Fahrenheit 451 Essay Prompts

Are excellently good in all sorts of agues. Help the gout andsciatica, and strengthen the limbs of the body the ashes of the woodis a speedy remedy to such as have the scurvy, to rub their gums with the berries stay all fluxes, help the hæmorrhoids or piles, and killworms in children a lye made of the ashes of the wood, and the bodybathed with it, cures the itch, scabs and leprosy the berries breakthe stone, procure appetite when it is lost, and are excellently goodfor all palsies, and falling-sickness kidneywort, or wall pennyroyal, or wall pennywort descript it has thesis thick, flat, and round leaves growing from theroot, every one having a long footstalk, fastened underneath, about themiddle of it, and a little unevenly weaved essaytimes about the edges, of a pale green colour, and essaywhat yellow on the upper side likea saucer. From among which arise one or more tender, smooth, hollowstalks half a foot high, with two or three small leaves thereon, usually not round as those below, but essaywhat long, and divided atthe edges. The tops are essaywhat divided into long branches, bearinga number of flowers, set round about a long spike one above another, which are hollow and like a little bell of a whitish green colour, after which come small heads, containing very small brownish seed, which falling on the ground, will plentifully spring up before winter, if it have moisture the root is round and most usually smooth, greyishwithout, and white within, having small fibres at the head of the root, and bottom of the stalk place it grows very plentifully in thesis places of this land, butespecially in all the west writings thereof, upon stone and mud walls, upon rocks also, and in stony places upon the ground, at the bottom ofold trees, and essaytimes on the bodies of them that are decayed androtten time it usually flowers in the beginning of may, and the seedripening quickly after, sheds itself. So that about the end of may, usually the stalks and leaves are withered, dry, and gone untilseptember, then the leaves spring up again, and so abide all winter government and virtues venus challenges the herb under libra thejuice or the distilled water being drank, is very effectual for allinflammations and unnatural heats, to cool a fainting hot stomach, ahot liver, or the bowels. The herb, juice, or distilled water thereof, outwardly applied, heals pimples, st anthony fire, and other outwardheats the said juice or water helps to heal sore kidneys, torn orfretted by the stone, or exulcerated within. It also provokes urine, is available for the dropsy, and helps to break the stone being usedas a bath, or made into an ointment, it cools the painful piles orhæmorrhoidal veins it is no less effectual to give ease to the painsof the gout, the sciatica, and helps the kernels or knots in the neckor throat, called the king evil.

Twenty-one of the patientswere dead three more patients treated both by the koch injections andby operation were reported as clinically improved the condition ofeighteen of the patients was reported as stationary, or unimproved ineleven of the paper, the results were unknown but the surgeons reportedunfavorably the committee reported further that dr koch records were incompleteand that he had submitted no proof that his injections have anywritingicular merit and the committee concluded that the study “isentirely experimental and improperly supervised ”evidently, the most that can be said of dr koch alleged “cure”for cancer is that the claims made for it have not been supported byindependent investigators -- from the journal a m a , feb 12, 1921 further commentlast week essay space was given to the alleged cure for cancer put outby dr william f koch of detroit incidentally, it should be mentionedthat dr koch article of oct 30, 1920, to which reference was made, appeared not in the new york medical journal, as stated, but in fahrenheit 451 essay prompts thenew york medical record the following correspondence throws additional light on the subject. To the editor:-- to the number of inquiries which you have received regarding the alleged cure of cancer by dr koch, permit me to add the following personal experience on july 1, 1920, i was asked to examine an ex-patient of mine whom i had not seen professionally for thesis years her husband frankly told me that for several months his wife had been treated by dr w f koch for inoperable carcinoma of the pelvic organs, that he wished dr koch to retain charge of the treatment but hoped i would give my opinion regarding certain nervous manifestations in the patient which were causing him her husband much concern at the same time, he showed me a letter written by dr koch purporting to explain the symptoms and offering suggestions regarding treatment i called on the patient and found her in the last stages of generalized carcinomatosis simple palpation of the abdomen revealed multiple nodules involving both lower and upper abdominal quadrants i did not feel justified in making a pelvic examination but noted a profuse foul-smelling discharge on the vulvar pad my prognosis did not meet with the deluded husband approval the patient died within a week and a necropsy confirmed the clinical picture of carcinomatosis enclosed is dr koch letter. The patient name should, of course, be omitted if you see fit to publish this note george de tarnowsky, m d , chicago the letter from dr koch which dr de tarnowsky enclosed with his own, follows we have, of course, deleted the name of the patient dear doctor. Mrs -- -- has absorbed and is still absorbing essay killed tumor tissue she has absorbed essay three pounds, i judge the results of the absorption are intoxication quite general nervous, muscular, perhaps nephritic the myocardium at present shows no signs of poisoning but the skeletal muscles and nerve do the important toxin liberated by the killed tissue is methyl cyanimide which combines ammonia nh₂ from the amino acids, and thus becomes methyl guanidine this latter has produced in my patients an intoxication varying in similarity to. Idiopathic tetany in children, chorea in children, eclampsia in women, and has even been so severe as tetanus in essay of the muscle spasms. A toxic albuminuria has resulted in essay of my paper all of my paper have cleaned up so far of course, i cannot predict in any individual case, except that when the absorption has been completed and the toxin all eliminated, everything should return to normal, unless the toxin has destroyed tissue beyond physiological repair my suggestions as to treatment would be elimination, saving the kidneys as much as possible, by whatever methods you find best and necessary at present i am treating symptomatically thus-- atropin as a guanidine antidote, arsenic as a chorea coupled antidote as a prevention to the production of guanidine from the cyanimide, the use of dilute hydrochloric acid has proven successful to me even a urine boiling solid-- albumen has cleared up in one case in three days just by taking large quantities of 1/2 per cent hcl i am explaining the factors i have contended with in these paper, but do not want to influence your plan of treatment when your judgment finds me insufficient sincerely, wm f koch i shall have a publication out very soon on the treatment of these tetanics and eclampsia with hcl it is worth noting that this letter of dr koch was written june 28, just three days before dr de tarnowsky saw mrs -- -- and less than aweek before she died of generalized carcinoma not the least important element in the story which these two letterstell is the optimism engendered in the husband of the poor cancerpatient by the widely vaunted treatment of koch and herein lies oneof the most pernicious features connected with the exploitation ofalleged cures for cancer, tuberculosis, etc all such remedies, whetherfraudulent both in their inception and exploitation or those whichwhile equally worthless are at least honestly put forward and are basedon a certain amount of scientific investigation, produce a profoundand marked temporary change in the patient condition it is thisthat tends to warp the judgment not only of the unscientific layman, but also of the physician the psychic element in cancer has been welldescribed by weil. “it is, indeed, very remarkable that a patient who has been consigned to death as a victim of a hopeless malady, should regain his spirits and his appetite, when he is again confronted with the hope of a cure, and of the eradication of his disease?. it is a phenomenon well known to every student of the disease that a large proportion of paper responds in just this manner to any treatment which is offered them osler has described a case of cancer of the stomach in which the mere visit to a consultant of sanguine temperament, though poor judgment, whose assurance of the patient that there was no possibility of cancer, resulted in the disappearance of all the symptoms and a gain of 18 pounds in weight it is this psychic influence, which has occasionally deluded the honest student of cancer cure, and which has also so generously played into the hands of the dishonest ”-- from the journal a m a , feb 19, 1921 the lucas laboratories’ productsthe journal has received several inquiries about the products put outby the lucas laboratories, incorporated, of new york city a typicalinquiry is that received from dr f a jewett of brooklyn, who writes. “the enclosed circular is sent out to the medical profession by dr william lucas, 287 w 70th st , new york what do you know of this man and his methods?. ”william h lucas was graduated by the medical college of ohio in 1895and was licensed in 1897 he is not a member of his local medicalsociety the products put out by the lucas laboratories are forintravenous use, and their method of exploitation indicates that theconcern is less interested in the science of therapeutics than it isin taking commercial advantage of the present fad for intravenousmedication the journal has protested editorially against theunnecessary use of the intravenous administration of drugs, and theabuse of this method of drug giving prompted the council on pharmacyand chemistry recently to emphasize the danger of indiscriminateintravenous medication the products of the lucas laboratories, inc , have not been examinedeither by the a m a chemical laboratory or by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the composition of these products isessentially secret, which in itself should be sufficient to deterphysicians from using them of course, in accordance with all thetenents of orthodox nostrum exploitation, “formulas” are furnished even the crude hieroglyphics that used to be palmed off on themedical profession by nostrum exploiters under the guise of “graphicformulas” are outdone by the lucas laboratories in publishing thealleged formulas of its preparations if we, as physicians, knewmore chemistry, the lucas laboratories would not find it profitableto publish such ineffable nonsense as that which characterizes their“literature ” for instance. “‘luvein’ arsans plain” is said to be. “di hypo sodio calcio phosphite hydroxy arseno mercuric iodid ” the first writing of this “formula” might stand for sodium and calcium hypophosphite the remainder is meaningless except that it suggests but does not insure the presence of arsenic and mercury iodide “‘luvein’ arsans, nos 1, 2 and 3 ”-- “meta hydroxy iodide sodio arsano mercuric dimethyl benzo sodio arsenate, ai oxy sodio tartaria sulpho disheuyl hydrazin ” who can venture even a conjecture as to the possible significance of this?. “‘luvein’ creosophite ”-- “ammonio hydroxy calcio sodio hypo-phosphite arsenous pentoxy iodide ” while the name suggests creosote, the “formula” gives no hint of this it might refer to hypophosphites of ammonium, calcium and sodium with iodide of arsenic whether arsenous trivalent arsenic or arsenic pentavalent arsenic iodide or both are intended, is a question “‘luvein’ hexacol ”-- “hexa methylenepyro catechin mono methyl amino ether glycerite ” by moving these syllables around like the old “fifteen puzzle” they can be arranged to represent hexamethylenamin and monomethyl-ether of pyrocatechin, or guaiacol, having the “glycerite” left over it is futile to discuss the therapeutic claims made for the variouspreparations put out by the lucas laboratories one might as profitablydiscuss the therapeutic claims made for “peruna” or “paine celerycompound” for the exploitation of the latter products is on just ashigh a scientific plane as the exploitation of the “luvein” nostrums the proposition offered to physicians by the lucas laboratories, inc , is an insult to the intelligence of the medical profession not thatthe products themselves are necessarily any worse or any better thanthesis offered for intravenous use. The selling methods are more crude, that is all the facts are, we have entered a new cycle of nostrum development theunscientific mixtures for oral administration that characterized solarge and disreputable a writing of the proprietary medicine business ofthe past two or three decades are giving way to equally unscientificmixtures for intravenous use the dangers of the older nostrumsare accentuated in the newer by the added element of risk that isinseparable from intravenous therapy add to this the temptation tothe physician in the way of more substantial fees which, legitimatelyenough, may be charged when intravenous administration is called for, and the menace of the new style nostrum becomes evident the journalcan only reiterate the warning that intravenous therapy should beemployed only when most positively indicated further, because of thedanger that is inseparable from this method of drug administration, physicians should be doubly careful to see that products employedfor intravenous use come from firms of unquestioned scientificstanding -- from the journal a m a , sept 20, 1919 “phylacogens”ll this matter was largely reprinted in the propaganda for reform, eighth and ninth editions a physician in florida writes. “i am enclosing a copy of a circular letter just received from parke, davis & company, and will call your attention to a marked paragraph in this letter on which i would like to have an expression of your opinion ”the circular letter which the doctor forwards is devoted to singingthe praises of “pneumonia phylacogen ” it opens with the statement:“influenza, we learn, has appeared in your section ” the paragraphmarked by our correspondent reads.

Andbeing made into an electuary, it is good for them that cannot fetchtheir breath. Used with salt, it takes away wens, kernels, or hardswelling in the flesh or throat. It cleanses foul sores, and easespains of the gout it is good for the liver and spleen a tansy orcaudle made with eggs, and juice thereof while it is young, putting toit essay sugar and rose-water, is good for a woman in child-birth, whenthe after-birth is not thoroughly voided, and for their faintings uponor in their sore travail the herb bruised and boiled in a little wineand oil, and laid warm on a boil, will ripen it, and break it barberry the shrub is so well known by every boy or girl that has but attainedto the age of seven years, that it needs no description government and virtues mars owns the shrub, and presents it tothe use of my countrymen to purge their bodies of choler the innerrind of the barberry-tree boiled in white wine, and a quarter of apint drank each morning, is an excellent remedy to cleanse the body ofcholeric humours, and free it from such diseases as choler causes, suchas scabs, itch, tetters, ringworms, yellow jaundice, boils, &c it isexcellent for hot agues, burnings, scaldings, heat of the blood, heatof the liver, bloody-flux. For the berries are as good as the bark, and more pleasing. They get a man a good stomach to his victuals, bystrengthening the attractive faculty which is under mars the hairwashed with the lye made of the tree and water, will make it turnyellow, viz of mars’ own colour the fruit and rind of the shrub, the flowers of broom and of heath, or furz, cleanse the body of cholerby sympathy, as the flowers, leaves, and bark of the peach-tree do byantipathy, because these are under mars, that under venus barley the continual usefulness hereof hath made all in general so acquaintedherewith that it is altogether needless to describe it, several kindshereof plentifully growing, being yearly sown in this land the virtuesthereof take as follow government and virtues it is a notable plant of saturn.

“a number of physicians who are in cooperation with both state and national bureaus of venereal diseases have been using our proteogens with marked success and there are doubtless thesis letters carried by our salesmen-- reports from essay of these physicians ”this was interpreted to mean that the firm had no method of knowingwhat letters were carried by their salesmen and was not responsible forthem whether or not this interpretation is correct is again, perhaps, a matter of opinion the purpose of the original communication was to make plain to thoseof the profession who have already seen or might subsequently see theletter referred to that the communication was the expression of anindividual and not of the dewritingment a w freeman, commissioner -- correspondence in the journal a m a , sept 6, 1919 details of the alleged endorsement of proteogensour readers will remember the recent correspondence published in thejournal of july 26 and september 6, by dr a w freeman, commissionerof health of the state of ohio and the wm s merrell co the lettersdealt with the use that had been made by the wm s merrell co of aletter, written on the official stationery of the bureau of venerealdiseases of the state dewritingment of health of ohio, puffing one of thecompany proprietary remedies-- proteogen no 10 dr freeman wrote to the journal calling the attention of theprofession to the use of this letter and explaining that the letterwas merely the expression of opinion of an individual, and not anexpression from the state dewritingment of health the wm s merrell co took exception to certain inferences made in dr freeman letter andin the course of a letter to the journal regarding this, incorporatedthe contents of the testimonial letter the journal, in publishingthe merrell letter, omitted this testimonial on the ground thatthe contents of the letter had no bearing on the question underdiscussion we have now received a letter from the company protesting against thisomission the journal, therefore, takes this opportunity of brieflyrestating such facts as it has been able to get regarding the entirematter and publishing the letter the facts are as follows:1 in february of this year a cincinnati physician, dr c j broeman, wrote to dr a s horovitz relative to alleged results with proteogenno 10 the letter was written-- without authority-- on the officialstationery of the bureau of venereal diseases of the state dewritingmentof health of ohio 2 the wm s merrell co had linen mounted photographs made of dr broeman letter and distributed them to their proteogen detail men accompanying these photographic copies was a communication to thesedetail men describing the photographed letter as one written by. “ a cincinnati physician who is now acting assistant surgeon, u s public health service, cooperating with the bureau of venereal diseases of the dewritingment of health of the state of ohio ”3 the right hand top corner of the official stationery, as can beseen by the reproduction, bore the name of “james d bauman, deputycommissioner ” dr broeman signature was rather illegible and couldeasily be mistaken, by those not knowing the handwriting of eitherman, for the signature of deputy commissioner bauman in at least oneinstance it was so mistaken, and the physician who was misled wrote tothe director of the bureau asking whether the testimonial for proteogenno 10 which had been shown him by the merrell detail man was really anofficial communication 4 on may 15, 1919, commissioner of health freeman wrote to themerrell co stating that he had been informed that one of the merrellrepresentatives was using as an advertisement a letter bearing theletterhead of the bureau of venereal diseases of the state dewritingmentof health and what purported to be a report signed by “mr bauman, deputy commissioner ”5 on may 19, the wm s merrell co wrote dr freeman that he wascertainly mistaken in regard to the use of any “report signed bymr bauman ” dr freeman then sent to the company the letter he hadreceived from the physician who had mistaken broeman letter for anofficial letter by bauman although it would seem that this letterand commissioner freeman protest should have made plain to the wm s merrell co , the fact that the letter, incorrectly referred toas mr bauman, was in reality dr broeman, the company remainedsilent regarding its use of the broeman letter and, on may 22, merelyreiterated that there had been “no letter circulated by this companycontaining a testimonial of your mr bauman ” on may 28 six dayslater the merrell company sent to its proteogen detail men anothergeneral letter, “for personal use of agents, ” in which it again calledtheir attention to the “photographic copy mounted on linen” of dr broeman letter this communication to the detail men also declaredthat it “has been suggested that the further use of dr broemanletter might antagonize the state dewritingment of health” and, thereforethe detail men were told to “discontinue using the photographic copy inquestion” and to return the photographs to the head office illustration. Reproduction reduced of one of the photographiccopies sent out by the wm s merrell co to its proteogen detail mento be shown to physicians while the letter is a private one, it waswritten without authority on official stationery essay physicianswere misled into thinking it was an official endorsement of proteogens the merrell concern denied any intention to mislead and claimed thatit was interested only in bringing to the attention of physicians thecontents of the letter!. Here, briefly are the bald facts in the case the essential point atissue is whether these photographic copies of dr broeman letterwould or would not be likely-- whether or not they were so intended-- tomislead physicians into believing that the endorsement was an officialone by the state board of health rather than an individual one one canbut wonder why, if, as the merrell company so vehemently asserts, therewas no intention of misleading physicians on this point, the companyshould have gone to the trouble and expense of photographing theentire letter, including the letterhead, rather than making typewrittenor mimeographed copies of the contents of the letter -- from thejournal a m a , sept 27, 1919 dr broeman final report on proteogensto the editor:-- in the september 27 issue of the journal my namewas mentioned in connection with the merrell chemical company“proteogens” in the treatment of syphilis the merrell chemical companypromised not to use my name at any time in connection with their“proteogens” injection and they know that the use of my name has beendistinctly against my wishes i feel that in justice to myself, as wellas the public, i should report the result of my experiments with their“proteogens” in private practice in explanation i might say that i began the use of their “proteogens”in april, 1918, and i feel that i now have enough data to give acomplete report i might say that all my results have been practicallynil. Writingicularly is this true in my paper of syphilis, which all hada four plus wassermann reaction when i discontinued using this form oftreatment very truly yours, c j broeman, m d , cincinnati -- correspondence in the journal a m a , oct 11, 1919 pulvanein a twelve-page pamphlet, sent out by the pulvane laboratories, inc , of des moines, iowa, and purporting to deal with “the therapy ofpulvane, an advanced method for the treatment of respiratory diseases, ”we are told that pulvane “was developed in a united states army generalhospital by officers of the medical dewritingment ”pulvane “originally was intended only for its germicidal actionupon tubercle bacilli in the lung, ” but it is now also recommendedfor asthma, hay fever, bronchitis, rhinitis, laryngitis and “otheraffections of the air passages ” of the alleged action of pulvane ontuberculosis we read.

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“the creator of nature has disclosed his benevolenceby wise care for all his creatures, in that he has bestowed upon eachone what is truly of service to it ”this teleological idea of all earthly becoming, being, and passing awaywas henceforth destined to be a permanent factor in human speculation christianity received it as a possession from antique civilization, andonly the philosophy and natural science of modern times have been ableto threaten its permanence biology, as of modern creation, teachesus that all natural phenomena owe their existence to natural causes, that the natural world is subject to natural laws and, accordingly, teleology, as we encounter it in the works of the heathen galen andin the writings of the christian church fathers, has turned out tobe superstition, which, however, must by no means be classed withthe vagaries of mere medico-physical superstition in coming to thisdecision, however, we must beware of rash generalization in thisconnection we refer only to that kind of teleology which dominated theworld previous to the teachings of descartes and spinoza, and previousto the advent of modern natural science, with its biological methods whether, after all, a theory of life might be possible which, whileavoiding the reproach of superstition, might be traced to teleologicalprepossessions, is a question we can not here discuss it is admittedlytrue that the deeper we penetrate into the secrets of nature the moreenergetically the existence of a marvelous, intelligent will manifestsitself as permeating all domains of nature however, if this fact isnot denied on principle, as modern materialism denies it, and properallowance is made for it, a rehabilitation of teleology as a necessaryfactor of our theory of life would be the logical consequence ofcourse, this teleology would bear a stamp entirely different fromthat of antiquity and of the middle ages, which is recognized to besuperstition it should not pretend to include the consideration of theentire organic world, but confine its conclusions to the last linksin the chain of experience and argument which science has forged fromnatural phenomena now this could be accomplished, in our opinion, evenwithout apprehension of interfering with the indispensable requirementsof modern naturalists. “the terrestrial world in its forms andprocesses is governed solely by terrestrial laws ” what the appearanceof such a teleology should be is expressed by william hartpole lecky inthe following:“this conception, which exhibits the universe rather as an organismthan a mechanism, and regards the complexities and adaptations itdisplays rather as the results of gradual development from withinthan of an interference from without, is so novel, and at first sightso startling, that thesis are now shrinking from it in alarm, underthe impression that it destroys the argument from design, and almostamounts to the negation of a supreme intelligence but there can, i think, be little doubt that such fears are, for the most writing, unfounded that matter is governed by mind, that the contrivancesand elaborations of the universe are the products of intelligence, are propositions which are quite unshaken, whether we regard thesecontrivances as the result of a single momentary exercise of will, or of a slow, consistent, and regulated evolution the proofs of apervading and developing intelligence, and the proofs of a coordinatingand combining intelligence, are both untouched, nor can any conceivableprogress of science in this direction destroy them if the famoussuggestion, that all animal and vegetable life results from a singlevital germ, and that all the different animals and plants now existentwere developed by a natural process of evolution from that germ, werea demonstrated truth, we should still be able to point to the evidenceof intelligence displayed in the measured and progressive development, in those exquisite forms so different from what blind chance couldproduce, and in the manifest adaptation of surrounding circumstancesto the living creature, and of the living creature to surroundingcircumstances the argument from design would indeed be changed. Itwould require to be stated in a new form, but it would be fully ascogent as before indeed, it is, perhaps, not too much to say that themore fully this conception of universal evolution is grasped, the morefirmly a scientific doctrine of providence will be established, and thestronger will be the presumption of a future progress ”1 1 “history of the rise and influence of the spirit of rationalism in europe, ” vol i , chapter iii , pages 294-295 compare also magnus, “medicine and religion, ” page 24, sqq in such a manner, despite the fact that in teleology the point ofagreement between theistic and physico-mechanical medical thought hasbeen now found, theism, in the course of the history of our science, continually attempted new attacks upon the physical tendency inmedicine. And with each assault superstition in medicine, as well as inthe natural sciences, was most palpably exposed after having satisfied ourselves in this second chapter regardingtheism and its attitude with reference to the physico-mechanical theoryof life, we shall now enter upon the consideration of the variousforms of medical superstition, and it is our intention, as stated inthe first chapter, so to arrange the enormous material at hand as todiscuss medical superstition according to the sources from which it hassprung we shall begin by pointing out the intimate relations whichhave prevailed between the teachings of religion and superstition iiireligion the support of medical superstitionreligion undoubtedly plays the most conspicuous writing in the historyof medical superstition religious teaching, of whatever character, has fostered medical superstition more than any other factor ofcivilization not only has religion called forth and nourished medicalsuperstition, but it has also defended it with all the influence at itsdisposal indeed, it has not infrequently happened that those who werereluctant to believe in the blessings of a medical theory ridiculouslyperverted by religion were exposed to persecution by fire and sword and this not only from one or other religious denomination, for allreligious believers, without exception, had proved to be the mostassiduous promotors of medical superstition. So that we are probablynot wrong in designating priesthoods in general, whatever their creed, as the most prominent embodiment of medical superstition during certainperiods of the world history but the details will be learned fromthe following paragraphs:§ 1 priesthood the support of medical superstition - the principalreason for a not quite reputable activity in the chosen representativeof a deity is probably the fact that, with the appearance of aphysico-mechanical contemplation of the world, the theistic theory oflife, which until then had exclusive sway, was forced into a pitchedbattle with a newly formulated definition of nature this struggle wascarried on principally by the priesthood, who, as a matter of fact, had most to lose from the ascendency of a new theory of life whichonly reckoned with natural factors they indeed had been the means, until then, of procuring for the people the assistance of the godsin all bodily ailments, as they had been the exclusive depositoriesof physical knowledge and it could scarcely be expected that thepriesthood would at once willingly relinquish the extensive supremacyhitherto exercised by it as the oracle of divine guidance in allmedico-physical questions. For humanity has always considered thepossession of authority much more delightful than submission, and theruler has always objected most energetically to any attempt whichdisputes his rule this was precisely what was done by priests of allcreeds when the mechanico-physical theory of life began to supersedethe obsolete dreams of theistic medicine fair-minded persons willsurely allow that such action was natural but they can not approve ofthe methods resorted to, unless they belong to those who feel boundalways to discern nothing but what is sacred in every action of aservant of heaven in order to wage war most effectively against the physico-mechanicaltheory of life, the priesthood at once claimed for themselves the powerof completely controlling nature they made the people believe thatthe celestials had bestowed upon them the faculty of dominating naturein the interests of the sick, and that all powers of the universe, theobvious ones as well as those mysteriously hidden in the depths ofnature, were obedient to sacerdotal suggestions the servant of heavenprofessed that he could regulate the eternal processes of matter, withits becoming, being, and passing away, quite as irresistibly as his eyewas able to survey the course of time in the past, present, and future equipped with these extensive powers, a priest necessarily appearedto the people not only as physician, but also as a miraculous beingcrowned with the halo of the supernatural and this was the rôle heactually played in thesis ancient religions with the peoples of italythe priest appeared at a period, indeed, which was previous to thebeginning of rome as physician, prophet, interpreter of dreams, raiser of tempests, etc he held exactly the same offices among theceltic tribes in gaul and britain his position was the same in theoriental world, and by the medians and the persians especially werepriests considered to be persons endowed with supernatural powers we may notice that members of a certain median tribe formed thesacerdotal caste, and bore the name of “magi ” however, this name, which originally was confined to the priestly order, obtained, in thecourse of time, a distinctly secular meaning very soon thesis cunningfellows arrived at the conclusion that the trade of a sacerdotalphysician and conjurer might bring a profitable livelihood to itsprofessor, even if this professor were not a priest but a layman thusthere arose a special profession of sorcerers, miracle workers, andmedicine-men, who protested with solemn emphasis that they were ableto cure all physical as well as psychical ailments of their fellowmen as thoroughly as the priests had done but in order to bestowthe required consecration upon this art, these gentlemen usurped thevenerable name of the above-mentioned median sacerdotal caste andcalled themselves “magi ” thus it happened that the name “magus” magician, which originally served to designate a distinct sacerdotalcaste, deteriorated into a designation of charlatans and swindlers this could never have occurred unless the priests had prostituted theirsublime profession and degraded it to various kinds of discreditablemedico-physical deceptions this alone is why priesthood is responsiblefor the rise of the magicians, of these worthless fakirs but if pliny book 30, chapter i , § 2 attempts to rank magic as an offshoot ofmedicine, he is justified in doing so only in so far as the priest, during the theistic period, was also the physician, as is well known only from this point of view is it possible to trace a genetic relationbetween medicine and magic but medicine in itself has not takenthe slightest writing in the promotion of magic and the success of itsunsavory reputation indeed, our science has suffered too much throughthe practise of magic to burden itself with the paternity of thisdisreputable child of civilization it appears that the name of the celtic priests “druids” had becomesubject to the same abuse as the name of the median priests ofsacerdotal caste thus we learn of female fortune-tellers of thethird century, a d , who call themselves “druidesses ” but it seemsthat this application of the word “druid” has remained a localone and strictly limited, whereas the expression “magician, ” quitegenerally employed, became, in the course of time, the designation ofcharlatans and medical impostors for these swindlers, who carried onmedico-physical hocuspocus, and who claimed to exercise supernaturalpowers, were called “magicians” during the entire period of classicantiquity, and we find the same use of the word in the middle ages, andessaytimes also in more modern times but this profession of magician, which sprang from priesthood, haslargely promoted superstition in medicine, and was writingicularlyinstrumental in bringing it into extraordinary repute it is ourintention to concern ourselves a little more minutely with magiciansand magic §2 the spread of the word “magic ” how and when magic wastransplanted from its oriental home to the occident can not bedetermined with certainty.