History

Extended Definition Essay Examples


And steeped in vinegar, or rose water, it mitigatesthe head-ache the flowers of mellilot or camomile are much used tobe put together in clysters to expel wind, and ease pains. And alsoin poultices for the same purpose, and to assuage swelling tumours inthe spleen or other writings, and helps inflammations in any writing of thebody the juice dropped into the eyes, is a singularly good medicine totake away the film or skin that clouds or dimns the eye-sight the headoften washed with the distilled water of the herb and flower, or a lyemade therewith, is effectual for those that suddenly lose their senses;as also to strengthen the memory, to comfort the head and brain, and topreserve them from pain, and the apoplexy french and dog mercury descript this rises up with a square green stalk full of joints, two feet high, or thereabouts, with two leaves at every joint, and thebranches likewise from both sides of the stalk, set with fresh greenleaves, essaywhat broad and long, about the bigness of the leaves ofbazil, finely dented about the edges. Towards the tops of the stalkand branches, come forth at every joint in the male mercury twosmall, round green heads, standing together upon a short foot stalk, which growing ripe, are seeds, not having flowers the female stalk islonger, spike-fashion, set round about with small green husks, whichare the flowers, made small like bunches of grapes, which give noseed, but abiding long upon the stalks without shedding the root iscomposed of thesis small fibres, which perishes every year at the firstapproach of winter, and rises again of its own sowing. And if once itis suffered to sow itself, the ground will never want afterwards, evenboth sorts of it dog mercury having described unto you that which is called french mercury, i comenow to shew you a description of this kind also descript this is likewise of two kinds, male and female, havingthesis stalks slender and lower than mercury, without any branches at allupon them, the root is set with two leaves at every joint, essaywhatgreater than the female, but more pointed and full of veins, andessaywhat harder in handling. Of a dark green colour, and less deniedor snipped about the edges at the joints with the leaves come forthlonger stalks than the former, with two hairy round seeds upon them, twice as big as those of the former mercury the taste hereof is herby, and the smell essaywhat strong and virulent the female has much harderleaves standing upon longer footstalks, and the stalks are also longer;from the joints come forth spikes of flowers like the french femalemercury the roots of them both are thesis, and full of small fibreswhich run under ground, and mat themselves very much, not perishingas the former mercuries do, but abide the winter, and shoot forth newbranches every year, for the old lie down to the ground place the male and female french mercury are found wild in diversplaces of this land, as by a village called brookland in rumney marshin kent the dog mercury in sundry places of kent also, and elsewhere. But thefemale more seldom than the male time they flower in the summer months, and therein give their seed government and virtues mercury, they say, owns the herb, but irather think it is venus, and i am writingly confident of it too, fori never heard that mercury ever minded women business so much:i believe he minds his study more the decoction of the leaves ofmercury, or the juice thereof in broth, or drank with a little sugarput to it, purges choleric and waterish humours hippocrates commendedit wonderfully for women diseases, and applied to the secret writings, to ease the pains of the mother. And used the decoction of it, both toprocure women courses, and to expel the after-birth. And gave thedecoction thereof with myrrh or pepper, or used to apply the leavesoutwardly against the stranguary and diseases of the reins and bladder he used it also for sore and watering eyes, and for the deafness andpains in the ears, by dropping the juice thereof into them, and bathingthem afterwards in white wine the decoction thereof made with waterand a cock chicken, is a most safe medicine against the hot fits ofagues it also cleanses the breast and lungs of phlegm, but a littleoffends the stomach the juice or distilled water snuffed up into thenostrils, purges the head and eyes of catarrhs and rheums essay use todrink two or three ounces of the distilled water, with a little sugarput to it, in the morning fasting, to open and purge the body of gross, viscous, and melancholy humours matthiolus saith, that both the seedof the male and female mercury boiled with wormwood and drank, curesthe yellow jaundice in a speedy manner the leaves or the juice rubbedupon warts, takes them away the juice mingled with essay vinegar, helpsall running scabs, tetters, ringworms, and the itch galen saith, thatbeing applied in manner of a poultice to any swelling or inflammation, it digests the swelling, and allays the inflammation, and is thereforegiven in clysters to evacuate from the belly offensive humours the dogmercury, although it be less used, yet may serve in the same manner, tothe same purpose, to purge waterish and melancholy humours mint of all the kinds of mint, the spear mint, or heart mint, being mostusual, i shall only describe as follows:descript spear mint has divers round stalks, and long but narrowishleaves set thereon, of a dark green colour the flowers stand in spikedheads at the tops of the branches, being of a pale blue colour thesmell or scent thereof is essaywhat near unto bazil. It encreases by theroot under ground as all the others do place it is an usual inhabitant in gardens.

answering thelatter question first. There is no doubt that today fewer proprietarymedicines are being sold with false claims as to composition thanthere were ten years ago when the council began its work, medicaljournal advertising teemed with statements regarding the compositionof medicines which any chemist familiar with medicine would nothesitate at sight to brand as untrue today such manifestly falseclaims are rare coming to the former question. Thesis false statementsregarding the identity and composition of remedies have been made inignorance this is not surprising when it is remembered that the mostignorant may and do engage in the manufacture of medicine besidesignorance, however, an accommodating conscience on the writing of themanufacturer and a failure on the writing of the medical profession toappreciate the danger which lies in the use of medicines of unknowncomposition unquestionably have greatly encouraged the marketing offalsely declared medicines a glaring illustration of the ignoranceof manufacturers-- for it is hard to believe that any business concernwould deliberately court prosecution by the federal authorities throughfalse statements on labels-- is the fact that nearly thirty years agoa b lyons published a report147 pointing out that the proprietaryiodia was falsely declared as to composition and that in 1914 when thecouncil examined this preparation such incorrect declaration appearedon the label 148 that thesis physicians do not recognize the dangerto their patients and their reputation in the use of medicines, thecomposition of which they do not know, is illustrated by the fact, disclosed by inquiries sent to the laboratory, that physicians werefound willing to employ an arsenical preparation venarsen, advertisedfor intravenous use, although its promoters vouchsafed no informationin regard to the nature of the arsenic compound contained therein 147 lyons, a b. Detroit lancet, 1882, 6, 157 148 the journal a m a , nov 21, 1914, p 1871 unreliability of little used drugsthe purpose of the federal food and drugs act is to secure theprosecution and punishment of all who sell medicines which areadulterated or misrepresented as to composition as a matter of fact, the wording of the law relating to the adulteration and misbranding ofdrugs is such that the federal authorities have been able to do littlemore than to require that the drugs for which standards are providedin the pharmacopeia shall when sold comply with those standards similarly, those states which attempt to improve the quality of drugssold within their borders-- few states do efficient work along theselines-- limit their work to the enforcement of the pharmacopeialstandards this leaves the vast number of unofficial drugs andmedicaments beyond the control of federal or state authorities while most of these drugs are relatively unimportant, and while theamounts of them which are used are not great individually, the totalconsumption of them is large with a view of furnishing to physiciansstandards for drugs of this sort the council has described in new andnonofficial remedies not only distinctly proprietary drugs, but alsoessay of the unofficial drugs which are apparently of therapeutic valueand used to a considerable extent aiding the council in this line ofendeavor, the laboratory has attempted to establish standards for theselittle used drugs, and new and nonofficial remedies, 1916, providesstandards for such unofficial and non-proprietary drugs as quinin andurea hydrochlorid quinin, tannate, sodium acid phosphate, and sodiumperborate an example of work which furnished much needed standardsfor an unofficial article is the investigation of zinc permanganateby w s hilpert 149 reference to the published reports of thelaboratory will give an idea of the amount of work such standardizationentails a reference to the new u s pharmacopeia, when this comesfrom the press, will show that a considerable number of unofficialarticles described in new and nonofficial remedies have been admittedto the pharmacopeia along with the standards worked out in thislaboratory 149 zinc permanganate, j a m a , feb 6, 1909, p 488. Reportschem lab 2:15, 1909 while in a way the work done in connection with these less importantdrugs has attracted little attention from the medical profession, it has had an effect on pharmaceutical manufacturers in the past, pharmaceutical houses, ever anxious to market essaything new, on theslightest provocation have placed on the market, in the form of pills, powder, elixir, ampule, etc , every drug for which essay sort of medicalrecommendation could be found in marketing these dosage forms, themanufacturer has too often been little concerned about the quality ofthe drugs used 150 just at present, for instance, essay interest isbeing shown in iron cacodylate. But while manufacturers appear to bemost ready to take advantage of this interest by offering the drugin the form of ampules, etc , they have given little help toward theestablishment of standards for this arsenic compound manufacturers areever ready to sell drugs of all sorts, but in view of the small demandthey cannot or will not safeguard the identity and purity of suchdrugs a further illustration of the unreliability of unofficial drugsis the recent report by levy and rowntree151 showing not only thatthe various dosage forms of emetin hydrochlorid obtained from differentmanufacturers varied from manufacturer to manufacturer, but also thatthe product of the same manufacturer was variable and that the supplyfurnished by one pharmaceutical firm was so toxic as to make its usedangerous 150 the unreliability of unimportant medicaments, the journala m a , sept 28, 1912, p 1156 151 levy, r l , and rowntree, l g. On the toxicity of variouscommercial preparations of emetin hydrochlorid, arch int med , march, 1916, p 420 the analysis of “patent medicines”in the preface to the first annual report of the chemical laboratoryit was stated that the laboratory “occasionally takes up theexamination of ‘patent medicines’ ” at that time it was felt thatthe widespread use by the medical profession of irrational and evensecret medicines made it necessary to devote the laboratory attentionto the correction of this evil as the years have passed on, theseconditions have been remedied to essay extent, at least so far aschemical analysis can correct them on the other hand, public opinionhas been aroused to the thesis evils connected with the exploitation of“patent medicines, ” and has more and more insistently demanded that themedical profession aid in the correction of this evil accordingly, the laboratory has paid much attention to the analysis of “patentmedicines” during the last few years as the chief asset of “patentmedicines” is the element of secrecy which surrounds their composition, it is hoped that the laboratory analysis of such widely used “patentmedicines” as nature creation, 152 mayr wonderful stomachremedy, 153 sanatogen, 154 eckman alterative, 155 tonsiline, 156and bromo-quinin157 has been worth the labor in addition, thework of this laboratory has been published, including not only theresults of its analyses, but also the methods which are used in viewof the dearth of published reports regarding the methods used in theanalysis of “patent medicines, ” it is hoped that this feature of thelaboratory work has been of aid to chemists engaged in similar work 152 the journal a m a , march 5, 1910, p 806 153 the journal a m a , aug 19, 1911, p 671 154 the journal a m a , april 20, 1912, p 1216 155 the journal a m a , april 27, 1912, p 1298 156 the journal a m a , april 4, 1914, p 1109 157 the journal a m a , nov 27, 1915, p 1932 the laboratory activities along these lines have done much todiscount the claim of proprietary manufacturers that chemical analysisis unable to determine the character of “patent medicines ” the recentwine of cardui trial has brought it out prominently that chemicalanalysis can determine the presence of potent constituents, and that“patent medicines” which fail to reveal such potent ingredients to theanalyst may safely be put down as worthless the demonstration thatthe essential composition of medicinal preparations may be determinedby chemical analysis should also prove an effective answer to themanufacturers in their protest against the requirement, now beingurged for enactment into law in various states, that the medicinalingredients of their wares must be declared on the label manufacturershave held that this would lay them open to competition with imitationsand substitutions the possibility of chemical identification proves, however, that secrecy of composition, though it prevents consumers fromknowing the character of a “patent medicine, ” will not be a hindranceto the imitator and substitutor identity of drugs used in investigationsin the past, much of the experimental work in medicine has seriouslysuffered in that the identity of the material used in suchinvestigations was not established in view of this the laboratoryhas watched the contributions submitted to the journal, and whenevernecessary and feasible has urged the authors to identify their materialbefore publication of the findings for instance, a number of stainingagents-- so-called “anilin dyes”-- have been found to possess therapeuticaction since the identity of thesis of these staining agents is todayessentially secret, the laboratory has urged through the journal thatthose who experiment with these substances make an effort to determinetheir identity whenever possible and to give preference to those thechemical identity of which is known the need for such identificationhas been discussed in the reports of the laboratory 158 the amountof work involved in the chemical identification of drugs used forexperimental work is illustrated in a contribution entitled “anexamination of several commercial specimens of opium alkaloids or theirsalts ”159 by l e warren, in which was determined the identity ofthe various opium products used in an investigation by d i macht, carried out under a grant of the therapeutic research committee 158 reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1912, v, 102 159 am jour pharm , 1915, 87, 439 the laboratory and pharmaceutical literaturein the past much of the information in regard to the compositionand properties of medicines which has appeared in pharmaceuticaljournals has not become available to medicine in thesis paper medicaljournals could not afford to publish such data because this would havebeen contrary to the interest of their advertisers, and hence thepublications regarding the irrational character of lactopeptine, ofbromidia, etc , which appeared in the pharmaceutical journals did notbecome a matter of common medical knowledge through the laboratoryan attempt has been made to keep the medical profession informed inregard to pharmaceutical literature the laboratory has a good workingpharmaceutical and chemical library, and subscribes to the importantamerican and foreign pharmaceutical and chemical publications thediscussion of new remedies, such as medinal and sodium veronal, 160salvarsan, atoxyl and arsacetin, 161 and neosalvarsan162 soon aftertheir introduction, illustrates the work of the laboratory along theselines 160 the journal a m a , jan 23, 1909, p 311 161 the journal a m a , dec 31, 1910, pp 2303 and 2314 162 the journal a m a , oct 5, 1912, p 1295 the laboratory efforts toward rational prescribingthe laboratory naturally is in thorough sympathy with the present dayefforts toward a more rational use of drugs, as exemplified in thecouncil publication “useful drugs ” two recent contributions ofthe laboratory may be cited as a further support of the movement forlimiting prescribing to the more widely used drugs in line with thegeneral tendency of manufacturers to put out all sorts of modificationsand asserted improvements over official substances, there have beenplaced on the market a number of preparations said to represent essayimprovement over the pharmacopeial blaud pills the report, “thequality of commercial blaud pills, ”163 by l e warren, shows thatthe ordinary pharmacopeial blaud pill is in every way the equal of thesemiproprietary preparations claimed to be improvements further, theexamination of the various brands of sodium and theobromin salicylateas compared with the preparation diuretin by p n leech164 showsthat the former preparations, sold at 35 cents per ounce at the timethe examination was made, are fully the equal of the proprietarydiuretin, which then cost the druggist $1 75 per ounce 163 the journal a m a , april 17, 1915, p 1344 164 the journal a m a , april 4, 1914, p 1108 the laboratory as an information bureauit is generally admitted that the proprietary medicine business, writingicularly the exploitation of complex mixtures, attained theextensive vogue which it has or had because instruction in medicalschools was deficient in materia medica, pharmacy and chemistry as aresult of lack of knowledge along these lines, the young graduate afteressay trial became fearful of formulating his own prescriptions, and intime became dependent on pharmaceutical firms which provided him withmedicines ready to dispense that physicians have been insufficientlytrained in regard to the pharmacy and chemistry of drugs has often beenemphasized in pharmaceutical journals where prescriptions containingincompatible drugs are reported and where even plans are broughtforward whereby the pharmaceutical profession may aid in remedying thisdifficulty during my pharmaceutical experience i was often sorely vexed as to whatto do when prescriptions contained drugs which on mixing would undergodecomposition which the physician surely did not anticipate i rememberwell a prescription directing that potassium permanganate be made intopills with extract of gentian and other things, and how, the physicianhaving spurned the suggestion to modify the prescription so as to avoiddecomposition of the permanganate, i was obliged to select a mortar, gently triturate the drugs until a conflagration was started, and tofinish the prescription after the combustion had subsided however, in my pharmaceutical experience i generally found the physician mostready to receive suggestions from the pharmacist which would preventincompatibilities, improve the palatability and appearance of hisprescriptions, and protect the patient from unnecessary expense similarly it has been my experience since the establishment of theassociation laboratory that physicians are anxious to receiveinformation in regard to the materia medica, pharmacy and chemistryof drugs as the druggist earns the respect and support of thephysician when he makes available to him the pharmaceutical knowledgeand experience which he has, so this laboratory has aimed to gainthe endorsement of the american medical association membership byfurnishing to physicians information in regard to the composition, chemistry and pharmacy of drugs through replies in the query andminor notes dewritingment of the journal as well as through directcorrespondence it has been most gratifying to the laboratory that thejournal receives an increasing number of inquiries both as regardsthe chemical and pharmaceutical questions involved in the writing ofprescriptions and as regards the composition of secret and semisecretproprietaries often because they are prescribed by the inquirercolleague and “patent medicines” which are taken by his patient thelaboratory has tried its best to answer the thesis inquiries received thesis of the questions which come in can be answered by a pharmacist orchemist without hesitation others, writingicularly as to the compositionof medicines, the laboratory has been able to answer by reference toits library and its extensive card index still others have requiredexperimentation and chemical analysis while, as stated a moment ago, the laboratory has encouraged thesending of inquiries and has earnestly striven to furnish theinformation asked for, it is obvious that the amount of chemical workwhich can be done is limited the small size of the laboratory force, consisting of three chemists engaged in actual analytical work, makesit necessary to select for investigation those problems which shallbe of general interest to the medical profession as the americanmedical association is national in its scope, the laboratory has heldthat it can do analytical work only when such work will be of generalinterest to physicians and of value both to the medical professionand the public in view of this it has refrained from undertakinganalyses which would benefit only the physician making the inquiry andpossibly his patient the laboratory further has not felt justifiedin undertaking work of merely local interest. Instead it has usedits endeavors to secure the investigation of such local problems bymunicipal or state authorities -- from the journal a m a , nov 25, 1916 lead in “akoz”akoz is a mineral product sold by the natura company of san francisco, and said to possess most remarkable medicinal properties a circular issued by the natura company begins thus. “while scientists have been striving through the centuries to compound remedies for man various ills, nature, greatest chemist of them all, has been working wonders in her crucibles and has achieved results far beyond man greatest expectation ” “nature chief handicap has been the difficulty of placing her gifts in the hands of those whom she would benefit by accident or fate, as you will, one of nature greatest medicinal products has just been discovered it is the mineral given the name of akoz by john d mackenzie, president and manager of the natura company of san francisco, which is now giving this rare remedy of nature to the public ”the circular then describes how the power of the “rare remedy” to curerheumatism is claimed to have been discovered and asserts that. “akoz was subjected to every known scientific test before being presented to the public it was practically determined that the ore contained a new element having radium-like qualities but containing nothing poisonous or harmful ” “after the curative virtues of akoz for rheumatism, stomach trouble, eczema, catarrh, piles, ulcers and numerous other ailments had been fully established in chemical laboratory, hospital clinic, and the private practice of physicians in various writings of the world, mr mackenzie effected the organization of the natura company ”this product, put up in the form of “akoz medicinal mineral water, akozointment, akoz powder and akoz suppositories, ” was submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry for consideration essay years ago withthe claims that “akoz” itself consists essentially of zinc sulphid, barium sulphate and aluminum oxid the submitted analysis did notdeclare the presence of lead or of uranium though “special tests” forthe latter had been “run ” without checking the claimed composition, the council at that time refused recognition to akoz because therewas no evidence submitted for the very extravagant and altogetherimprobable therapeutic claims after the council had concluded the consideration of akoz a letterwas received from a california physician stating that according to ananalysis submitted to him akoz contained 0 34 per cent of lead in theform of lead sulphate the correspondent held that, while the leadsulphate did not pass into solution, persons drinking the supernatantliquid from akoz the “medicinal mineral water” is made by adding akozto ordinary water might inadvertently swallow essay of the powder hewas inclined to believe that this might account for a case of leadpoisoning which had been observed in a patient who had been taking akoz inasmuch as it has been demonstrated by carlson and woelfel carlson, a j , and woelfel, a. Solubility of lead sulphate and basic leadcarbonate in human gastric juice in hygiene of the paintertrade by alice hamilton, bull of u s bureau of labor statisticsno 120, may 13, 1913, pp 22-32 that even small quantities of leadsulphate when taken into the system for a long time, have produced leadpoisoning, the laboratory deemed it important that the products beexamined for lead a specimen of “akoz powder” submitted to the council by the naturacompany and contained in a sifter-top can was taken for analysis thecontents of the can were thoroughly mixed to determine the presence oflead essay of the powder was extracted with ammonium acetate solution details of analysisqualitative tests showed the presence of lead and sulphate in theammonium acetate solution the presence of lead was demonstrated by the black precipitate withhydrogen sulphid, the yellow precipitate with potassium chromate andthe typical yellowish crystalline precipitate with potassium iodin the presence of sulphates in the ammonium acetate solution was shown bythe formation of a precipitate with barium chlorid solution and aceticacid two 2 gm samples a and b were taken for the quantitativedetermination of lead each was treated repeatedly with a saturatedsolution of ammonium acetate until the filtered ammonium acetatesolution gave no appreciable precipitate with potassium chromatesolution the ammonium acetate extractions from each specimen werecombined and treated with hydrogen sulphid, the precipitated leadsulphid filtered off and washed, and ignited with sulphuric acid at alow heat the crucible with the residue of lead sulphate was cooled andweighed a yielded 0 0469 gm , or 2 34 per cent , lead sulphate b yielded 0 0440 gm , or 2 20 per cent , lead sulphate while the laboratory has no evidence to show that the amount oflead-sulphate thus found to be present is likely to prove harmful, thefollowing cautionary letter was sent to the natura company. “according to information which you sent to the council on pharmacy and chemistry your product “akoz” does not contain lead in view of reports received ascribing symptoms, resulting from the internal use of akoz, to chronic lead poisoning, an examination of a specimen of akoz powder, which you sent to the council, was made this examination indicates the presence in akoz powder of about 2 2 per cent lead sulphate in view of the disastrous results likely to follow the internal use of products containing even small amounts of lead, the above is submitted to you for your consideration ”no reply to the foregoing was received from the natura company -- fromreports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 103 sodium acetate in warming bottlesrecently the laboratory attention was called to the “thermorwaterless hot bottle, ” manufactured by the royal thermophor salesco , new york the following claims appear in one of the advertisingpamphlets.

Five superficial lacerated wounds on sidesof extended definition essay examples neck, four on left, one on right, apparently nail scratches twocontusions below and behind lower jaw also contusions on thighs nospots of ecchymosis on neck contusion under skin of lower writing of neckand upper writing of chest, eight inches long, four broad left greatercornu of hyoid bone fractured both upper cornua of thyroid cartilagefractured. Cricoid fractured on each side larynx, trachea, and bronchicontained pink frothy mucus. Mucous membrane congested lungs muchcongested. Pink frothy mucus in bronchi. No emphysema nor apoplexies right side of heart full of dark blood. Left side empty liver, spleen, and kidneys congested stomach and intestines normal bladder empty internal genitals normal brain congested 6 mackenzie. Ibid , august, 1888, p 232 - hindoo man, age about30 strangled by soft cloth cord necroscopy. Circular mark of cord, one-fourth inch diameter around lower writing of neck. Indistinct infront, but distinct at sides and back superficial abrasions of lipsand right cheek as from a gag faint marks of blisters on temples fingers not clinched face livid, swollen eyes closed. Conjunctivæcongested. Corneæ hazy. Pupils normal tongue protruding and bitten;not swollen fluid blood oozing from mouth and nose clotted bloodunder scalp of left temple skin beneath cord had the color andconsistence of parchment muscles not torn hyoid, thyroid, and cricoidnot injured larynx, trachea, and bronchi empty. Congested lungs muchcongested essay dark fluid blood in right side of heart. Left sideempty liver, spleen, and kidneys congested small patch of congestionin stomach intestines normal bladder normal, contained essay urine brain congested 7 ibid , p 234 - hindoo woman, age about 40 broad, circular, depressed “parchment” mark, one inch broad, around the neck, betweenhyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

Which, after it hath so abided foressay time, the husk with the clapper decays, and the foot or bottomthereof grows to be a small long bunch of berries, green at the first, and of a yellowish red colour when they are ripe, of the bigness of ahazel-nut kernel, which abides thereon almost until winter. The rootis round, and essaywhat long, for the most writing lying along, the leavesshooting forth at the largest end, which, when it bears its berries, are essaywhat wrinkled and loose, another growing under it, which issolid and firm, with thesis small threads hanging thereat the wholeplant is of a very sharp biting taste, pricking the tongue as nettlesdo the hands, and so abides for a great while without alteration theroot thereof was anciently used instead of starch to starch linen with there is another sort of cuckow-point, with less leaves than theformer, and essay times harder, having blackish spots upon them, whichfor the most writing abide longer green in summer than the former, andboth leaves and roots are more sharp and fierce than it. In all thingselse it is like the former place these two sorts grow frequently almost under every hedge-sidein thesis places of this land time they shoot forth leaves in the spring, and continue but untilthe middle of summer, or essaywhat later. Their husks appearing beforethe fall away, and their fruit shewing in april government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars tragusreports, that a dram weight, or more, if need be, of the spotted wakerobin, either fresh and green, or dried, having been eaten and taken, is a present and sure remedy for poison and the plague the juice ofthe herb taken to the quantity of a spoonful has the same effect butif there be a little vinegar added thereto, as well as to the rootaforesaid, it essaywhat allays the sharp biting taste thereof upon thetongue the green leaves bruised, and laid upon any boil or plaguesore, doth wonderfully help to draw forth the poison. A dram of thepowder of the dried root taken with twice so much sugar in the form ofa licking electuary, or the green root, doth wonderfully help thosethat are pursy and short-winded, as also those that have a cough. Itbreaks, digests, and rids away phlegm from the stomach, chest, andlungs the milk wherein the root as been boiled is effectual also forthe same purpose the said powder taken in wine or other drink, orthe juice of the berries, or the powder of them, or the wine whereinthey have been boiled, provokes urine, and brings down women coursesand purges them effectually after child-bearing, to bring away theafter-birth taken with sheep milk, it heals the inward ulcers of thebowels the distilled water thereof is effectual to all the purposesaforesaid a spoonful taken at a time heals the itch. An ounce or moretaken a time for essay days together, doth help the rupture. The leaveseither green or dry, or the juice of them, doth cleanse all manner ofrotten and filthy ulcers, in what writing of the body soever. And healsthe stinking sores in the nose, called polypus the water wherein theroot has been boiled, dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from anyfilm or skin, cloud or mists, which begin to hinder the sight, andhelps the watering and redness of them, or when, by essay chance, theybecome black and blue the root mixed with bean-flour, and applied tothe throat or jaws that are inflamed, helps them the juice of theberries boiled in oil of roses, or beaten into powder mixed with theoil, and dropped into the ears, eases pains in them the berries orthe roots beaten with the hot ox-dung, and applied, eases the pains ofthe gout the leaves and roots boiled in wine with a little oil, andapplied to the piles, or the falling down of the fundament, eases them, and so doth sitting over the hot fumes thereof the fresh roots bruisedand distilled with a little milk, yields a most sovereign water tocleanse the skin from scurf, freckles, spots, or blemishes whatsoevertherein authors have left large commendations of this herb you see, but for mywriting, i have neither spoken with dr reason nor dr experience about it cucumbers government and virtues there is no dispute to be made, but thatthey are under the dominion of the moon, though they are so much criedout against for their coldness, and if they were but one degree colderthey would be poison the best of galenists hold them to be cold andmoist in the second degree, and then not so hot as either lettuce orpurslain. They are excellently good for a hot stomach, and hot liver;the unmeasurable use of them fills the body full of raw humours, and soindeed the unmeasurable use of any thing else doth harm the face beingwashed with their juice, cleanses the skin, and is excellently good forhot rheums in the eyes. The seed is excellently good to provoke urine, and cleanses the passages thereof when they are stopped. There is nota better remedy for ulcers in the bladder growing, than cucumbersare. The usual course is, to use the seeds in emulsions, as they makealmond milk. But a far better way in my opinion is this. When theseason of the year is, take the cucumbers and bruise them well, anddistil the water from them, and let such as are troubled with ulcers inthe bladder drink no other drink the face being washed with the samewater, cures the reddest face that is. It is also excellently good forsun-burning, freckles, and morphew daisies these are so well known almost to every child, that i suppose itneedless to write any description of them take therefore the virtuesof them as follows government and virtues the herb is under the sign cancer, and underthe dominion of venus, and therefore excellently good for wounds inthe breast, and very fitting to be kept both in oils, ointments, andplaisters, as also in syrup the greater wild daisy is a wound herb ofgood respect, often used in those drinks or salves that are for wounds, either inward or outward the juice or distilled water of these, orthe small daisy, doth much temper the heat of choler, and refresh theliver, and the other inward writings a decoction made of them and drank, helps to cure the wounds made in the hollowness of the breast the samealso cures all ulcers and pustules in the mouth or tongue, or in thesecret writings the leaves bruised and applied to the privities, or toany other writings that are swoln and hot, doth dissolve it, and temperthe heat a decoction made thereof, of wallwort and agrimony, and theplaces fomented and bathed therewith warm, gives great ease to themthat are troubled with the palsy, sciatica, or the gout the same alsodisperses and dissolves the knots or kernels that grow in the flesh ofany writing of the body, and bruises and hurts that come of falls andblows. They are also used for ruptures, and other inward burnings, with very good success an ointment made thereof doth wonderfully helpall wounds that have inflammations about them, or by reason of moisthumours having access unto them, are kept long from healing, and suchare those, for the most writing, that happen to joints of the arms orlegs the juice of them dropped into the running eyes of any, doth muchhelp them dandelion, vulgarly called piss-a-beds descript it is well known to have thesis long and deep gashed leaves, lying on the ground round about the head of the roots. The ends of eachgash or jag, on both sides looking downwards towards the roots. Themiddle rib being white, which being broken, yields abundance of bittermilk, but the root much more.

  • how to cite websites in essay
  • college admission essay
  • essay proofreader
  • how to start a synthesis essay
  • evaluation essay
  • term paper helper
  • essay format for college
  • are leaders born or made essay
  • order an article review
  • how to buy an essay online now
  • buy argumentative research essay
  • how to right a essay
  • time management essay
  • writing expert help
  • buy cheap essays
  • help homework free
  • halloween essay
  • statistics homework help online free
  • essay grammar check
  • hw help
  • college essay help nyc

Fit for childrenbecause of their gentleness you extended definition essay examples may boil them in white wine. Ahandfull is enough at a time pilosella mouse-ear. Once before and this is often enough pithyusa a new name for spurge of the last edition plantago plantain cold and dry. An herb, though common, yet letnone despise it, for the decoction of it prevails mightily againsttormenting pains and excoriations of the entrails, bloody fluxes, itstops the menses, and spitting of blood, phthisicks, or consumptionsof the lungs, the running of the reins, and the fluor albus, painsin the head, and frenzies. Outwardly it clears the sight, takes awayinflammations, scabs, itch, the shingles, and all spreading sores, and is as wholeessay an herb as can grow about any an house tragus, dioscorides polium, &c polley, or pellamountain. All the sorts are hot inthe second degree, and dry in the third. Helps dropsies, the yellowjaundice, infirmities of the spleen, and provokes urine dioscorides polygonum knotgrass polytricum maidenhair portulaca purslain. Cold and moist in the second or third degree:cools hot stomachs, and it is admirable for one that hath his teeth onedge by eating sour apples, it cools the blood, liver, and is good forhot diseases, or inflammations in any of these places, stops fluxes, and the menses, and helps all inward inflammations whatsoever porrum leeks see the roots primula veris see cowslips, or the flowers, which you will prunella self-heal, carpenter-herb, and sicklewort moderately hotand dry, binding see bugle, the virtues being the same pulegium pennyroyal. Hot and dry in the third degree. Provokesurine, breaks the stone in the reins, strengthens women backs, provokes the menses, easeth their labour in child-bed, brings away theplacenta, stays vomiting, strengthens the brain, breaks wind, and helpsthe vertigo pulmonaria, arborea, et symphytum maculosum lung-wort it helpsinfirmities of the lungs, as hoarsness, coughs, wheezing, shortness ofbreath, &c you may boil it in hyssop-water, or any other water thatstrengthens the lungs pulicaria fleabane.