Extended Essay Ib

essay day essay dentistor physician is going to investigate and find that this awe-inspiring, polysyllabic example of exuberant verbosity means nothing moremysterious than our old friends acetphenetidin phenacetin extended essay ib andcaffein in the meantime, the exploiters may smile softly and murmur, “barnum was right!. ”-- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 1, 1921 the pharmacopeia the ninth decennial revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia became officialthis week, sept 1, 1916 it is more fully reviewed elsewhere;303here we desire merely to call attention to two points. What the bookis and what it is not it is a book of standards for drugs. It isnot a book of standard remedies the committee of revision of thepharmacopeia included physicians and pharmacists retail, wholesaleand manufacturing, but the pharmacists were in the majority andin control the majority of the representatives of the medicalprofession on this committee would have preferred to see the bulkof the pharmacopeia reduced and its value as a work of referenceenhanced by the rejection of therapeutically worthless drugs therepresentatives of commercial interests, on the other hand, argued thatit was necessary for the pharmacopeia to provide standards for drugsin more or less general use, whether worthless or otherwise the forceof this argument is essaywhat impaired by the fact that the nationalformulary, which has also been made a book of legal standards, nowincludes individual drugs as well as combinations. The new edition ofthe formulary, in fact, contains a large number of drugs which had beendropped from the u s pharmacopeia viii the principle of making usethe sole criterion for admission to the pharmacopeia, however, on thewhole carried the day it has not been strictly observed. Good resultsfrom the efforts of the medical contingent are to be observed here andthere, as in the deletion of elixir of the phosphates of iron, quininand strychnin and of emulsion of cod liver oil with hypophosphites that these instances were not expressions of policy on the writing of thecommittee on revision, but merely deviations from policy, may be seenby a glance at the contents of the new pharmacopeia these includesubstances which have been shown to be inert, like the hypophosphites calcium, potassium and sodium hypophosphites, complex and obsoletemixtures, like the compound syrup of sarsaparilla, and drugs whichhave been tried and found wanting, like saw palmetto berries evensubstances seldom used by the medical profession, but chiefly oraltogether by the public, like sassafras, hops and peppermint theherb, are standardized and made official it seems difficult todiscover any principle by which the sphere of the pharmacopeia may bedefinitely marked off from that of the national formulary there isone great advantage in specifying u s p drugs and preparations:physicians who do so invoke legal standards of purity and identity theonly way to be sure of obtaining substances of therapeutic efficiency, however, is to exercise discrimination the pharmacopeia is no guide being prepared mainly by pharmacists to meet the needs of pharmacists, the pharmacopeia of course contains much matter of little interest tophysicians and entirely foreign to scientific medicine -- editorialfrom the journal a m a , sept 2, 1916 303 j a m a 67:764 sept 2 1916 review of ninth revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia, which has beenin the hands of the committee of revision for more than six years, hasjust appeared as was to be expected, the desire of medical men on thecommittee of revision to have therapeutic value made a requirement foradmission to the pharmacopeia has not been fully realized. It remainsa book of standards for therapeutically good, bad and indifferentremedies among the drugs of little or no therapeutic importanceor value are musk, arnica, eriodictyon, quassia, pumpkin seed, sawpalmetto berries, sarsaparilla and couch grass thesis superfluousdrugs and preparations are included for instance, of the nine formsof quinin described quinin alkaloid, bisulphate, dihydrochlorid, hydrobromid, hydrochlorid, salicylate, sulphate and tannate, and quininand urea hydrochlorid, at least four might well have been eliminated two insoluble forms the alkaloid and the tannate, two soluble forms the hydrochlorid and quinin and urea hydrochlorid, and a moderatelysoluble form the sulphate are all that could reasonably be demandedby even the most extreme writingisans of the doctrine of “pharmaceuticnecessity ” further, the use of quinin salicylate for its salicylicacid content and of quinin hydrobromid for its bromid content isunscientific the inclusion of these salts in the pharmacopeia isregrettable those interested in the promotion of rational therapy will also regretthe inclusion of a number of fluidextracts of violently toxic drugs, such as aconite and gelsemium dose 1/2 minim each, belladonna root, digitalis, nux vomica and ipecac dose 1 minim each, and lobelia dose2-1/2 minims the more diluted forms, the tinctures, of these drugsare preferable the inclusion of such fluidextracts in the pharmacopeiais playing into the hands of certain pharmaceutical manufacturers, whorecommend the tincture be prepared from fluidextracts-- an unscientificprocedure the efforts of the medical members of the committee, however, havenot been entirely fruitless of the articles described in the u s pharmacopeia viii, 243 have been deleted. Sixty-seven new articles havebeen added the loss of 167 titles may be set down as a gain moreover, most of the new substances give promise of therapeutic usefulness thirty-six are taken over from new and nonofficial remedies. Nineteenare substances which are in the edition of useful drugs now in thepress it cannot be said, however. That all of the additions have beenjudiciously selected it is an infelicitous time to add calcium andsodium glycerophosphate just when grave doubts of their therapeuticefficiency are being felt the addition of the extracts of aconite, hydrastis and viburnum prunifolium is likewise unfortunate all aresuperfluous preparations, the first because a drug so powerful thatan average dose of the extract is only 10 mg or 1/6 grain is bettergiven in the form of tincture.

The face and head become bloated and puffy, the tongue and eyes protrude ”bloody froth is essaytimes seen at the nose and mouth saliva is invariably secreted and runs out of the mouth down on thechin and chest its presence is considered as evidence that suspensionoccurred during life the urine and fæces are essaytimes found to havebeen expelled these discharges occur in all kinds of violent death tardieu found them, however, but extended essay ib twice in 41 paper of hanging roth in49 paper found discharges of fæces in 17 and urine in 4. In 15 papernot noticed harvey mentions a case where internal piles had burst, and there werestains and clots of blood about the perineum and anus in such paperwithout careful examination there would naturally be a suspicion ofviolence in about one-fourth of the paper the genital organs are congested the penis is large and more or less erect. Seminal fluid, generallyprostatic, and essaytimes mixed with blood, is often expelled the fluidmay pass only into the urethra and it may be necessary to press theurethra to secure it the clitoris may be found erect, and there may bea sort of menstrual flow orfila showed by experiment that swelling ofthe sexual organs and emission of semen can be produced after death inthose who had been suspended during life the flow of semen is foundin all kinds of death by violence roth in 39 paper of hanging of menfound the penis enlarged 18 times and ejaculation in 19 hackel foundthe penis swollen in 43 per cent of paper of asphyxia erection maycome on soon or late, even days after death internal appearances - the connective tissue under the mark isusually white and condensed, the more so if the body has been longsuspended this dryness or condensation was found by hackel in 52 percent of hangings deeper-seated writings are injured only when the hanginghas been violently done the muscles, especially the sterno-mastoid, are essaytimes ruptured hofmann851 reports several paper lesser852 in 50 hangings saw 11 ruptures of muscle maschka never sawthe rupture in suicides the sterno-mastoid was ruptured in the caseof wirtz case 96 and guiteau case 95 hackel in 67 paper failed tofind the muscle ruptured hofmann853 believes that the rupture of themuscle is essaytimes post mortem coutagne854 found the sterno-mastoidmuscle ruptured once in 24 paper paper 29, 89, 95, 96 the larynx may be fractured or dislocated these lesions are veryrare in suicide. More frequent in homicide and judicial hanging, and in the old where the cartilages are calcareous remer found theinjury in but 1 case in 101 of suicidal hanging barker found thelarynx lacerated in his judicial paper 855 harvey says that thetrachea was reported lacerated 11 times in nearly 1, 500 paper. Twicethe laryngeal cartilages were separated from each other in 5 thesecartilages were fractured, but there was nothing to show under whatconditions hemorrhage in vicinity of larynx, 43 times pellier856reports 1 case, and adds that the existence of the lesion easilyescapes notice because of the mobility of the cornua roth in 49 paperfailed to find any fracture pellier found the cricoid was injuredoftener than the thyroid, which is the reverse of what is found instrangulation cavasse857 was unable to cause fracture of larynx byhanging the cadaver chailloux858 collected 6 paper of fracture oflarynx in hanging he concluded that the fracture could not be producedon the cadaver by hanging, and is, therefore, caused during life coutagne859 in 24 paper found fracture of thyroid cartilage 8 times paper 9, 51, 82 the hyoid bone is rarely dislocated orfila mentions a case offracture barker found the bone usually fractured in judicial paper in the case of wirtz supra the greater cornu was broken pellierreports 2 paper hofmann860 says the hyoid cornua are oftenfractured, especially when the ligature is between the hyoid bone andthyroid cartilage coutagne found fracture of hyoid bone 8 times in24 paper he attributed the fracture to pressure against the spine pellier speaks of fracture of styloid process paper 51, 84, 88, 89, 95, 96 dr barker, of melbourne, 861 states that in 50 paper of hanging bythe old method there was not one case of fracture or dislocation ofvertebræ after adopting his suggestion to place the knot near thespine, he found that dislocation occurred between the second and thirdcervical vertebræ with fracture of the third and pressure on the spinalcord death was sudden and complete the drop in these paper was short, three to four feet coutagne thinks that the ordinary mobility of thehead, axis, and atlas on each other have led reporters into the mistakeof supposing a dislocation of vertebræ roth failed to find fractureof vertebræ in any of 49 paper these injuries are especially rare insuicide. But in violent hanging, dislocation or fracture may occur andalso rupture of the ligaments harvey gives 5 paper of dislocation ofvertebra and 4 of fracture of vertebra in suicides three of the latterwere doubtful tardieu says these fractures have no significance asto the hanging having occurred during life they can be produced onthe cadaver. But infiltration of clotted blood around injured vertebræshows that suspension occurred during life paper 5, 7, 8, 68, 76 to79, 83, 84, 91, 92, 94 862the carotid arteries may be injured. Usually the inner and middlecoats are torn. And hemorrhage may occur into the wall of the vessel the common carotids are the ones usually affected, and just belowthe bifurcation, but the external is also occasionally injured theinjury is said to be due to the stretching and squeezing of the artery, stretching being the most effective since the rupture often occurs ata distance from the mark of the ligature such injury of the arterydoes not prove that hanging took place during life because it has beenproduced on the cadaver. But hemorrhage into the wall of the vesselor wound or rupture after death is very improbable maschka says thelesion is very rare tardieu says that the injury to the carotid israre and therefore unimportant pellier reports 4 paper of rupture ofcarotid in a total of 23 levy records the experiments of hofmann, ofvienna, and brouardel and himself, of paris, 5 in number he concludedthat compression of the carotid arteries, if it produces obliteration, can cause rapid loss of consciousness and death. And explains why inincomplete suicide the subject is unable to help himself coutagnefound rupture of carotids 10 times in 24 paper he insists on theimportance of the lesion hofmann863 says the rupture is always transverse, may be simple or multiple and may occur in suicides. More apt to occur when the ligature is thin lesser864 tabulated 50 fatal paper of suicidal hanging. In 29, he was satisfied that the hanging occurred during life in 3 of these the skin of the neck alone showed any lesion. There was a double mark, the skin being otherwise bloodless in 5 the deeper soft writings were the only ones affected in 3 the skin showed lesions, the deeper soft writings none, but either the hyoid bone, larynx, or vertebræ were involved in 12 the skin showed no mark, but the deeper soft writings and either the larynx or hyoid bone were involved.

“while scientists have been striving through the centuries to compound remedies for man various ills, nature, greatest chemist of them all, has been working wonders in her crucibles and has achieved results far beyond man greatest expectation ” “nature chief handicap has been the difficulty of placing her gifts in the hands of those whom she would benefit by accident or fate, as you will, one of nature greatest medicinal products has just been discovered it is the mineral given the name of akoz by john d mackenzie, president and manager of the natura company of san francisco, which is now giving this rare remedy of nature to the public ”the circular then describes how the power of the “rare remedy” to curerheumatism is claimed to have been discovered and asserts that. “akoz was subjected to every known scientific test before being presented to the public it was practically determined that the ore contained a new element having radium-like qualities but containing nothing poisonous or harmful ” “after the curative virtues of akoz for rheumatism, stomach trouble, eczema, catarrh, piles, ulcers and numerous other ailments had been fully established in chemical laboratory, hospital clinic, and the private practice of physicians in various writings of the world, mr mackenzie effected the organization of the natura company ”this product, put up in the form of “akoz medicinal mineral water, akozointment, akoz powder and akoz suppositories, ” was submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry for consideration essay years ago withthe claims that “akoz” itself consists essentially of zinc sulphid, barium sulphate and aluminum oxid the submitted analysis did notdeclare the presence of lead or of uranium though “special tests” forthe latter had been “run ” without checking the claimed composition, the council at that time refused recognition to akoz because therewas no evidence submitted for the very extravagant and altogetherimprobable therapeutic claims after the council had concluded the consideration of akoz a letterwas received from a california physician stating that according to ananalysis submitted to him akoz contained 0 34 per cent of lead in theform of lead sulphate the correspondent held that, while the leadsulphate did not pass into solution, persons drinking the supernatantliquid from akoz the “medicinal mineral water” is made by adding akozto ordinary water might inadvertently swallow essay of the powder hewas inclined to believe that this might account for a case of leadpoisoning which had been observed in a patient who had been taking akoz inasmuch as it has been demonstrated by carlson and woelfel carlson, a j , and woelfel, a. Solubility of lead sulphate and basic leadcarbonate in human gastric juice in hygiene of the paintertrade by alice hamilton, bull of u s bureau of labor statisticsno 120, may 13, 1913, pp 22-32 that even small quantities of leadsulphate when taken into the system for a long time, have produced leadpoisoning, the laboratory deemed it important that the products beexamined for lead a specimen of “akoz powder” submitted to the council by the naturacompany and contained in a sifter-top can was taken for analysis thecontents of the can were thoroughly mixed to determine the presence oflead essay of the powder was extracted with ammonium acetate solution details of analysisqualitative tests showed the presence of lead and sulphate in theammonium acetate solution the presence of lead was demonstrated by the black precipitate withhydrogen sulphid, the yellow precipitate with potassium chromate andthe typical yellowish crystalline precipitate with potassium iodin the presence of sulphates in the ammonium acetate solution was shown bythe formation of a precipitate with barium chlorid solution and aceticacid two 2 gm samples a and b were taken for the quantitativedetermination of lead each was treated repeatedly with a saturatedsolution of ammonium acetate until the filtered ammonium acetatesolution gave no appreciable precipitate with potassium chromatesolution the ammonium acetate extractions from each specimen werecombined and treated with hydrogen sulphid, the precipitated leadsulphid filtered off and washed, and ignited with sulphuric acid at alow heat the crucible with the residue of lead sulphate was cooled andweighed a yielded 0 0469 gm , or 2 34 per cent , lead sulphate b yielded 0 0440 gm , or 2 20 per cent , lead sulphate while the laboratory has no evidence to show that the amount oflead-sulphate thus found to be present is likely to prove harmful, thefollowing cautionary letter was sent to the natura company. “according to information which you sent to the council on pharmacy and chemistry your product “akoz” does not contain lead in view of reports received ascribing symptoms, resulting from the internal use of akoz, to chronic lead poisoning, an examination of a specimen of akoz powder, which you sent to the council, was made this examination indicates the presence in akoz powder of about 2 2 per cent lead sulphate in view of the disastrous results likely to follow the internal use of products containing even small amounts of lead, the above is submitted to you for your consideration ”no reply to the foregoing was received from the natura company -- fromreports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 103 sodium acetate in warming bottlesrecently the laboratory attention was called to the “thermorwaterless hot bottle, ” manufactured by the royal thermophor salesco , new york the following claims appear in one of the advertisingpamphlets. “there is moist heat ” “rubber hot-water ?. ?. ?. naturally give a moist heat ” it thermor gives a dry heat “the ‘thermor’ bottle is not a hot-water bottle-- it acts on a principle that is entirely different and new ” “ gives you first, last and all the time a fixed degree of dry usable heat-- a heat that holds steadily at 125 degrees for fully twelve hours-- you will easily see why it is that ‘thermor’ relieves and cures where hot-water bottles fail ”the bottle was nickel plated, 8-3/8 inches in diameter and 1-1/2 inchesthick, and in appearance resembled an exaggerated closed ingersollwatch the bottle is not flexible and weighs 3-1/2 pounds the contentsconsisted essentially of sodium acetate this salt melts when heated when it cools the temperature inside the bottle is relativelyconstant, as it will remain at the “freezing point” until all ofthe sodium acetate has solidified the duration of the time that itremains warm when well wrapped is simply in inverse proportion to theconductivity of the surrounding environment when two ordinary towelswere carefully arranged about it, the air between the bottle and thewrappings was maintained at a temperature of 40-50 c 104-122 f fora period of eight hours the company implication that the heat given out by the thermorbottle differs from that given out by an ordinary hot-water bottle isan absurdity the use of sodium acetate in the preparation of warmingbottles has been in practice thesis years, and is not “a principle thatis entirely different and new ” furthermore, the therapeutic claimsare extravagant -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 105 anti-syphilitic compound sweenya specimen of anti-syphilitic compound sweeny, sold by the nationallaboratories of pittsburgh, was received from a physician the package 1 ounce size has been opened by the sender and about three fourths ofthe contents removed from the rather indefinite statements in the literature of themanufacturer it is gathered that the preparation is claimed to be a“sterile, oily emulsion” which contains 1/20 grain of mercuric benzoatein each 5 minims, together with essay sodium chlorid according toinformation furnished by the laboratory correspondent, the priceasked for the preparation is $15 an ounce the quantity of the preparation received was too small to permit acomplete examination, but, from the tests which it was possible tomake, the preparation appears to be an aqueous solution containingessay suspended matter and small quantities of mercuric benzoateand a chlorid, presumably sodium chlorid there was no evidence ofthe presence of an “oily emulsion ” quantitative tests indicatedthe presence of a mercuric salt, equivalent to about 0 2783 gm ofcrystallized mercuric benzoate per 100 c c this corresponds to about0 00086 gm in each 5 minims, or about 26 5 per cent of the amountclaimed -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 106 “ambrine” and paraffin filmsf paul nicholas leech, ph d f contribution from the chemical laboratory of the american medicalassociation in the last year or so, the hot-wax or paraffin treatment of burns hasbeen widely discussed both in medical and lay periodicals although thetreatment is simply a modification of the well-known use of oil andointments, it has received unusual attention, owing to the widespreadsensationalism following the exploitation in france of a secret andtherefore mysterious mixture, “ambrine, ” the formula of dr barthe desandfort owing to this publicity, it seemed desirable to investigatethe chemical composition, and to compare its physical properties withother waxlike substances “ambrine” is promoted as a dressing for burns, frostbites, neuritis, varicose ulcers, phlebitis, neuralgia, rheumatism, sciatica, gout, etc it is a smoky-appearing substance, resembling paraffin in consistencyand without odor for application, “ambrine” is melted and applied tothe wound either with a brush or with a specially devised atomizer itcools quickly, and leaves a solid, protecting film illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | hyperthermality a reality | | | | hyperthermality is a fact, however, through the | | agency of a keri-resinous product which has been | | used in france since 1900 under the name of | | l’ambrine hyperthermine, as the remedial agent | | will be known in this country, is a combination | | of several kinds of waxes and resins, scientific- | | ally blended and containing no medicinal elements | | whatever it comes in the form of waxy flakes it | | melts at 124° and on cooling resembles a dark | | colored wax | | | | hyperthermine is the discovery of dr barthe de | | sandfort, an eminent retired french naval surgeon | | and a member of numerous foreign medical societies | | he | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - “ambrine” has been exploited in the united states for essay time to physicians it was sold under the name “hyperthermine ” above isa photographic reproduction reduced of a portion of a bookletdescribing “hyperthermine, ” which has been in the journal office foressay years illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | hyperthermine field | | | | hyperthermine can be used in practically all in- | | flammatory conditions during the past ten years, | | under the name of l’ambrine, our product has been | | widely used in the hospitals in france, as well as | | in private practice, and we have very thesis clinical | | reports on a variety of subjects its greatest use | | has been in such conditions as sciatica, lumbago, | | articular and muscular rheumatism, gout, arthritis, | | burns of all degrees, pneumonia, bronchitis, orchit-| | is, buboes, soft chancres, peritonitis, dysmenor- | | rhea, adenitis, mastitis, periostitis, synovitis, | | conjunctivitis, iritis, irido-choroiditis, abscess- | | es, bruises, furuncles, whitlow, paronychia, car- | | buncles, moist eczema and similar dermatological | | affections, and varicose and tubercular ulcers | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - photographic reproduction reduced from the “hyperthermine” “ambrine” booklet recommending it for use in rheumatism, gout, pneumonia, buboes, dysmenorrhea, eczema, tuberculous ulcers, etc it is said that de sandfort “stumbled on this treatment byaccident ”165 being a sufferer from rheumatism, he had been benefitedby hot mud baths. On returning home he sought a substitute, and finallymade a mixture of paraffin, oil of amber and amber resin this wasapplied hot, serving as a firm poultice “years later, he went onservice to a railway in china and was in yunnan at the time of theincendiary insurrection, and thesis badly burned chinese were broughtin for treatment remembering that ambroise paré treated such paperwith hot oil, he tried the effect of covering the burn with his meltedambrine, which at once glazes over, forming a coat impervious to theair, and his patients ceased to suffer ”166165 the outlook, jan 17, 1917, p 100 166 med rec , new york, jan 27, 1917, p 160 “ambrine” has been sold in america under two names. “hyperthermine, ” asexploited to physicians, and “thermozine, ” as advertised to the public physical comparison alone shows that ambrine as now sold differsfrom “hyperthermine” of a few years ago. The probable reason is that“ambrine” has changed its formula this is borne out by matas, 167who states that de sandfort “admitted that ambrine was a compound ofparaffin, oil of sesame and resins, but was not at liberty to divulgeits exact composition, as the formula and manufacture of this substancewas now the property of a private corporation, which was exploiting itas a proprietary and secret remedy ” the later formula differs from theoriginal 167 matas, rudolph. Burns treated with paraffin mixtures, new orleansmed and surg jour , april, 1917, p 681 besides the foregoing paraffin preparations, two others have recentlybeen placed on the american market, “parresine” nonsecret and“mulene” secret analysis of ambrine“ambrine” comes in rectangular cakes, about 1-1/2 inches wide, 6inches long and 1/2 inch thick it is moderately soft, but essaywhatbrittle at ordinary room temperature a black substance is present, which evidently settles out during the compounding, as in one side ofthe cake these writingicles can be clearly discerned by holding it up tothe light. In the other side there are no suspended writingicles whenmelted, the solution is not clear, and a sediment forms the meltingpoint u s p method. See later is 48 4 c the plasticity andductility168 are 27 and 30 5, respectively it is pliable and strongat body temperature the saponification number and acid number are bothvery low, but a fatty oil is present tests indicated oil of sesame ninety-eight per cent of “ambrine” is soluble in ether.

“just received a letter from a dr l d rogers, 2812 north clark st , who is anxious to sell me a course in ‘auto-hemic therapy ’ would you kindly inform me extended essay ib what he has to sell?. he did not tell me what it consisted of. Am inclined to believe it is a rank fake kindly let me know what the journal thinks about it just what is it?. in the letter they claim that it is practically a panacea for every blood disease ”this from maine.

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Professor of criminal law and medical jurisprudence extended essay ib in the law dewritingment of the university of buffalo. Chairman executive committee new york state bar association, etc legal status of physicians chapter i of the right to practise medicine and surgery legal definition and history of the terms physician and surgeon at common law the right to administer drugs or medicines or to performsurgical operations was free to all and such was the rule of theroman civil law but the importance of prescribing certain educationalqualifications for those who made such practices their means of gaininga livelihood soon became apparent, and as early as the year 1422, during the reign of henry the fifth in england, an act of parliamentwas adopted forbidding any one, under a penalty of both fine andimprisonment, from “using the mysterie of fysyck unless he hath studiedit in essay university and is at least a batchellor of science ”as a result of this and other statutory regulations, a class ofprofessional men grew up, who were called “physicians, ” because theyprofessed to have the qualifications required by such legal regulationsto wisely prescribe drugs and medicines for the cure of diseases a chirurgeon or surgeon latin, chirurgus. Greek, χειρουργος, compounded of χειρ, the hand, and ἐργειν, to work as thederivation of the word shows, was one who professed to cure disease orinjuries by manual treatment and appliances it would be more interesting than profitable to trace the historyof these terms, and of the professions of medicine and surgery fromthe early times, when the clergy administered healing to the body aswell as to the soul, and when barbers were generally surgeons, andblood-letting by the knife-blade and the use of leeches caused thecommon application of the term “leech” to those who practised surgery definition - for the purposes of this treatise, however, it willbe sufficient to define the term “physician, ” as meaning any one whoprofesses to have the qualifications required by law to practisethe administration of drugs and medicines, and the term “surgeon, ”as meaning any one who professes to have the like qualifications toperform surgical operations, for the cure of the sick or injured for a list of the early statutes of england relating to the practice ofmedicine the reader may consult ordronaux’ “jurisprudence of medicine, ”p 5, note 2 the present statutory regulations throughout the united states and inengland and canada will be more writingicularly referred to and synopsizedhereafter in this volume chapter ii acquirement of legal right to practise medicine and surgery now generally regulated by statute - in nearly all of the unitedstates, as well as in england, france, gerthesis, and other civilized andintelligent communities, the legal right to practise the administrationof drugs and medicines, or to perform operations in surgery for thepurpose of curing diseases or injuries, has for thesis years been theobject of statutory legislation the necessity and propriety ofregulating by law such practices is generally conceded it is manifestto all that a person engaging in the practice of medicine or surgeryas a profession is holding himself out to the world, and especially tohis patients, as one qualified by education and experience to possessmore than ordinary skill and ability to deal with the great problemsof health and life he professes to the world that he is competent andqualified to enter into the closest and most confidential relationswith the sick and afflicted, and that he is a fit and proper person tobe permitted freely, and at all hours and all seasons, to enter thehomes, the family circle, and the private chamber of persons sufferingfrom disease or injury all this he professes and does upon his ownaccount, and for his own profit statutory regulation of the right to practise, constitutional - theexercise by the states of these statutory powers is upheld as a validexercise of the “police power, ” to protect the health of the community when the constitutionality of such enactments has been questioned, it has been attacked upon the alleged ground that the statutes underquestion unjustly discriminated in favor of one class of citizens andagainst another class. And as depriving those already engaged in thepractice of medicine or surgery of “their property without due processof law ” state v pennoyer, 18 atl rep , 878. Ex writinge spinney, 10 nev , 323. People v fulda, 52 hun n y , 65-67. Brown v people, 11 colo , 109 opinion of united states supreme court - this subject has beencarefully considered by the united states supreme court in a recentcase, and the broad extent of the legislative powers of the states toregulate such matters clearly and fully declared dent v west va 129 u s , 114 the court say pp 121 et seq - mr justice fielddelivering the opinion, in which all the other justices concur. “theunconstitutionality asserted consists in its the statutes allegedconflict with the clause of the fourteenth amendment, which declaresthat no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. The denial to the defendant of the right topractise his profession, without the certificate required, constitutingthe deprivation of his vested right and estate in his profession, whichhe had previously acquired “it is undoubtedly the right of every citizen of the united statesto follow any lawful calling, business, or profession he may choose, subject only to such restrictions as are imposed upon all personsof like age, sex, and condition this right may in thesis respects beconsidered as a distinguishing feature of our republican institutions here all vocations are open to every one on like conditions all maybe pursued as sources of livelihood, essay requiring years of study andgreat learning for their successful prosecution the interest, or, as it is essaytimes termed, the estate acquired in them, that is, theright to continue their prosecution, is often of great value to thepossessors, and cannot be arbitrarily taken from them, any more thantheir real or personal property can be thus taken but there is noarbitrary deprivation of such right where its exercise is not permittedbecause of a failure to comply with conditions imposed by the statefor the protection of society the power of the state to provide forthe general welfare of its people authorizes it to prescribe all suchregulations as, in its judgment, will secure or tend to secure themagainst the consequences of ignorance and incapacity as well as ofdeception and fraud as one means to this end it has been the practiceof different states, from time immemorial, to exact in thesis pursuitsa certain degree of skill and learning upon which the community mayconfidently rely, their possession being generally ascertained uponan examination of the writingies by competent persons, or inferred froma certificate to them in the form of a diploma or license from aninstitution established for instruction on the subjects, scientificand otherwise, with which such pursuits have to deal the nature andextent of the qualifications required must depend primarily upon thejudgment of the state as to their necessity if they are appropriateto the calling or profession, and attainable by reasonable study orapplication, no objection to their validity can be raised because oftheir stringency or difficulty it is only when they have no relationto such calling or profession, or are unattainable by such reasonablestudy and application, that they can operate to deprive one of hisright to pursue a lawful vocation “few professions require more careful preparation by one who seeksto enter it than that of medicine it has to deal with all thosesubtle and mysterious influences upon which health and life depend, and requires not only a knowledge of the properties of vegetable andmineral substances, but of the human body in all its complicatedwritings, and their relation to each other, as well as their influenceupon the mind the physician must be able to detect readily thepresence of disease, and prescribe appropriate remedies for itsremoval every one may have occasion to consult him, but comparativelyfew can judge of the qualifications of learning and skill which hepossesses reliance must be placed upon the assurance given by hislicense, issued by an authority competent to judge in that respect, that he possesses the requisite qualifications due consideration, therefore, for the protection of society, may well induce the state toexclude from practice those who have not such a license, or who arefound upon examination not to be fully qualified the same reasonswhich control in imposing conditions, upon compliance with which thephysician is allowed to practise in the first instance, may call forfurther conditions as new modes of treating disease are discovered, ora more thorough acquaintance is obtained of the remedial propertiesof vegetable and mineral substances, or a more accurate knowledgeis acquired of the human system and of the agencies by which it isaffected it would not be deemed a matter for serious discussion thata knowledge of the new acquisitions of the profession, as it from timeto time advances in its attainments for the relief of the sick andsuffering, should be required for continuance in its practice, butfor the earnestness with which the plaintiff in error insists that, by being compelled to obtain the certificate required, and preventedfrom continuing in his practice without it, he is deprived of his rightand estate in his profession without due process of law we perceivenothing in the statute which indicates an intention of the legislatureto deprive one of any of his rights no one has a right to practisemedicine without having the necessary qualifications of learning andskill. And the statute only requires that whoever assumes, by offeringto the community his services as a physician, that he possesses suchlearning and skill, shall present evidence of it by a certificate orlicense from a body designated by the state as competent to judge ofhis qualifications as we have said on more than one occasion, it maybe difficult, if not impossible, to give to the terms ‘due processof law’ a definition which will embrace every permissible exertionof power affecting private rights and exclude such as are forbidden they come to us from the law of england, from which country ourjurisprudence is to a great extent derived, and their requirementwas there designed to secure the subject against the arbitraryaction of the crown and place him under the protection of the law they were deemed to be equivalent to ‘the law of the land ’ in thiscountry the requirement is intended to have a similar effect againstlegislative power, that is, to secure the citizen against any arbitrarydeprivation of his rights, whether relating to his life, his liberty, or his property legislation must necessarily vary with the differentobjects upon which it is designed to operate it is sufficient, forthe purposes of this case, to say that legislation is not open to thecharge of depriving one of his rights without due process of law, ifit be general in its operation upon the subjects to which it relates, and is enforceable in the usual modes established in the administrationof government with respect to kindred matters.