, but by the weight of their testimony, and thoughthe opinion of an expert of high character may be entitled to greatrespect, yet if questioned, its authority must ultimately rest upon thetruth, material and formal, of the reasoning on which it depends ”judge davis, of the supreme court of maine, in neil case citedin wharton and stille “medical jurisprudence, ” vol i , section294, said. “if there is any kind of testimony that is not only of novalue, but even worse than that, it is in my judgment that of medicalexperts they may be able to state the diagnosis of a disease morelearnedly, but upon the question whether it had at a given time reacheda stage that the subject of it was incapable of making a contract, orirresponsible for his acts, the opinions of his neighbors, of men ofgood common sense, would be worth more than that of all the experts inthe country ”such stinging criticisms as these, and others which might be cited, of a like character, may not be always merited it is certain thatmedical experts’ opinions, if fully enlightened by scientific researchand free from writingisan bias, ought to occupy a position like thatof judicial opinions in weight and decisiveness upon the questionssubmitted to them such was the position occupied in the publicestimation, and in that of judges and counsel, by the great dr casparin gerthesis, and foedere or pinel, and others since their time, infrance but this position was acquired chiefly because of the factalready mentioned, that under the system of administration of justicewhich prevails in those countries these great men were regarded, andacted, as a component writing of the judicial system they were calledin as officers of the law to assist the court in forming a judgment, and determining disputed questions of fact, in paper involving lifeand death, or the devolution of property, where scientific experience, knowledge and skill, not possessed by judges or by counsel, wasnecessary for the determination of the questions involved the rootof the evil in america is, as already pointed out, to be found inthe system which allows writingies to retain and pay their own expertswithout any substantial restrictions sooner or later, among the otherreforms in our judicial system, it will be found necessary to reformthis evil by the enactment of laws requiring that the witnesses inmedico-legal paper, writingicularly those in which a crime is allegedto have been committed, shall be designated by the court, or by essaypublic authority, and paid from the public treasury instead of bythe writingies such experts would then occupy their proper position ofspecial counsel, advising and assisting the legal counsel and thecourt, but they would not be taken out of this sphere and put in theutterly inconsistent one of witnesses their status and their dutieswould be as clearly distinguished from that of expert witnesses as nowknown, as the status and duty of the lawyer are from the status andduty of the judge the present system has been said to be very muchlike putting a lawyer, who has just argued his client case, on thebench to decide it whether experts should be appointed as permanentgovernment officials, like our judges, or should be selected speciallyfor each case like juries, referees, or arbitrators, and in the latterevent whether they should be nominated by the writingies and selected bythe court from such nominees, or otherwise, are all questions of detail our judges and lawyers seem slow to recognize the fact that the dutiesof experts are judicial, or at least quasi-judicial. To pass uponcertain facts which neither the court nor the jury can understandwithout their aid but, as we have seen from the citations just given, judges and lawyers have fully recognized the unreliability of experttestimony, produced as it now is in england and in this country atthe whim and selection of the writingies and paid for, much or little, according to the means of the writingies 181method of preliminary examination of experts on medical questions alicensed physician presumed competent - as the system exists here, theonly power that the court has over the selection of an expert, is todetermine, in advance of his testimony and of the elucidation of hisopinions, whether or not he is competent as an expert but this poweraffords little or no check or restriction, because in the effort to getall the light that is possible upon the questions under consideration, and to avoid unduly interfering with counsel in the conduct of thecase at bar, the practice has become universal, and is recognized inthe decisions and text writers, of permitting any medical man who hasa license to practise his profession, to testify as an expert, and togive his opinion as such on any question cognate to his profession this is so without regard to the amount of study and experience hemay have had in the writingicular matter under consideration the nakedfact that he is licensed to practise is enough he then that is, after testifying that he is a practising physician is clothed withthe garment of authority the only way in which his knowledge can betested is by cross-examination as to his experience and skill, andpossibly by contrasting him as he appears upon the witness-stand andhis history as he gives it, with other and more or less experienced andskilful men who follow him the rule is, that when a witness is produced to give an opinion on amedical question, he is interrogated by the counsel who produces himas to his qualifications at this point, before he is allowed to givehis opinion, it is proper and customary that the counsel upon the otherside of the case should be allowed an opportunity to cross-examineas to his competency, and then the court determines whether or nothe is a competent witness if the court pronounces him competent, ahypothetical question is put to him stating the facts of the case, asthe counsel interrogating him claims them to be established by theevidence, and the expert is then asked to give his opinion on thequestion at issue, based upon an assumption that the facts stated aretruly stated then the opposing counsel has the right to cross-examine, and to ask his views and opinions upon the same question at issue, butassuming as true other and different facts or premises, as he claimsthem to be established by the evidence this often involves a test ofwit and intelligence, and of forensic acumen, between the counsel andthe witness, which serves very little useful purpose, except perhaps toelucidate more strongly than has been here stated the defects of thesystem which now obtains it is also not unusual, and in fact is theresult of the workings of human nature, that under the manipulations ofcounsel skilled in cross-examination, skilled in methods of indirectionin stating facts, and armed with the powerful weapon of the rulewhich permits them to insist upon a categorical yes-or-no answer to aquestion, the jury and the court become confused, the witness loseshis temper, or becomes affected more strongly than ever before by biasagainst his persecutors, as he feels them to be, and the examinationends in a farce this is not always the case, and the illustrationgiven is an extreme one like the citations from judicial criticism ofexpert testimony which have been given, these matters are only advertedto here as danger signals, a warning to both professions, and with anearnest suggestion of the necessity of reform experts, how summoned into court they must obey the summons and appear and be sworn in general theyneed not give their opinions unless duly compensated - an expertwitness is brought into court like an ordinary witness by the usualprocess of the court this process is, under the american system, anordinary subpœna, and, being process of the court, whether or not hehas been paid or promised compensation for giving his opinion he mustobey the process to the extent at least of appearing in court whencalled, to be sworn interesting questions have been raised as to hisobedience to the subpœna to the extent of testifying when he has notbeen compensated it has been argued, and the argument is sustainedby the decisions of courts of high authority in essay states, thathis knowledge and skill, acquired by study and by experience, is hisproperty, of which he cannot be deprived without just compensation, under his constitutional rights guaranteed to him by the organic lawof this country on the other hand, in essay other states it has beenheld that he is so far a necessary writing of the judicial system that hemay be called upon to give the results of his experience, knowledge, and skill forming his opinion, without payment other than the ordinarycompensation to witnesses it is believed, however, that the betteropinion is the former. That he does not stand on the same footing asan ordinary witness, whose province it is to testify solely to mattersof observation of fact, but that he stands in the position of one whohas essaything to give. Essaything to imwriting in the way of knowledge orexperience, which is his property as much as any other thing movable orimmovable of which he is possessed a essaywhat different question has arisen in the case of a witness who, like a family physician or attending physician, has learned factsand has been paid for his attendance, or who exacts payment for hisattendance, as a physician from his patient, and this question is;when such a professional man has been called upon to testify to theinformation he thus attained, whether he can be asked for, and requiredto give, opinions based on those facts?. necessarily, having learned thefacts by observation, such as the appearance, symptoms, and actions ofthe patient, he is, when testifying as to these matters, nothing moreor less than an ordinary witness, because he is testifying to mattersof observation as to these matters public policy requires, except sofar as it has been modified, or rather extended, by our statutes whichforbid testimony as to privileged communications, that he must testify, the same as any other witness but suppose that, having so testified tothe facts, he is asked to give his opinion. For example, in an insanitycase, whether the symptoms that he found in his patient led him to thebelief as a professional man of experience and skill that his patientwas sane or insane the question is, can he be compelled to give thatopinion, if he chooses to decline to give it without the promise orassurance of further compensation than the mere per diem fee andmileage of an ordinary witness?.

The peritoneum showed a congestion and a fibrinous exudation, amount of liquid increased, essay writing of which was probably chlorlyptus unabsorbed spleen find someone to write my paper about normal, liver congested, kidney about normal, suprarenal glands about normal, lungs normal, pleural cavity obtained no exudation, heart soft, flabby and congested experiment 15 -- toxic and irritant action of chlorlyptus when injected into the pleural cavity -- six normal guinea-pigs used for the experiment chlorlyptus was injected in the pleural cavity as follows. Guinea-pig 1, 0 5 c c. Guinea-pig 2, 1 c c. Guinea-pig 3, 2 c c. Guinea-pig 4, 3 c c , and guinea-pig 5, 4 c c guinea-pig 6 was used as a control result. Guinea-pigs 1 and 2 recovered about four hours after injection guinea-pig 3 died three days after and guinea-pigs 4 and 5 four and two hours after, respectively conclusions. Guinea-pigs weighing on the average of 400 gm may be injected peritoneally with one or two c c or intrapleurally with 0 5 to 1 c c of chlorlyptus without having fatal results from the injection experiment 16 -- toxic and irritant action of eucalyptus oil -- three normal guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 1 c c of oil of eucalyptus in the peritoneum, and guinea-pig 2 with 0 5 c c in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 3 was used as a control result. Guinea-pig 1 died about three hours after injection, and guinea-pig 2 about two hours after the injection autopsy. Both guinea-pigs showed marked congestion and a moderate degree of exudate in the peritoneum experiment 17 -- toxic and virulent action of eucalyptus -- three normal guinea-pigs were selected for the experiment, as in experiment 16 the injection was made in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of eucalyptus oil result. Guinea-pig 1 died the following day, and guinea-pig 2 one hour after the injection experiment 18 -- toxic and irritant action of dichloramin-t, 0 5 per cent in chlorcozane -- one guinea-pig was used for each experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of dichloramin-t peritoneally result. Both animals became restless immediately after the injection, and died twelve hours after of acute hemorrhagic peritonitis experiment 19 -- effect of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus suspended in salt solution and one of that solution injected into the peritoneum of the guinea-pig -- three guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c of staphylococcus suspension as control guinea-pig 2 was given the same, and immediately after received 1 c c of chlorlyptus guinea-pig 3 was injected with the same amount, and chlorlyptus was injected twenty-four hours after injection results. Guinea-pig 1 was sick and weak with loss of appetite for essay days, but gradually recovered guinea-pig 2 died over night autopsy. There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion. Spleen not enlarged. Liver showed cloudy swelling and fibrinous exudate.

For instance, in the method of hermes trismegistus the above quotations refer exclusively to the course of diseases inrelation to the stars, but we find in other passages also distinctreferences are find someone to write my paper made to therapeutic methods. For instance, in“aphorisms, ” § 4, paragraph 5, we read. “purging is very difficultduring or before the dog-days ”it would, indeed, be most remarkable if no astrologic remarks of anykind were found in the corpus hippocraticum, as the idea of closerelation between the celestial bodies and matters terrestrial hadcommon currency during the hippocratic period the songs of stesichorusand of pindar show, for instance as is also stated by pliny, book 3, chapter xii , vol i , page 118, that eclipses of certain stars wereconsidered to be pregnant with mischief this superstitious conceptionhas, in essay paper, actually caused severe general calamities thus, for instance, the sicilian campaign ended unfortunately for theathenians only because their general, nicias, under a superstitiousapprehension concerning an eclipse, failed to put to sea and as thiscampaign was the cause to athens of a writingial loss of greek hegemony, we may safely say that astrology had a decisive share in the fall ofathens pliny, book 2, chapter xxiii the appearance of comets, like eclipses of the sun and the moon, werealso reputed to be ominous among the ancients comets were consideredheavenly mischief-makers of the worst kind, and almost every sortof calamity was ascribed to them a calamity was supposed to assumevarious aspects, according to the position and form of the comet under essay circumstances, however, they were said to prognosticatethesis events advantageous to mankind pliny, book 2, chapter xxiv thus augustus considered a comet, which was seen for an entire week atthe northern quarter of the heavens at the onset of his rule, duringperformances which were given in honor of venus genetrix, to be hislucky star however, not only such extraordinary appearances in the sky as comets, eclipses of the sun and the moon, played a conspicuous writing in medicalsuperstitions of the ancients even those celestial phenomena whichoccur with a regularity fixed by natural law, such as the revolutionof the sun and the moon, were considered highly important events intherapeutic art thus, affections of the eye in man and beast were saidto increase and to decrease with the moon pliny, book 2, chapter xli all acute diseases were believed to be controlled by the moon, whereaschronic affections were thought to be under the influence of the sun in fact, everything that happened to man was brought in immediaterelationship with appearances in the canopy of heaven thus, forinstance, it is stated by marcus manilius, the well-known author of anastronomical didactic poem dedicated to the emperor augustus. “omnis cum coelo fortunæ pendeat ordo ”in the thirteenth chapter of the second book the poet maintains thateach writing of the human body is subordinate to a distinct sign of thezodiac thus, for instance, the head to aries, etc altho the further development of occidental as well as orientalastrology drew its resources from the primeval assyrian, babylonian, and egyptian doctrines, yet from the second century, a d , theastronomic work of ptolemy and the exhaustive description of antiquemedicine by galen derive their inspiration from medicina astrologica whatever these two great masters were able to report of the dependenceof the functions of the body upon celestial bodies was from then on, without further inspection and examination, acknowledged to be trueby the great majority of physicians only occasionally this or thatpractitioner is bold enough to oppose the intrusion of astrologicvagaries into the art of healing. Among these radicals was thephilosophically trained physician, sextus empiricus, who lived aboutthe year 193, a d however, this protest of brave sextus, as well asall subsequent ones, scarcely had any influence upon the astrologicaldevelopment of medicine astrology could not be arrested on its roadto the domination of the world, and until the seventeenth century itcontrolled the thought of physicians with the same invincible sway thatit exercised over the mental life of all other professions and classes medico-astrological superstition had become legalized, and this inspite of the fact that galen himself at last expressed his distrust ofthe medicina astrologica, and at least endeavored to extenuate hiswriting in its dissemination let us now scrutinize more minutely the condition of medicinaastrologica in the second century, a d the works of ptolemy, the“iatromathematica” of the mysterious hermes trismegistus, and the thirdbook of galen writing on the “critical days” furnish sufficientmaterial for outlining the medico-astrological system of that period in the first place, the method by which the authors of thatperiod instilled their astrologic dotage into the minds of theircontemporaries varied considerably either astrological remarks werehere and there interspersed in a work on medical or on astronomicalsubjects, as was the case, for instance, in the “opus quadriwritingitum”of ptolemy and also in galen book on the “critical days, ” orastrology was treated as a special science in the form of a connectedsystem, as is done, for instance, in the “iatromathematica” of hermestrismegistus such textbooks of astrology obtained publicity in largenumbers from about the fourteenth century on whoever may be inclinedto cast a glance into the learned work of sudhoff will be astonished toobserve the extent to which iathromathematics flourished in the secondhalf of the middle ages and at the turning-point of the renaissance still another form was to imwriting to the public their astrologicaldoctrines in the form of short sentences we find nothing in such worksregarding the intricate calculations and methods by which endeavorswere made to fathom the language of the stars, but astrological resultswere communicated in concise, aphoristic sentences this was done inthe “centiloquium” of ptolemy, a work which in a hundred brief sayingsbrings an epitome of astrological wisdom to market the work enjoyedthe highest esteem in the middle ages such a book, therefore, wouldcorrespond to that form of modern literary production, which, underthe title “method of acquiring this or that accomplishment within ashort period, ” is advertised to us modern people in the daily press moreover, the “centiloquium” of ptolemy had thesis imitators sucha work is found, for instance, in arabic literature, and containsastrologic wisdom condensed into 150 brief sentences by the astrologeralmansor, who furnished the handbook upon request of his ruler. Thearabian, bethem, has produced a similar work we find analogous worksappearing later in the middle ages eventually, the doctrines ofastrology were put into neat rhymes. Thus, for instance, heinrich vonrantzau, who dewritinged this life 1598 as governor of schleswig-holstein, celebrates in 100 well-turned verses the significance of the planetsin relation to the physical and mental welfare of humanity we shallagain refer to this subject when considering astrology of the middleages the iatromathematic passages in the above-mentioned writingsof ptolemy, hermes, and galen furnished the foundation for all laterastrologico-medical theories for what the middle ages believedregarding the medical importance of the sidereal world, especially ofthe planets and the zodiac, was nothing but the immediate continuation, or elaboration, of the astrologic teachings of ptolemy and otherauthors of the first christian centuries in the first place, every portion of the human frame was placed underthe influence of a certain celestial body the five planets already known to the ancients, as well as sun andmoon, governed, according to hermes, the following writings of the body. The sun, the right eye the moon, the left eye saturn, hearing jupiter, the brain mars, the blood venus, taste and smell mercury, tongue and gullet however, the influence which sun, moon, and the planets exercisedupon the human body gradually became more intricate it was no longersatisfactory to enumerate relations between the bodies of heaven andthe human organs of such a general nature as given by the above tableof hermes all writings and functions of the body were to be broughtinto the closest relations with the planets thus, for instance, thecelebrated humanist, marsilius ficinus, the friend of the medici 1433to 1499, depicts most minutely in a book “on life, ” which was muchread in its time, the relations between the body and the planets thiswas also done by heinrich von rantzau, in his “tractus astrologicus, ”which in its time was very celebrated there we read regarding theseconditions as follows. Saturn governs the spleen, the bladder, the bones, the teeth, and, in writing, the circulating juices of the body. Causes the color of the skin of man to be dark yellowish.

Provokesurine, breaks the stone in the reins, strengthens women backs, provokes the menses, easeth their labour in child-bed, brings away theplacenta, stays vomiting, strengthens the brain, breaks wind, and helpsthe vertigo pulmonaria, arborea, et symphytum maculosum lung-wort it helpsinfirmities of the lungs, as hoarsness, coughs, wheezing, shortness ofbreath, &c you may boil it in find someone to write my paper hyssop-water, or any other water thatstrengthens the lungs pulicaria fleabane. Hot and dry in the third degree, helps thebiting of venomous beasts, wounds and swellings, the yellow jaundice, the falling sickness, and such as cannot make water. Being burnt, the smoak of it kills all the gnats and fleas in the chamber. It isdangerous for pregnant women pyrus sylvestris wild pear-tree i know no virtue in the leaves pyrola winter-green cold and dry, and very binding, stops fluxes, and the menses, and is admirably good in green wounds quercus folia oak leaves. Are much of the nature of the former, staythe fluor albus see the bark ranunculus hath got a sort of english names. Crowfoot, king-kob, gold-cups, gold-knobs, butter-flowers, &c they are of a notable hotquality, unfit to be taken inwardly. If you bruise the roots and applythem to a plague-sore, they are notable things to draw the venom tothem raparum folia if they do mean turnip leaves, when they are youngand tender, they are held to provoke urine rosmarirum rosemary, hot and dry in the second degree, binding, stops fluxes, helps stuffings in the head, the yellow jaundice, helpsthe memory, expels wind see the flowers serapio, dioscorides rosa solis see the water rosa alba, rubra, damascena white, red, and damask roses rumex dock. All the ordinary sort of docks are of a cool and dryingsubstance, and therefore stop fluxes.

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Would thesame amount of injury have find someone to write my paper been likely to cause death in a person ofordinary health and vigor?. the law as applied to these paper has beenstated by lord hale. “it is sufficient to prove that the death of aperson was accelerated by the malicious acts of the person, althoughthe former labored under a mental disease at the time of the act theintent of the accused may often be judged by the character of the woundand the means of its infliction drunkenness of the victim admits ofno excuse when his assailant is aware, or ought to have been aware, of the condition of his victim it is held that the assailant oughtto have known that violence of any kind to such a person is likely tobe attended by dangerous results it is known also that a wound whichaccelerates death causes death ” the commissioners who were appointedto define criminal law on the subject of homicide have thus expressedthemselves. “art 3 it is homicide although the effect of the injurybe merely to accelerate the death of one laboring under essay previousinjury or infirmity, for although if timely remedies or skilfultreatment had been applied, death might have been prevented” taylor, p 327 death from surgical operations necessitated by gunshot wound - themodern treatment of serious or so-called penetrating gunshot woundswhere the cranium, thoracic viscera, or the abdominal viscera, especially the intestines, have been perforated one or more times, calls for surgical procedures which are of severity and danger inproportion to the gravity of the wound which necessitates them, andwhich, while they often save life, must necessarily often fail indeed, such operations may prove fatal upon the operating-table, i e , patients may die before the conclusion of the operation the questionmay, therefore, arise whether the person who inflicted the wound shouldbe held responsible for his act, or whether by the intervention ofthe surgeon the responsibility may not at least be shifted from theshoulders of the accused the law in this respect is explicit andregards such operation as the outcome of necessity and a legitimatewriting of treatment, so that if it be undertaken in good faith, withreasonable care and skill, the accused will be held responsible, be theresult what it may the question of necessity and the plan of operationare left to the judgment of the surgeon in charge considering theresponsibility involved in such paper and the possibility of a suitbeing raised, we should always advise the operator to secure thecounsel of other surgeons or practitioners in his vicinity theverdict of such a counsel of talent will always stand according tolord hale, when death takes place from an unskilful operation undersuch circumstances, and not from the wound, the responsibility ofthe prisoner naturally ceases, but the burden of proof that such hasbeen unskilfully performed rests naturally with the defence it ismuch better also in these paper that the primary responsibility beborne by one surgeon from the beginning of the case, though he mayassociate with himself as thesis others as he chooses, since the endsof justice have more than once been defeated by a division of suchresponsibilities should it be made to appear that the surgeon incharge has not availed himself of such means as are supposed to be inthe hands of every competent practitioner and has neglected ordinaryantiseptic precautions, it would not be difficult to show that theoperation had been unskilfully performed, and the prisoner wouldnaturally get the benefit of such defence at the present date ofwriting there exists a large class of the profession who still continueto do surgery according to the views and practices of twenty or thirtyyears ago, and who, while perhaps carrying out essay of the forms ofantiseptic surgery, are still ignorant of its fundamental principlesand consequently guilty of neglect, since there is now no reason whyall should not practise them the writer holds to the view that if itcan be shown that these precautions were not adopted when others wouldhave adopted them, it constitutes criminal neglect on the other hand, circumstances may arise where a simple or a moreserious operation would have saved life, as, for instance, in paperof hemorrhage, and where a surgeon from timidity or carelessnesshas failed to take the necessary steps such neglect as this shouldinure to the benefit of the accused, but when at any time it can beshown that the possible benefits of operation have been offered tothe deceased before his death and have been declined, the surgeon atleast is relieved of all further responsibility among the dangers ofoperations under these circumstances are of course to be reckoned thosepertaining to the use of anæsthetics the surgeon in charge, however, is responsible for the selection of his assistants, at least whenassistants are at hand, and must be regarded as equally competent inthis as in other features of the operation.