History

Extended Essay Format


For humanity has always considered thepossession of authority much more delightful than submission, and theruler has always objected most energetically to any attempt whichdisputes his rule this was precisely what was done by priests of allcreeds when the mechanico-physical theory of life began to supersedethe obsolete dreams of theistic medicine fair-minded persons willsurely allow that such action was natural but they can not approve ofthe methods resorted to, unless they belong to those who feel boundalways to discern nothing but what is sacred in every action of aservant of heaven in order to wage war most effectively against the physico-mechanicaltheory of life, the priesthood at once claimed for themselves the powerof completely controlling nature they made the people believe thatthe celestials had bestowed upon them the faculty of dominating naturein the interests of the sick, and that all powers of the universe, theobvious ones as well as those mysteriously hidden in the depths ofnature, were obedient to sacerdotal suggestions the servant of heavenprofessed that he could regulate the eternal processes of matter, withits becoming, being, and passing away, quite as irresistibly as his eyewas able to survey the course of time in the past, present, and future equipped with these extensive powers, a priest necessarily appearedto the people not only as physician, but also as a miraculous beingcrowned with the halo of the supernatural and this was the rôle heactually played in thesis ancient religions with the peoples of italythe priest appeared at a period, indeed, which was previous to thebeginning of rome as physician, prophet, interpreter of dreams, raiser of tempests, etc he held exactly the same offices among theceltic tribes in gaul and britain his position was the same in theoriental world, and by the medians and the persians especially werepriests considered to be persons endowed with supernatural powers we may notice that members of a certain median tribe formed thesacerdotal caste, and bore the name of “magi ” however, this name, which originally was confined to the priestly order, obtained, in thecourse of time, a distinctly secular meaning very soon thesis cunningfellows arrived at the conclusion that the trade of a sacerdotalphysician and conjurer might bring a profitable livelihood to itsprofessor, even if this professor were not a priest but a layman thusthere arose a special profession of sorcerers, miracle workers, andmedicine-men, who protested with solemn emphasis that they were ableto cure all physical as well as psychical ailments of their fellowmen as thoroughly as the priests had done but in order to bestowthe required consecration upon this art, these gentlemen usurped thevenerable name of the above-mentioned median sacerdotal caste andcalled themselves “magi ” thus it happened that the name “magus” magician, which originally served to designate a distinct sacerdotalcaste, deteriorated into a designation of charlatans and swindlers this could never have occurred unless the priests had prostituted theirsublime profession and degraded it to various kinds of discreditablemedico-physical deceptions this alone is why priesthood is responsiblefor the rise of the magicians, of these worthless fakirs but if pliny book 30, chapter i , § 2 attempts to rank magic as an offshoot ofmedicine, he is justified in doing so only in so far as the priest, during the theistic period, was also the physician, as is well known only from this point of view is it possible to trace a genetic relationbetween medicine and magic but medicine in itself has not takenthe slightest writing in the promotion of magic and the success of itsunsavory reputation indeed, our science has suffered too much throughthe practise of magic to burden itself with the paternity of thisdisreputable child of civilization it appears that the name of the celtic priests “druids” had becomesubject to the same abuse as the name of the median priests ofsacerdotal caste thus we learn of female fortune-tellers of thethird century, a d , who call themselves “druidesses ” but it seemsthat this application of the word “druid” has remained a localone and strictly limited, whereas the expression “magician, ” quitegenerally employed, became, in the course of time, the designation ofcharlatans and medical impostors for these swindlers, who carried onmedico-physical hocuspocus, and who claimed to exercise supernaturalpowers, were called “magicians” during the entire period of classicantiquity, and we find the same use of the word in the middle ages, andessaytimes also in more modern times but this profession of magician, which sprang from priesthood, haslargely promoted superstition in medicine, and was writingicularlyinstrumental in bringing it into extraordinary repute it is ourintention to concern ourselves a little more minutely with magiciansand magic §2 the spread of the word “magic ” how and when magic wastransplanted from its oriental home to the occident can not bedetermined with certainty. For the greeks, as well as all antiquepeoples, probably all nations, had a belief in ghosts and demons, infortune-telling, and in sorcery but it appears, nevertheless, thatthe ancient civilized peoples of the orient, and writingicularly thepersians, cultivated the magic arts with especial devotion, and itis more than probable that it was from the east that the prevailingcult of magic had been imported into the west pliny, for one, tellsus book 30, chapter i , § 8 that magic was brought to europe bya certain osthanes, who accompanied king xerxes on his militaryexpedition against greece this man osthanes, as pliny reports further, is said to have disseminated the seeds of this supernatural art velutsemina artis portentosæ insparsit wherever he went, and with suchsuccess that the hellenic peoples were actually mad after it, andprominent men traveled through writings of the orient, there to acquirepersonally and thoroughly these magic arts, thus, as was the case withpythagoras, empedocles, democritus, and plato in fact, it is said ofdemocritus that he opened the tomb of a celebrated magician dardanus ofphœnicia that he might restore to publicity the mysterious writings ofthe latter it appears, moreover, that alexander the great entertainedan implicit belief in magic at least, pliny reports that during hiswars he was always accompanied by a celebrated magician magic arts were likewise in favor among the romans even nero attemptedto master the secrets of magic, altho unsuccessfully pliny, book 30, chapter ii , § 5 a writingicular impetus was given to magic toward theend of the last century before christ and during the first centuryof the christian era, when the rise of thesis fantastic philosophicalsystems greatly promoted and supported the belief in the supernaturalpowers of magic subsequently, in the middle ages, magic experienced anaccepted and systematic development these conditions, however, will bemore explicitly referred to later on the treatment of the sick through supernatural agencies assumedquite astonishing dimensions under the roman emperors the beliefin magicians was so generally disseminated that even the emperorsthemselves and the imperial authorities were almost completely devotedto it thus, for instance, the emperor hadrian 117-138, a d causedhimself to be treated by physicians who claimed miraculous powers, and he is said to have written a book on theurgy in fact, suidas 62julianus reports that hadrian, on account of a severe outbreak ofpestilence in rome, sent for the son of the chaldean, julian, who, simply by the power of his miracles, arrested the progress of thedisease under antoninus pius official proclamations were made in theforum, directing the attention of the people to the importance ofmagicians philostratus, 43, and the emperor marcus aurelius evenrelates that, when in caieta, the gods in a dream prescribed a remedyfor the hemorrhagic cough and vertigo from which he was suffering “marcus aurelius, ” chapter i , § 17, page 11 but it appears that the magicians finally went too far with theirtricks, and endangered human life by their treatment. So that severalemperors decided upon adopting more rigorous measures against theirknaveries the emperor septimius severus 193-211, altho himselforiginally devoted to magic, prohibited, when on a visit in egypt, all books which taught curious arts aelius swritingianus, “hadrianus, ”chapter xv , § 5, page 146 later the emperor diocletian tookenergetic steps toward abating the mischief done by magical treatmentof the sick, and the magicians were permitted to carry on such artsonly so far as would not be detrimental to the health of the people however, this order did not check the magicians any more than itbenefited those who were still tortured and brought to the pointof death by magic quackery neither did medical science derive anyadvantage whatever from this well-meant but completely abortive effortof the emperor, for the magic physicians persisted in carrying ontheir hocuspocus, and unconcernedly debased the pharmacopœia by theintroduction of nonsensical and loathessay substances let us examinemore in detail this dewritingment of medical practise among the magicians § 3 the medical practise of the magicians - the magicians adoptedvarious modes of procedure in the treatment of the sick. They eitherattempted, as do our modern quacks, to create the impression, byadministering medicine, that they were actually able to direct thetreatment of the ailing in a rational manner, or they restrictedthemselves to various kinds of magical observances the drug therapy of the magicians actually utilized everything underthe sun as a remedy the more out of the way and the less suitablefor a remedy a substance seemed to be, the more likely it was to bechosen by the magician intent upon healing for it was always themain object of these practising quacks to make their treatment assensational as possible in this they succeeded best by employingthe most extraordinary substances as remedies thus they made use ofgold, silver, precious stones and pearls, just because these, owing totheir value, were held in great esteem, and their medical application, therefore, was bound to create a sensation but the most loathessaysubstances were quite as readily employed, for here, too, the mostgeneral attention was bound to be attracted by their application human feces, urine, and menstrual blood were introduced into themateria medica in such a manner the awe with which writings of corpsesusually inspired the non-medical writing of the public was relied upon bythe magicians to advertise their cures thus these quacks administeredpowders of human bones to the ailing but inasmuch as what is conspicuous and unusual has always enjoyedan especial esteem with humanity, the incredible remedies of themagicians naturally found everywhere an abundance of believers. Andas writingicularly the most nonsensical theory is most tenacious oflife, provided it has been presented in apparent combination with themiraculous, the medical armamentarium rapidly took on a very peculiaraspect until the present more modern times medicine was condemnedto the encumbrance of this rubbish, this list of odd and loathessayremedies, whose admission to the pharmacopœia was only due to the whimof a human mind that constantly hankers after the extraordinary and themiraculous finally the magic observances to which the magicians resorted in thetreatment of the sick, have shown a remarkable vitality, for theyare in vogue even in modern times, and thesis sections of our peopleeven to-day swear unconditionally by the curative efficacy of variousagencies which demonstratively have been derived from the medicine ofthe magicians but now such agencies are no longer ascribed to magic orsorcery, but they are called “cures by means of sympathy ” and as thesismodern people believe that various incomprehensible mystic performancescause certain mysterious powers, otherwise absolutely unknown, toexert a curative influence upon certain diseases, so did the ancientsbelieve exactly the same this was the origin of exorcism as a remedyfor disease exorcism played a conspicuous writing in the middle ages asa means of stopping hemorrhages, and even in these modern times, as iswell-known, this method of cure finds thesis adherents this magic treatment was believed to be especially efficacious if theexorcisms had been written or engraved upon paper, gold, preciousstones, etc , in which case they were suspended around the neck ofthe patient countless talismans from the arabic tilsam, magicimage and amulets from the arabic hamalet, trinket were thusmanufactured, and even to our own time there are survivals of thismedical superstition altho these mystic observances are performed invarious ways, and their modifications are practically innumerable, yetcertain radical resemblances are continually appearing among the magicrites of the most diverse races, and essay of these practises have evenpersisted up to the present time thus the rope of the hung criminalplays a conspicuous writing in antique magic as well as in modern sympathytreatment. The same importance is attributed to shooting-stars, tothe moon, to crossroads, to certain numerals, such as 3, 7, 9, etc it is a highly interesting fact that such conceptions, as remarkablefor their therapeutical associations as for their crass superstition, are possessed of a vitality which persists for centuries peoples, religions, philosophical systems, political revolutions have risenand vanished, but the belief in the curative action of the rope of ahung criminal or the therapeutic significance of the crossroad hassurvived the mystic influence which is exerted by the numerals 3, 7, 9, and still more so by the dreadful 13, upon the life and health ofman, haunts the minds of the multitude in this century of physicalenlightenment exactly as it did in remote antiquity but we can nothere enter into the reason for these interesting facts, and we mustrefer those who desire more detailed information on this subject to thevoluminous literature of superstition furthermore, the belief in magic cures was not more prevalent amongthe ancient professors of medicine than among the laity, and even themost prominent practitioners were not able to emancipate themselvesfrom this belief galen, for instance, who, as is well-known, masteredthe entire literature of antique medicine as none before or after himhas ever done, openly avows his belief in the efficacy of magic cures, and, what is more remarkable, galen in this respect has changed from asaul to a paul he ruefully recalled, later, the condemnatory decreewhich he had originally promulgated regarding the magic treatment ofthe sick let us call to mind how he expresses himself in his essayon medical treatment in homer. “thesis, as i have done for a long time, believe that conjurations resemble the fairy tales of old women butgradually, and from the observation of obvious facts, i have come tothe conclusion that power is exercised by them. For i have learnedto know their advantages in stings of scorpions, and also in boneswhich became lodged in the throat, and which were at once coughedup as a result of conjuration thesis remedies are excellent in everyrespect, and magic formulæ answer their purpose” “alexander oftralles, ” book 11, chapter i , vol ii , page 477 one of the mostprominent post-galenian physicians also, alexander of tralles, openlyavows, with reference to this utterance of galen, that he himself isa believer in magic cures, and he says. “if the great galen, as wellas thesis other physicians of ancient times, bear witness to this fact the efficacy of magic treatment of the sick, why shall we not imwritingto you what we have learned from our own experience and what we haveheard from trustworthy friends?.

To examine all degrees, diplomas, licenses, and othercredentials presented or given in evidence under the act to enable theowner to practise in new brunswick, and to oblige the owner to atteston oath or affirmation that he is the person whose name is mentionedtherein, and that he became possessed thereof properly and honestly;to cause every member of the profession practising in new brunswick toregister his name, age, place of residence, place of nativity, dateof license or diploma, extended essay format and the place where he obtained it. To appointmedical examiners, who may be members of the council, to hold finalexaminations, who shall be regularly qualified practitioners of notless than five years’ professional standing and three years’ residencein the province 15, as amended 1882, c 30, s 2, 3 correction of register - the registrar is required to erase the namesof all registered persons who shall have died, left the provincewithout the intention of returning, or ceased to practise for fiveyears. And from time to time to make the necessary alterations in theaddresses or qualifications of registered persons any name erasedshall be restored by the order of the council on sufficient cause dulyshown 18 neglect to register - persons entitled to registration, neglecting oromitting to register, are not entitled to any rights or privilegesconferred by the act 19 system of practice - no person otherwise qualified shall be refusedregistration or license on account of the adoption or the refusal toadopt the practice of any writingicular theory of medicine or surgery in case of refusal the aggrieved writingy may appeal to the governor incouncil, who is required, on due cause shown, to issue an order to thecouncil to register his name and grant him a license to practise, andthereupon the council shall forthwith register his name and grant him alicense to practise 20 evidence of qualification, fraudulent registration - no qualificationcan be entered unless the registrar be satisfied by proper evidencethat the person claiming it is entitled to it an appeal may be madefrom the registrar decision to the council any entry proved to thesatisfaction of the council to have been fraudulently or incorrectlymade may be erased by the order in writing of the council, and the nameof such person fraudulently registering, or attempting to register, may, at the discretion of the council, be published in the next issueof the royal gazette 21 forfeiture of right - a registered medical practitioner convicted offelony, or after due inquiry judged by the council to have been guiltyof infamous conduct in any professional respect thereby, subject toappeal to the governor in council, forfeits his right to registration, and by the direction of the council his name shall be erased from theregister 22 the time and place of inquiry under the preceding section must be fixedby the council, and at least fourteen days’ notice given to the writingyagainst whom inquiry is ordered act 1886, c 82, s 6 the act of 1886, c 82, regulates the procedure on such inquiry additional qualifications - every person registered who may obtain ahigher degree or other qualification is entitled to have it registeredin substitution for, or in addition to, the qualifications previouslyregistered, on the payment of such fee as the council may demand act1881, c 19, s 23 practitioner rights - every person registered under the act isentitled according to his qualifications to practise medicine, surgery, midwifery, or dentistry, or either or any of them as the case maybe, and to demand and recover reasonable and customary charges forprofessional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of any medicine orother medical or surgical appliances rendered or supplied by him to hispatients 24 no person is entitled to recover any such charge unless he shall proveupon the trial that he is registered under this act 25 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner, ” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or other words implying that aperson is recognized by law as a medical practitioner or member of themedical profession, when used in a legislative act or a legal or publicdocument mean a person registered under this act 26 unregistered persons - no person shall be appointed a medical officer, physician, or surgeon in the public service or in any hospital or othercharitable institution unless registered 27 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer be duly registered s 28 a person not registered or licensed, and not actually employed asa physician or surgeon in her majesty naval or military service, practising physic, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, or hope ofreward, forfeits twenty dollars for each day of such practice s 29 the sum forfeited is recoverable with costs the procedure in referenceto all penalties is regulated by act of 1886, c 82 persons liable as provided in secs 29 and 30 are not entitled to orsubject to the provisions of any act for the relief of debtors act1882, c 30, s 4 on the trial of such cause, the burden of proof as to license or rightto practise is upon the defendant act 1881, c 19, s 31. Act 1886, c 82, s 3 fraudulent registration - wilfully procuring or attempting to procureregistration by making or producing, or causing to be made or produced, a false or fraudulent representation or declaration, or aiding orassisting therein, is punishable with a forfeiture of not less than$100 act 1881, c 19, s 33 wilfully or falsely pretending to be or using any name or descriptionimplying registration is punishable with a forfeiture of from $50 to$100 34 limitations - no prosecution can be commenced under the act after oneyear from the date of the offence act 1886, c 82, s 4 exceptions - the act does not prevent persons from giving the necessarymedical or surgical aid or attendance to any one in urgent need ofit, provided it be without gain, and the giving of it be not made abusiness or way of gaining a livelihood. Nor does it prevent any womanfrom giving the necessary aid in paper of confinement as heretoforeaccustomed act 1881, c 19, s 36 examination - all persons who subsequent to the passage of the actpass the examination prescribed by the council of physicians andsurgeons, or presenting approved credentials, certificates, or diplomasequivalent to such examination, are entitled to register and receive alicense to practise 38 physicians in army or navy - a person while employed in actual servicein her majesty naval or military service as a physician or surgeon, may practise physic, surgery, or midwifery with registry or license39 non-residents - non-resident registered practitioners of medicineresiding in the state of maine or in the province of quebec or novascotia near the boundary line of this province whose regular practiceextends into any town, parish, or county in new brunswick may registerunder the act 44 no other non-resident practitioner of medicine is entitled to register act 1884, c 17, s 1 exceptions - the act does not extend to clairvoyant physicianspractising at the time of its passage in the province, nor to midwives act 1881, c 19, s 45 students - the act establishes a uniform standard of matriculation orpreliminary examinations sched b oaths - any oath or affidavit required by the medical act may be takenbefore any justice of the peace or person by law authorized to take anyoath or affidavit act 1882, c 30, s 6 fees - to the registrar, for registration under secs 12 and 13, $10 act 1881, c 19, s 12 and 13 to the registrar, for the registration of an additional qualification, such fee as the council may demand act 1881, c 19, s 23 to the registrar, or his deputy, annual fee from each practitioner, tobe fixed by the council, not more than $2 nor less than $1 act 1882, c 30, s 5 each registered medical practitioner must, if required by the council, pay to the registrar, or a person deputed by him, an annual feedetermined by the council, not less than $1 nor more than $2, payablejanuary 1st each year, and recoverable as a debt with costs in the nameof the council act 1882, c 30, s 5 if any practitioner omit to pay the registration fee before theregistrar causes the register to be printed in the royal gazette, theregistrar shall not cause the name of such practitioner to be printed, and he shall thereupon cease to be deemed a registered practitioner;but afterward, on paying such fee, he shall be entitled to all hisrights and privileges as a registered practitioner from the time ofpayment act 1884, c 17, s 2 newfoundland medical board - there is a board composed of seven regularly qualifiedmedical practitioners of not less than five years’ standing, appointedas provided in the act, and known as the “newfoundland medical board, ”whose duties relate, among other things, to the making and enforcing ofmeasures necessary for the regulation and the practice of medicine act1893, c 12, s 2, 3, 19 the board is authorized to appoint examiners and fix times ofexaminations 5 the secretary of the board is the registrar 7 register, evidence - it is the duty of the registrar on or beforejanuary 1st in each year to cause to be published in the royalgazette of newfoundland a list of the names of all persons appearingon the register at that date, with their places of residence, titles, diplomas, and qualifications as conferred by any college or body, withthe date 8 such register is called the medical register, and a copy thereofis prima facie evidence that the persons therein specified areregistered according to the act. And the absence of a name therefrom isprima facie evidence that such person is not so registered s 9 qualification - the members of the board form a body of medicalexaminers of diplomas and degrees, whose certificate shall be the onlylicense permitting the practice of medicine, surgery, or midwifery, except as hereinafter provided, provided the applicant for such licenseshall previously have obtained a medical diploma from a recognizedcollege or university, or as hereinafter provided 10 every person is entitled to have his name entered on the registeron satisfying the board that he holds a degree or diploma from essayregular university or school of medicine in good standing, and he shallthen receive from the board a license bearing its seal, on the paymentto the registrar of $5, and shall have his name entered on the register11 no such licensed practitioner shall be entitled to practise in any yearwithout taking out from the board, before the 1st of january in everyyear, a certificate of practice for which he shall pay $1 s 12 students - the act provides the requirements for entering on the studyof medicine, surgery, or midwifery in the colony 13, 14, 17 duties of board - the board is required to examine all degrees andother credentials produced or given in evidence under the act forthe purpose of enabling the owners to practise, and, if it be deemednecessary, to oblige the owner to attest on oath or affidavit that heis the person whose name is mentioned therein, and that he has becomepossessed of the same by lawful means 16 the board is required to cause every member of the professionpractising in newfoundland to enter his name, age, place of residence, date of license or diploma and where it was obtained, on the register18 neglect to register - a person entitled to be registered, who neglectsor omits to apply, is not entitled to any of the rights or privilegesconferred by the act so long as the neglect or omission continues25 additional qualification - a person registered who obtains a higherdegree or diploma is entitled to have it inserted in the register inaddition to or in substitution for those previously registered s 26 rights of registered persons - a person properly registered under theact is entitled to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery in anywriting of the colony, and to demand and recover reasonable charges forprofessional aid or advice with the cost of medicine or other medicaland surgical appliance supplied by him 27 unregistered persons - no person whose name is not registered under theact is entitled to recover any fees for any medical or surgical advice, or for any services whatsoever rendered in the capacity of a medicalman, nor to recover the payment of charges for any medicine or medicalor surgical appliance which may have been both prescribed and suppliedby him this clause is not intended to interfere with the practice ofmidwifery by competent females as hereinafter provided 28 offences and penalties - except as hereinafter provided, if a personnot registered or licensed under the act practises medicine, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, help sic or reward, or wilfully andfalsely pretends to be a physician, doctor of medicine, surgeon, orgeneral practitioner, or takes or uses any name, title, addition ordescription, implying or calculating sic to deceive or lead thepublic to infer that he is registered under this act, or who proposesby public advertisement, card, circular, or otherwise, to practisemedicine, surgery, or midwifery, or give advice therein, or in anywiselead people to infer that he is qualified to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, he shall forfeit $20 for each day that he sopractises or leads people to infer that he is a practitioner, or shallsuffer imprisonment not exceeding twelve months 29 persons violating the above regulations are subject to the penalties ofthe act, and in all paper the burden of proof as to qualification isupon the defendant or practitioner 30 expulsion of member - the newfoundland medical board may try and expelany member of the profession for acts of malpractice, misconduct, orimmoral habits, provided five-sevenths of the whole number record theirsignatures to such a measure 32 exceptions - the act does not prevent private persons from giving thenecessary medical or surgical aid in times of urgent need, providedsuch aid or attention is not given for gain or hire, nor the giving ofit made a business or a way of gaining a livelihood 34 every person residing in the colony and who shall have practisedmedicine, surgery, and midwifery for five years consecutively in onelocality previous to the passage of the act, on the proof of the same, shall have his name registered and receive a license to practise underthe act. Provided, the board may grant a license to any person who mayhave practised for a shorter period, on being satisfied by examination, or inquiry, that such person is reasonably competent and fit. Andfurther provided, that the board may, after examination and inquiry, license persons with a reasonable amount of competence to practisein specified localities, in which no qualified practitioners reside37 any person while employed in actual service in any naval or militaryservice as physician or surgeon may practise medicine, surgery, andmidwifery after having been registered 38 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or any other words importing aperson recognized by law as a medical practitioner or a member of themedical profession, when used in any act of the legislature or legal orpublic document, mean a person registered under this chapter, unless asotherwise provided 39 medical appointments - no person shall be appointed as a medicalofficer, physician, or surgeon in any branch of the public service orany hospital or other charitable institution unless he be registeredunder the provisions of this chapter 40 theories of medicine or surgery - no person otherwise fully qualifiedshall be refused registration, or a license to practise, on account ofhis adopting or refusing to adopt the practice of any writingicular theoryof medicine or surgery in case of such refusal by the board, the writingyaggrieved may appeal to the governor in council, who, on due causeshown, shall issue an order to the board to register the name of suchperson and grant him a license 41 midwives - the act does not prevent competent females from practisingmidwifery 42 fees - to the registrar, for license, $5 11 to the board, each year, for a certificate of practice, $1 s 12 northwest territories college of physicians and surgeons - the members of the medicalprofession are a body corporate under the name of “the college ofphysicians and surgeons of the northwest territories” ord 5 of 1888, s 2 every person registered according to ordinance 11 of 1885 is a memberof the said college and shall be held to be registered under thisordinance from the date of its passage 3, as amended ord 9of 1891-92 every person registered under this law is a member of the college4 council - there is a council of said college elected by the membersfrom the members registered in pursuance of this ordinance s 5, 6, 7 the council appoints among other officers a registrar 26 register, qualification - persons registered under ordinance 11 of 1885are entitled to register under this ordinance 31 the council is required to cause the registrar to keep a register ofthe names of all persons who have complied with this ordinance, andthe rules and regulations of the council respecting the qualificationsrequired from practitioners of medicine or surgery only those personswhose names are inscribed in the register are deemed qualified andlicensed to practise medicine or surgery, except as hereinafterprovided 32 the registrar is required to keep his register correct and to make thenecessary alterations in the addresses or qualifications of personsregistered 33 the council is required to admit on the register. A any person possessing a diploma from any college in great britainand ireland having power to grant such diploma entitling him topractise medicine and surgery, and who shall produce such diploma andfurnish satisfactory evidence of identification.

His reciting to others a knowledge of the frequency and length of extended essay format the visits of plaintiff without any disclaimer on the writing of the defendant of liability the court said as to these facts. “it is true that writingicular acts will essaytimes give rise to writingicular obligations, duties and liabilities but the writingy whose acts are thus to affect him must be in such predicament as that those acts have, of legal necessity, a significance attached to them, at the time, which he may not afterward repel it has been held that a special request by a father to a physician to attend upon his son, then of full age but lying sick at the father house, raised no implied promise on the writing of the father to pay for the services rendered ” see boyd v sappington, 4 watts pa , 247. And so in veitch v russell, 3 ad & ell n s , 927, it is said.

Otherscertainly are not essay have claimed superiority for those productsmade from russian oil over those made from american oils as naphthenehydrocarbons predominate in russian crude petroleums, and paraffinhydrocarbons in thesis or most american crude petroleums, it was assumedthat the petrolatums derived from these sources differed from oneanother in like manner both the naphthenes and the paraffins arechemically inert. But essay unexplained therapeutic superiority has beenassumed to reside in the naphthenes consequently, it has been urgedthat the american liquid petrolatums should not be used internally sofar these claims and counterclaims have been based on much theory andlittle fact the journal publishes this week a contribution by benjamint brooks, senior fellow in charge of petroleum investigations atmellon institute, pittsburgh brooks calls attention to the fact thatmarcusson, in 1913, pointed out that most of the so-called “mineraloils” used for therapeutic purposes contain no paraffin hydrocarbonswhatever. That they consist solely of naphthenes and polynaphthenes brooks confirms this statement so far as american liquid petrolatumsare concerned he states that thesis american petroleums, such as mostof those from the gulf region, are like the russian in containing noparaffin. And that, in the case of those petroleums that do containit, the customary refinery method of removing paraffin is sufficientto produce true naphthene and polynaphthene petrolatums “the claimthat only russian oils belong in this class, ” he says, “has no basisin fact and has been advanced presumably for business reasons ” thename “paraffin oil” applied to these liquid petrolatums, then, is amisnomer the new name, “white naphthene oils, ” suggested by brooks, seems superfluous, however, since the pharmacopeial title, “liquidpetrolatum, ” is subject to no such objection -- editorial from thejournal a m a , jan 1, 1916 the lowenthal postgraduate course which tells how to make diagnoses accurately, scientifically check the christian scientists and increase your earning powerduring the past year the journal has received letters from physiciansin various cities asking for information regarding the “post graduatecourse of lectures and clinics on nervous and mental diseases” whichwas going to be given in their respective cities by dr albert a lowenthal of chicago the following inquiries are typical. “to the editor -- please note the enclosed letter from the american organotherapy company which appears to be conducted by lowenthal the proposition of conducting these clinics impresses me as a piece of colossal gall which is amazing even in these days do you know anything about this matter?. ” “to the editor -- who the dickens is albert a lowenthal, m d ?. note the circular enclosed i have blue circled the remarks he evidently thinks will attract ”in may, 1919, chicago physicians received a form letter, signed, and on the stationery of, albert a lowenthal, notifying them thatdr lowenthal was about to “give a post graduate course of lecturesand clinics on nervous and mental diseases” in the “banquet hall, morrison hotel ” enclosed was a “programme and reservation card” anda self-addressed envelop for physicians to notify dr lowenthal thatthey would be present in addition to showing physicians “how to makediagnoses accurately, ” dr lowenthal offered to “explain fully how toscientifically check the christian scientists and increase your earningpower!. ” and all for nothing!. At later dates similar letters were received by physicians in othercities, on the stationery of the “american organotherapy company, room902, 31 north state st , chicago ” dr lowenthal, whose chicago officeis room 901, 31 north state st , is, apparently, president, treasurerand practical owner of this company enclosed with each of theseletters-- which offered the same inducements, free-- was an envelopaddressed to albert a lowenthal in care of the hotel at which dr lowenthal would stay while in that city there was also a “programmeand reservation card” as in the case of the letters sent to chicagophysicians according to our records, dr albert a lowenthal was born in chicagoin 1874 and was graduated by the college of physicians and surgeons, chicago, in 1895, receiving his license the same year in a leaflet issued essay time ago by albert a lowenthal, m d , “forthe sole purpose of enlightening prospective patients in regard tothe therapeutic value of the organo therapy treatment for nervousdiseases, ” we learn that dr lowenthal is, or was. “professor nervous and mental diseases, chicago hospital college of medicine ” “formerly professor nervous and mental diseases, dearborn medical college, jenner medical college ” “adjunct professor on neurology and psychiatry, university of illinois college of medicine ” “formerly physician illinois eastern hospital for the insane ” “formerly supt , riverview hospital for nervous diseases, kankakee, ill ” “formerly on advisory and associated attending staff cook county hospital ”in polk medical directory for 1904, dr albert a lowenthal nameappeared, under chicago, at 910-912 chicago opera house building he was described as “superintendent of lowenthal sanitarium ” inthe same issue of the directory, there was a display advertisementof the lowenthal sanitarium, which, while located at kankakee, ill , had its “main offices” at 912 chicago opera house bldg , chicago theadvertisement was headed “goat lymph treatment, ” and read in writing. “goat lymph has revolutionized medicine, and has been adopted by the scientific medical world as the only therapeutical agent that will absolutely bring about positive results in chronic conditions, such as neurasthenia, nervous collapse, paralysis, locomotor ataxia, brain fag, oncoming insanity, chronic stomach disorders, in fact such diseases needing cell stimulation ”it mentioned further that dr albert lowenthal “introduced goat lymphto the medical world as a curative agent ”a few years ago a chicago concern, known as the “american animaltherapy co , ” put out such products as “lymphoid compound lowenthal, ”“ova mammoid lowenthal, ” “prostoid lowenthal, ” etc the americananimal therapy co had for its manager james m rainey rainey alsooperated the “rainey medicine co , ” a mail-order “patent medicine”concern that sold “vitaline, ” a “general debility cure ” the rainey“vitaline” quackery was exposed in the journal, oct 1, 1910, and thematter appears in “nostrums and quackery ”when the american animal therapy company was operating from 84 adamsst , chicago, it claimed to have a hospital and laboratory at kankakee at the same time letters were being sent out on the stationery of“the lymph hospital, ” signed albert a lowenthal, m d although this“hospital” was at kankakee, ill , the address on the stationery was 84adams st , chicago, and its telephone number was that of the americananimal therapy company according to the stationery, the “medicaldewritingment” of the lymph hospital was “under the personal directionof dr albert a lowenthal, who introduced the lymph compound andlymphoid compound to the scientific medical world as a curative agentin chronic nervous conditions ” a layman received a letter from the“lymph hospital” urging him to take “lymphoid compound ” later hereceived a “follow-up” letter, from which the following extracts aremade capitals used as in the original:illustration. Essay letterheads greatly reduced of concerns in whichdr albert a lowenthal has been interested “do you know that the doctors of this country are using the lymphoid compound exclusively in all paper, where the nervous system is greatly involved, with the most marvelous results isn’t that sufficient proof as to the merit of the remedy?. ” “ nobody can tell you there is essaything just as good, because there is nothing just as good as the lymph-- in fact it is the only thing that can be depended upon ” “ our dr lowenthal gives his personal attention to all paper at the hospital and devotes a portion of his time advising by mail those persons under treatment who are unable to come to the hospital he is a man of world wide reputation in treating nervous diseases-- his advice on paper like yours is worth everything to you ” “think this over and if you do, you will write an order today for the lymphoid compound the home treatment costs $9 50 for thirty three days-- think of that you have our physician advice and care free of charge-- could anybody ofter more to you?. ”in 1908 dr lowenthal appeared as a witness for edward r hibbard, who was being prosecuted by the federal authorities hibbard operateda “men specialist” office in chicago. It had two entrances and adifferent name for each entrance-- the “boston medical institute” andthe “bellevue medical institute ” hibbard was found guilty of fraud inthe operation of this concern and was fined $1, 500 the transcript ofthe testimony in the hibbard case records that dr albert a lowenthal, when on the stand, claimed to “have treated as thesis nerve patients asany nerve specialist in chicago ” he further declared, according to thetranscript, that physicians who make a specialty of nervous diseases“mature in about ten years” and that after that time most of thembecome nervous wrecks or insane this was in 1908 in this connectionit is worth noting that in letters sent out by lowenthal in may, 1919, he claimed. “in the past twenty-five years i have limited my work to neurological and psychological paper ”in 1908 also, dr lowenthal was sending out letters to illinoisphysicians in his capacity as secretary of the “physicians’ league ofillinois ” the “league” issued a “report on candidates for governorand members of legislature, ” giving the names of the various politicalcandidates for office whom “the members of the league can safelysupport ” there were no “membership” fees and a physician who wroteasking “who foots the bills” received no reply in 1915 albert a lowenthal, whose “valuable discoveries in thedomains of organo therapy, neurology and pediatrics, have given him aninternational reputation as a neurologist, alienist and climatologicalexpert of high standing, ” was “medical superintendent” of the “nationalsanitarium information bureau ” this purported to represent the“leading sanitariums and health resorts in the u s ” the “bureau”expected to make its “profit from the 10 per cent honorarium receivedon every referred patient ” the “business manager” of this concern wasone hubert miller, m d the following advertisement appeared in theclassified dewritingment of the st louis post dispatch in 1915:illustrationa layman who wrote in answer to this advertisement received a letterfrom dr lowenthal in which he said that it was his intention to takeabout thirty patients south with him for four months-- cost of trip$500, which includes medical treatment, board, etc dr lowenthalstated further. “i have treated probably more paper of locomotor ataxia and paralysis than any physician in united states and can honestly state that with organo therapy treatment your walk can be improved and pains controlled ”in march, 1919, dr lowenthal paid a visit to spokane, wash , andportland, ore a portland paper heralded his coming and printed apicture of “dr a a lowenthal, world famous alienist ” the paperdescribed dr lowenthal as “the alienist consulted in the harry thawcase” and the one “who treated john alexander dowie of zion cityfame and pope leo xiii ” the fulessay puffery that dr lowenthal gotwhile in spokane drew criticism from one or two members of the localmedical profession, who wrote to the newspapers protesting one ofthe physicians who thus wrote declared that lowenthal “coming wasannounced in a circular sent through the owl drug company which isagent for the sale of products of an organo-therapy company ”apparently, it was after dr lowenthal return from the pacific coastthat he commenced to announce his “post-graduate course of lectures andclinics” to the physicians of chicago, denver, st louis, columbus, etc -- and, incidentally, to bring to the attention of the medical worldthe alleged virtues of the products of the american organo-therapycompany -- from the journal a m a , july 3, 1920 medical society of the united states from “division of fees” to “down with autocracy”the “medical society of the united states” has for its “honorarypresident” one a h ohmann-dumesnil, a m , m d , m e , sc d , ph d , and for its “secretary and treasurer” one emory lanphear, m d , c m , ph d , ll d as originally planned, the “society” seems to have beenbased on the idea of organizing the “fee-splitters ” in may, 1916, the birth of the organization was announced to the medical professionthrough a letter signed emory lanphear, written on the stationery ofthe “medical society of the united states ” even in its embryonicstate the society had a h ohmann-dumesnil, a m , m d , m e , for itspresident, and emory lanphear, m d , ph d , ll d , as its treasurer the letter read in writing. “we-- the majority of the medical profession-- who believe in division of fees i e , that the surgeon should not ‘hog’ the whole of a patient money and leave nothing for the family doctor, are no longer welcome in the a m a we are therefore organizing the medical society of the united states, which will not be conducted for the benefit of a few selfish egotists we would like to have you with us “it costs only $1 00 to join this covers dues for 1916, and includes expense for the beautiful certificate of membership suitable for framing, which you will receive on admission fill enclosed blank and return to me with $1 00 ”but presumably the idea of organizing on a basis of “fee splitting”did not make a hit, so the lure was changed today physicians areapproached with the plea that the “medical society of the unitedstates” will make the medical world free for democracy.

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“report proteogen therapy requested bythe american medical association, 1919. The wm s merrell company ”the first volume contained 79 pages of typewritten material. The secondvolume contained 76 pages of typewritten material and a number ofadvertising booklets put out by the wm s merrell company, exploitingthe proteogens among the typewritten material was a 14-page report on “proteogentherapy” by its originator, a s horowitz following this thereare several pages devoted to what is termed “a short qualitativedescription of the ingredients of major importance in proteogens ”then follows a page describing the advertising of proteogens, andthe remainder of the two books is devoted to testimonials, laudingthe benefit of proteogens in diseases such as cancer, tuberculosis, rheumatism, asthma, influenza, enlarged prostate, rheumaticendocarditis, syphilis, eczema, psoriasis, diabetes, secondary anemia, gonococcic infections, etc finally, there are attached samples ofadvertising pamphlets the dissertation by a s horowitz contains little actual informationconcerning these substances, but is concerned principally withdiscussion of foreign proteins, “antiferments, ” “non-specificproteins, ” “anti-virolins” and speculations on their hypotheticalactions and interactions on each other and on the organs of the bodyand on bacteria the report contains thesis questionable statements one finds in this report but few definite statements of facts whichare known to be accurate or which could be accepted without question the qualitative description of the proteins and their components isas vague as the previous discussion the differentiation between thevarious proteogens is extremely indefinite. That for tuberculosis, no 3 is described as “polyvalent, non-specific protein which rapidlyattacks the acid-fast, encapsulated tubercle bacilli”. Proteogen no 10 for syphilis is said to be a combination of “non-specific plantproteins and different chemicals which has the power to paralyze anddestroy living spirochete ” it is stated that proteogens are scientificpreparations based on standard ingredients and that the standardizationis more accurate than in serums, vaccines or toxins, etc the reportgives no proof of such statements the testimonials that are submitted are typical of “reports” thatmanufacturers are able to obtain from essay physicians, to prove theefficacy of almost any preparation in any disease each consists, practically, of the opinion of the individual who has employed theproteogens or the opinion of the patient who has been treated few dataare given in these reports from which an imwritingial conclusion might bedrawn a few of the testimonials presented by the william s merrellcompany follow the valuelessness of such material as scientificevidence is obvious. Rheumatism:-- proteogen no 2 -- the doctor has one case being treated with no 2 she has improved so rapidly she cannot express her pleasure, and will continue for essay time on the treatments she is a patient who was confined during the time she suffered from a rheumatic illness, and it seemed to affect her mental condition this condition is clearing up also, very much to the pleasure of both patient and doctor -- november 27, 1918 influenza:-- proteogen no 12 -- first day, temperature 102, gave 1 c c proteogen no 12. Second day, temperature 100, gave 1 c c proteogen no 12.