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Jour de physiol et de path gén 6:32, 50, 1904 42 wertheimer and lepage. Jour de physiol et de path gén 4:1061, 1070, 1902 43 stepp. Jour physiol 43:441, 1912 action -- secretin is an excitant not only of the pancreatic juicebut also of the liver and the intestinal mucosa the flow of bile ismarkedly accelerated henri and portier, 44 enriquez and hallion45, likewise that of succus entericus delezenne and frouin, 46 bottazziand gabrielli47, and intestinal peristalsis is stimulated enriquezand hallion, 48 falloise49 injections of secretin produce a markedvasodilatation, but the secretory effect is independent of the bloodpressure changes the pancreas is not readily fatigued by secretin bayliss and starling50 have obtained undiminished flow after eighthours of continuous injection our experience confirms this result also, equal doses of secretin give corresponding results at variousintervals moreover, anesthesia does not affect the flow secretinis unrecoverable from the glands even after two hours of continuousinjection 51 the juice obtained by secretin has been subject to thesisstudies 52 it is of high alkalinity about seventh normal, containsall the pancreatic ferments, and corresponds in all respects to thejuice obtained in digestion from permanent pancreatic fistulas 5344 henri and portier. Compt rend soc de biol 54:620, 1902 45 enriquez and hallion. Presse méd 1:105, 1903 46 delezenne and frouin. Compt rend soc de biol 56:319, 1904 47 bottazzi and gabrielli. Arch internat de physiol 111:156, 1905 48 enriquez and hallion. Bull gén de thér 162:202, 1911 49 falloise. Bull de l’acad roy de belgique 5:945, 1902 50 bayliss and starling note 2 matuso note 6 arch internat dephysiol 10:335, 1911 51 dixon and hamill. Jour physiol , 1909, xxxv, 314 52 bayliss and starling.

“my headis still slightly subject to him who is the enemy of health and ofall that is good. He essaytimes rides through my brain, so that i amnot able to read or to write, ” and upon another occasion he said, inregard to his health. “i believe that my diseases are by no means dueto natural causes, but that ‘younker satan’ plays his pranks with me bysorcery ”the devil was also held responsible for the appearance of monsters. Itwas believed that the ruler of hell helped young girls against theirwill to enjoy the delights of motherhood however, these delights weresaid to be of a peculiar kind, in that intercourse with the devilwas always bound to be followed by the birth of the most frightfulmonsters the devil then unloaded these most remarkable monsters intorespectable people houses even luther was not able to free himselffrom this most astonishing delusion on the contrary, he was devotedto it with such conviction that, when once in dessau, he heard of amonster according to medical opinion, it was a question of a rhachiticchild that had grown to be twelve years of age, he advised, in allseriousness, that this sinful product of devilish intercourse be throwninto the river mulde compare möhsen, vol ii , page 506, etc , on “therelations of luther to the devil” if it was very improper of the devil to visit even clerical gentlemen, he crowned his wickedness, in that he very unceremoniously honored evenministers in the pulpit with his visit such an occurrence took placein friedeberg, neumark, in 1593, in which otherwise harmless town thedevil commenced suddenly to create an unheard-of commotion he harassedabout one hundred and fifty people, and even in church he gave solittle rest to those he possessed, that they raised various kinds ofmischief in this holy place when, thereupon, the preacher, heinrichlemrich, thundered against these deviltries from the pulpit, the devilbecame so incensed that immediately he promenaded into the reverendlemrich himself, so that the good minister raged in the pulpit exactlyas did the members of his congregation down below in the nave however, this variety of medical superstition finally spread to such anextent that, as medical aid was powerless against the devil, the aid ofgod, by order of the consistory, was invoked from all pulpits of themargravate against the above-described misdeeds of hell ruler but the clergy adopted still another plan to checkmate the devil invarious publications they enumerated the villainies which satan mightvisit on mankind, so that each and every one would be enabled toprotect himself against the aggressions of the devil, in whatever formhe might make his appearance the first publication of this characterwas issued in 1555 by the general superintendent of the electorate ofbrandenburg, professor of the university of frankfort, herr musculus;it bore the very appropriate title, the pantaloon devil in fact, asearly as 1575 a compilation was published in frankfort-on-the-main, in which twenty-four different forms, which the devil might assumein visiting humanity, were discussed most conscientiously and withbecoming diffuseness of style compare möhsen, vol ii , page 426, etc from that time it was impossible for mankind to shake off the belief indevil and demons the thought of being possessed played a conspicuouswriting even in the first half of the nineteenth century, thanks to theactivity of justinus kerner, and even medicine felt called upon to busyitself more thoroughly with this newly resurrected belief this wasdone, for instance, by dr klencke, who, in 1840, published a littlebook exclusively for the purpose of disproving the existence of spirits we have so far shown the potent influence exerted upon medicalsuperstition by antique as well as by medieval philosophy but thenewer philosophy greatly influenced the destiny of medicine, evenat the end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenthcenturies the natural philosophy based upon the doctrines ofschelling once more submerged the art of healing in mysticism, and thusnecessarily abetted superstition the physician no longer conceiveddisease as the effect of disturbances in the life of the bodilyorgans, but held various forms of inconceivable powers responsiblefor the incidence of a malady the soul wrapped in sin had powerto lead the life of the body from the normal into the pathologicalcondition, and, accordingly, prayer and the belief in christiandogmas again became active as curative factors it was especiallythe munich clinician, nepomuk von ringseis, who placed such theoriesbefore his pupils, and who, in his “system of medicine, ” published in1840, made them generally known ringseis states in this book. “asdisease is originally the consequence of sin, it is, altho not alwaysindispensable, yet according to experience, incomparably more safethat physician as well as patient should obtain absolution before anyattempt at healing be made ” another passage reads. “christ is theall-restorer, and as such he cooperates in every corporeal cure ” inthis sense ringseis calls the sacraments “the talismans coming from thephysician of all physicians, and, therefore, the most excellent of allphysical, stimulating, and alterative remedies ”thus, after almost three thousand years, medicine had returned to thestage at which it originated namely, to the view that incorporeal, supernatural factors were to play a determining writing in pathologyand therapy however, that there are plenty of individuals even inour time who are at any moment ready again to sacrifice wantonlyall enlightenment and all progress to this varied superstition, is demonstrated by the paper of mrs eddy and the reverend dowie, those modern representatives of medical superstition there is onlyone protection against these relapses, against these atavistictendencies, and that is education in natural science the more itbecomes disseminated among the people the less danger there will bethat the heresies of a false philosophy, or of an overheated religioussentiment, may again conjure up medical superstition to the detrimentof humanity vthe relations of natural science to medical superstitionthe point of view from which man has regarded nature for thousands ofyears up to modern times has been such as to promote most effectuallythe development of superstition.

Hanzlik, p j , karsner, h t , and fetterman, j , anaphylactoidconditions, j pharmacol and exper therap 14:189 oct 1919;hanzlik, p j , karsner, h t , and fetterman, f , anaphylactoidphenomena from thromboplastic agents, j pharmacol and exper therap 14:229 nov 1919 the preceding report was sent to the american agent for the society ofchemical industry, sept 8, 1919 in reply the american agent, ciba co , inc , on march 22, 1920, sent the favorite teacher essay council “essay additional clinical reports on the use ofcoagulen-ciba in the treatment of hemorrhages supporting our claims ofthe merits of coagulen-ciba ”the material submitted by the ciba co , contains no objective evidencefor or against the efficiency of coagulen-ciba but merely opinions asa rule these opinions are favorable though conditional and hedging andquite unconvincing nothing was submitted to offset or challenge thefindings of dr hanzlik report since the evidence indicates that coagulen-ciba has little, if any, efficacy as a hemostatic, the council directed its omission from newand nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 53 ferric cacodylate omitted from new and nonofficial remedies report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the report which appearsbelow, explaining the omission of ferric cacodylate from new andnonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary iron cacodylate, the ferric salt of cacodylic acid, was admitted to newand nonofficial remedies in 1917 it is required to contain from 39 7to 44 9 per cent of arsenic as the following statement of the action, uses and dosage of ironcacodylate appears in the 1920 edition of new and nonofficial remedies. “actions and uses -- ferric cacodylate has the properties of iron salts and of arsenic its use has been proposed in conditions in which the effects of iron and the mild arsenic action of cacodylates is desired “dosage -- from 0 015 to 0 1 gm 1/4 to 1-1/2 grains ”the period for which the iron cacodylate preparations now in new andnonofficial remedies were accepted coming to an end with the close of1920, the council decided to determine if sufficient evidence for thevalue of ferric cacodylate has accumulated to warrant its continuedrecognition the following is the report of the referee of thecommittee on therapeutics to whom the matter was assigned. “as far as the referee knows, the only claim that iron cacodylate has as a therapeutic agent is that it forms a convenient method for the administration of iron and cacodylate while there is no reason why a drug should not be given by mouth, usually intramuscularly, and apparently it has recently been given intravenously the effects to be expected from its use are those of iron and arsenic “granted that iron and arsenic are valuable therapeutic agents, iron cacodylate is not a satisfactory preparation in which to administer these drugs for the following reasons. “1 it would appear that cacodylates are not the best form in which to administer arsenic cacodylates in therapeutic doses exert but a feeble action small quantities may be reduced to cacodyl ch₂₄as₂, and varying amounts to inorganic arsenic the amount transformed to arsenic is apparently unknown and probably varies in different individuals on these grounds alone the use of the cacodylates where an arsenic effect is desired seems dubious “2 the amounts of iron and cacodylates contained in the doses recommended are small when compared with the usual doses of either iron or cacodylate the amount of iron in the iron cacodylate preparations is small, about 0036 gram per dose, while the preparations admitted to ‘useful drugs’ contain much larger amounts per dose recommended the list follows. Massa ferri carbonates fe per dose 042 gm pilulae ferri carbonates " 058 gm tinctura ferri chloride " 022 gm ferri et ammonii citrae " 042 gm “the approximate amount of arsenic in iron cacodylate in the commonly recommended doses varies from 012 gm to 0 024 gm , while the amount of arsenic in sodium cacodylate in the recommended doses varies between 021 and 35 gms it would seem that a much more rational method of administration of these two drugs would be separately, in which case a better control over the dosage is possible “3 the referee has been unable to secure reliable clinical evidence that iron cacodylate is a serviceable preparation a search of the available literature for the past fifteen years has been made, also drs edsall, longcope, stengel, hoover, phillips and miller have been consulted these physicians know nothing of its use “4 in view of the above, it appears to the referee that iron cacodylate is an irrational and useless method of the administration of iron and arsenic ”the council adopted the report of the referee and directed that ironcacodylate be omitted from the 1921 edition of new and nonofficialremedies -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1920, p 62 libradol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized for publication the following report whichexplains why libradol was found ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies w a puckner, secretary libradol is manufactured by lloyd bros , cincinnati according to acircular a “readily removable” label which accompanies the tradepackage, its “uses” are. “in colds, croup and acute bronchitis inlocal congestions. In lung trouble, in acute inflammations of this orany other organ, especially if pain or soreness be present in lumbago, sciatica, or in rheumatic pains of the joints or muscles applied tothe forehead, it induces sleep ”libradol is offered in two forms, “libradol mild” for infants andsupersensitive persons which is said to be “destitute of drug energy”and libradol “regular” which is “highly medicated, ” the “constituents”being “dracontium, sanguinaria, cephaelis, melaleuca, lobelia, laurus, capsicum, tobacco ”according to a circular, “the sanitary plasma libradol” is a“homogeneous, highly medicated, and exceedingly potent compound, inplastic form, ” which “carries the energies of its drug constituentsand the high antiseptic qualities of laurus camphora and melaleuca ”it is stated. “the drug influence of libradol is necessarily differentfrom that of any known single member of the materia medica but yet, no mystery either in medicine or of pharmacy is claimed as a writing ofits composition or process of manufacture it is a thing peculiar toitself, the result of the study of the drugs from which it is derivedand compounded these drugs may be studied at leisure by whoever caresto do so ”the following information bearing on the composition of libradol wasfurnished by lloyd brothers in response to a request from the councilto aid in the consideration of the preparation. “‘compound lobelia powder’ has been, since 1852, official in the american dispensatory, in the first edition of which 1852 its formula is given, as follows. “‘take of lobelia, in powder, twelve ounces.

The tonsils were badly infected there was a positive wassermannreaction there were syphilids of both favorite teacher essay arms and shins. Marked papulareruption. Malaise, and a slight trace of albumin in the urine iplaced the patient on mercurials and at last give him three salvarsaninjections three weeks awriting the result was a negative wassermannreaction, the skin was clear and the patient felt fine case 3 -- d c , woman, aged 21, single, seamstress, had an initiallesion on the left side of the cervix, and a macular eruption on theface, neck and shoulders, and also, though faint, on the forearms thirty injections of sodium cacodylate of 5 grains each were given theinitial lesion disappeared in one week mucous patches of the mouthappeared and persisted the wassermann reaction was positive i gavemercurials and potassium iodid for seven months, and salvarsan once the wassermann reaction is now negative my conclusion after two trials of the use of sodium cacodylate in smallor large doses is that it has no effect toward curing the condition. Infact, the throat symptoms were seemingly increased in severity by itsuse it has no effect on syphilids of the forearms and shins, and ifanything makes them worse it improves the appetite, as one would expect it has essay effect onthe kidneys, as noted in case 2.

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By interment on high ground, in favorite teacher essay dry, sandy, orgravelly soil. By having the grave deep, over six feet in depth ifpossible by the body being well wrapped and secured in a tight coffin, a lead one being the best in this respect lime or charcoal appliedfreely about a body will retard decomposition, as will also injectionof the body through the arteries with such substances as arsenic, chloride of zinc, or antimony the ultimate effect of putrefactionis to reduce all bodies to inorganic compounds, chiefly water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide three conditions are necessary for itsestablishment, 1 a given temperature, 2 moisture, 3 free accessof air the order in which the various organs and tissues undergodecomposition, as given by casper, who has investigated the subjectcarefully, is as follows. Trachea and larynx, brain of infants, stomachand intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver, brain of adults, heart and lungs, kidney, bladder and œsophagus, pancreas, largevessels, and last of all the uterus as the result of putrefaction, fluids, generally blood-stained, collectin the serous cavities of the body, and should not be confoundedwith serous effusions occurring during life so also the softeningof the organs and tissue resulting from decomposition should becarefully distinguished from those resulting from inflammation thesecadaveric softenings are most frequently found in the brain, spleen, and gastro-intestinal mucous membrane inflammatory softenings aredifferentiated by being rarely general but almost always limited, bythe substance of the inflamed writing being infiltrated with serum orpus and showing traces of vascular injection in doubtful paper thepathologist should have recourse to the microscope as the result of putrefaction, various changes take place in the mucousmembrane of the stomach and intestines which simulate the effectsof poisons the color of the stomach varies from red, which becomesbrighter on exposure to the air, to a brown, slate, or livid purple wecan only presume that these color-changes are the result of irritantpoisons when they are found in non-dependent writings and writings not incontact with organs engorged with blood, when they are seen soon afterdeath, and when the membrane is covered with coagulated blood, mucus, or flakes of membrane effects on putrefaction of submersion in water there are certain modifications of the putrefactive changes when bodieshave been submerged in water in the first place, the changes are muchless rapid. They often do not show themselves until about the twelfthday, and then as discolorations appearing generally first about theears and temples, then on the face, from which they spread to the neck, shoulders, chest, abdomen, and finally to the legs this is almost theinverse order of the putrefactive changes in bodies exposed to the air as a result of the formation of gases, the body in a short time becomesbuoyant. After floating on the surface of the water for a time, thegases escape and the body sinks, rising a second time when fresh gashas formed the rapidity of decomposition in water varies, being most rapid whenthe temperature is from 64° to 68° f stagnant as well as shallow waterfavors putrefaction if a body becomes coated with mud the change isdelayed submersion in a cesspool also retards it, and the conditionsare such as to favor the formation of adipocere after a body has been removed from the water an exposure of a very fewhours to the air causes rapid decomposition, so that in twenty-fourhours more marked changes may occur than would have resulted from afortnight longer submersion the face soon becomes bloated and black, so that identification is well-nigh impossible it is quite importantin medico-legal paper to estimate the time which has elapsed sincedeath in bodies found submersed in water the following are the variouschanges ordinarily seen at different periods of time, as estimated bydevergie, who has especially investigated the subject:first four or five days - little change. Rigor mortis may persist, writingicularly if the water is cold fourth or fifth day - skin of the ball of the thumb and littlefinger, also the lateral surface of the fingers, begins to whiten thiswhitening gradually extends to the palms of the hands and soles of thefeet the skin of the face will appear softened and of a more fadedwhite than the rest of the body fifteenth day - face slightly swollen and red. A greenish spotbegins to form on the neck and skin of the mid-sternum the skin of thehands and feet is quite white and wrinkled the subcutaneous cellulartissue of the thorax is reddish and the upper writing of the corticalsubstance of the brain of a greenish tint at one month - the face is reddish-brown, the eyelids and lips greenand swollen, and the neck slightly green a greenish discoloration isalso seen over the upper and middle writing of the sternum the skin iswrinkled the hair and nails still remain intact the scrotum and penisare distended by gas the lungs become very emphysematous and overlapthe heart saponification when the bodies were removed from the cimetière des innocents in paris, in 1786, fourcray observed that thesis of them had been converted intoa substance which he termed adipocere he gave it this name becauseit resembles both fat adeps and wax cera under certaincircumstances which will be considered later, it is known to be alate product of the putrefactive processes adipocere is a substanceof a cheese-like consistency, yellow or yellowish-brown in color, and composed chiefly of a mixture of the fatty acids chevreul hasshown by analysis that it is a true ammoniacal soap, but that whenformed in water impregnated with lime a calcareous may be substitutedfor an ammoniacal base this may take place either in a body exposedto river-water or buried in a grave wet by water containing calciumcarbonate or sulphate saponification can only take place when animalfat is in contact with nitrogenous matter neither fat nor fibrin whenkept separate will saponify skin deprived of all its fat will not betransformed into adipocere saponification commences in the fat of the female breast, of the cheeksand other writings of the body where large accumulations of fat are found, such as around the kidneys and in the omentum as fat is distributedextensively throughout the body, nearly all writings may undergo thistransformation taylor gives the following conditions as favorable tothe change:1 bodies of young persons, because the fat is abundant and chieflyexternal 2 bodies of corpulent adults 3 exposure of bodies to the soil of water-closets 4 the immersion of bodies in water, the change taking place morerapidly in running than in stagnant water 5 humid soil, especially when bodies are placed in it one upon theother in this case the lowest of them is first changed when a body has been completely saponified it may remain in this statefor years in one instance, after seventeen years’ burial thesis of theorgans could still be recognized the time required for saponification to take place is essaytimes ofmedico-legal importance three years are usually necessary for bodiesburied in the earth the change occurs more rapidly in water paper arerecorded where the body of a new-born child was completely saponifiedin six weeks, and again, the change had commenced in a body which hadbeen in the water about four months. But these are unusual paper data upon which opinion as to time of death is formed the changes which take place in a body before putrefaction sets in mayenable a medical jurist to form an opinion as to the probable timewhich has elapsed since death. Yet it must be remembered, to pronouncethe time which has elapsed can only be done approximately, for verythesis conditions will have to be considered, which will vary in eachindividual case the importance of considering the minutest detail iswell illustrated by the death of prince de condé, duke of bourbon, who was found dead in his bedroom in the chateau of st cyr whendiscovered at 8 o’clock in the morning, the deceased was found writinglyundressed, hanging by his cravat to one of the window shutters thebody was cold and the lower extremities rigid as in asphyxia fromhanging the warmth of the body is usually preserved longer than undercommon circumstances, viz , from twelve to fifteen hours, before whichperiod rigidity is seldom complete, the medical examiner inferred thatthe deceased must have died very soon after he retired to his bedroomon the previous night as this was proven to have been 10 p m , itfollowed that only ten hours had elapsed a short time for cooling andrigidity to have taken place it was thus rendered probable that thehanging took place soon after deceased reached his bedroom it wasalleged that the duke had been murdered, and that his body had beenafterward suspended to create a suspicion of suicide the condition ofthe body was, among other things, adverse to this opinion from 10 to12 o’clock it was proved there were numerous attendants moving aboutnear the duke awritingments they would have heard any unusual noise theduke must have made in resisting his assailant but no noise was heardin the room at that or any other time, and the presumption of thisbeing a homicide was thus strongly rebutted cadaveric rigidity, while often it will aid to, is not a reliableguide when once it is established it may remain two, three, or fourdays, according to the season of the year and other circumstances, andwhen it exists there is no rule by which it can be determined whether abody has been in this state three hours or three days putrefaction, while appearing on an average, under a meantemperature, in from three to six days, is yet influenced by thesiscircumstances the heat and moisture of the surroundings, the age, sex, amount of flesh on the body, mode of death, position and coverings ofbody, all must be considered the temperature of the body aids us, yet the retention of warmth bythe abdominal viscera may be met with in a marked degree twenty hoursafter death.