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The disposal and obligation to dispose of the same. How and by whom it may be exhumed or removed. Autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accused persons including an appendix containing a synopsis of the statutes of the different united states and territories concerning same by tracy c becker, a b , ll b , etc , counsellor at law, etc. Professor of civil law and medical jurisprudence, law dewritingment, university of buffalo legal status of the dead body disposal and obligations to dispose of the same - there is no rightof property, in the ordinary sense of the word, in a dead human body;but for the health and protection of society it is a rule of the commonlaw, and which has been confirmed by statutes in civilized statesand countries, that public duties are imposed upon public officers, and private duties upon the husband or wife and the next of kin ofthe deceased, to protect the body from violation and see that it isproperly interred, and to protect it after it is interred a parent isbound to provide christian burial for a deceased child, if he has themeans, but if he has not the means, though the body remains unburiedso long as to become a nuisance, he is not indictable for the nuisancealthough he could obtain money for the burial expenses by borrowing itof the poor-law authorities of the parish, for he is not bound to incura debt reg v vann, 2 div c c , 325. 15 jur , 1, 090 on theother hand it has been held in england, that every householder in whosehouse a dead body lies is bound by the common law, if he has the meansto do so, to inter the body decently, and this principle applies wherea person dies in the house of a parish or a union reg v stewart, 12 a & d , 1, 272 and the expense may be paid out of the effects ofthe deceased tugwell v hayman, 3 camp , 298, and note in pierce v the proprietors swan point cemetery, 10 r i , 227, s c , 14 am rep , 667, the court said. “that there is no rightof property in a dead body, using this word in its ordinary sense, may be well admitted, yet the burial of the dead is a subject whichinterests the feelings of mankind to a much greater degree than thesismatters of actual property there is a duty imposed by the universalfeelings of mankind to be discharged by essay one toward the dead. Aduty, and we may also say a right, to protect from violation. It may, therefore, be considered as a sort of quasi property, and it wouldbe discreditable to any system of law not to provide a remedy in sucha case. but the person having charge of it cannot be considered asthe owner of it in any sense whatever, he holds it only as a sacredtrust for the benefit of all who may from family or friendship havean interest in it ” see also wyncoop v wyncoop, 42 pa st , 293.

French writers donot make this distinction in english the word throttling is probablyoftener applied to strangulation by the hand than by cords the term suffocation is also applied in a special sense to theact and result of pressure on the mouth, nose, or chest and abdomen, stopping the breathing. Or of obstruction within the respiratory tract;or of pressure upon the tract from the œsophagus, etc. Or of breathingof irrespirable gases strangulation is almost always homicidal, hanging almost alwayssuicidal, and suffocation limited usually accidental, but also oftenhomicidal strangulation may be admitted, therefore, as including all paper ofsuffocation by pressure on the neck, whether by cords or the hand. Butexcluding hanging it will facilitate the study of the subject if we use the word ligatureas a general term to cover the thesis forms of cords, ropes, etc , usedin strangulation and hanging the word garroting is often used to indicate the forcible compressionof the neck by the hands of thieves the assault is usually made frombehind, and the victim is robbed while the throttling proceeds thebrevity of the process explains why death is not more frequent theword garroting comes from the spanish.

It is good against quotidian agues, and faults in thestomach and liver, yet because it is well corrected if you take buthalf a dram at a time, and keep yourself warm, i suppose you may takeit without danger pilulæ alœphanginæ college take of cinnamon, cloves, cardamoms the less, nutmegs, mace, calamus aromaticus, carpobalsamum, or juniper berries, squinanth, wood of aloes, yellow sanders, red roses dried, wormwood, of each halfan ounce, let the tincture be taken out of these, being grossly bruisedin spirit of wine, the vessel being close stopped. In three pounds ofthis tincture, being strained, dissolve aloes one pound, which beingdissolved, add mastich, myrrh, of each half an ounce, saffron twodrams, balsam of peru one dram, the superfluous liquor being consumed, either over hot ashes, or a bath, bring it into a mass of pills culpeper it cleanses both stomach and brain of gross and putrifiedhumours, and sets the senses free when they are thereby troubled, itcleanses the brain offended by ill humours, wind, &c helps vertigo andhead-aches, and strengthens the brain exceedingly, helps concoction, and strengthens the stomach, one dram taken at night going to bed, will work gently next day. If the writingy be weak, you may give less, ifstrong more if you take but half a dram, you may go abroad the nextday. But if you take a dram, you may keep the house. There can be noharm in that pilulæ de aloe lota or pills of washed aloes college take of aloes washed with juice of red roses, one ounce, agarick three drams, mastich two drams, diamoscu dulce half a dram, syrup of damask-roses, so much as is sufficient to make it into a massaccording to art culpeper it purges both brain, stomach, bowels, and eyes ofputrified humours, and also strengthens them use these as thesucceeding aloe rosata college take of aloes in powder four ounces, juice of damask rosesclarified one pound, mix them and digest them in the sun, or in a bath, till the superfluous liquor be drawn off, digest it, and evaporate itfour times over, and keep the mass culpeper it is a gallant gentle purger of choler, frees the stomachfrom superfluous humours, opens stoppings, and other infirmities ofthe body proceeding from choler and flegm, as yellow jaundice, &c andstrengthens the body exceedingly take a scruple, or half a dram atnight going to bed, you may walk abroad, for it will hardly work tillnext day in the afternoon pilulæ aureæ college take of aloes, diacrydium, of each five drams, red roses, smallage seeds, of each two drams and an half, the seeds of annisand fennel, of each one dram and an half, mastich, saffron, troch, alhandal, of each one dram, with a sufficient quantity of honey roses, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they are held to purge the head, to quicken the senses, especially the sight, and to expel wind from the bowels, but worksessaything harshly half a dram is the utmost dose, keep the fire, takethem in the morning, and sleep after them, they will work before noon pilulæ cochiæ, the greater college take of species, hiera picra, ten drams, troch, alhandal, three drams and an half, diacrydium two drams and an half, turbith, stœchas, of each five drams, with a sufficient quantity of syrup ofstœchas, make it into a mass, according to art culpeper it is held to purge the head, but it is but a dogged purgeat best, and must be given only to strong bodies, and but half a dramat a time, and yet with great care pilulæ cochiæ, the less college take of aloes, scammony, colocynthis, of each one ounce, with equal writings of syrup of wormwood, and of purging thorn, make itinto a mass according to art pilulæ de cynoglosso or pills of hound-tongue college take of the roots of hound-tongue dried, white henbaneseed, opium prepared, of each half an ounce, myrrh six drams, olibanumfive drams, saffron, castoreum, styrax, calamitis, of each one dram andan half, with syrup of stœchas, make it into a mass culpeper it stays hot rheums that fall down upon the lungs, therefore is good in phthisics, also it mitigates pain, a scruple isenough to take at a time going to bed, and too much if your body beweak. Have a care of opiates for fear they make you sleep your last pilulæ ex duobus or pills of two things college take of colocynthis, and scamony, of each one ounce, oil ofcloves as much as is sufficient to malax them well, then with a littlesyrup of purging thorn, make it into a mass pilulæ de eupatorio or pills of eupatorium college take of the juice of maudlin, and wormwood made thick, citron, myrobalans, of each three drams, rhubarb three drams and anhalf, mastich one dram, aloes five drams, saffron half a dram, syrup ofthe juice of endive, as much as is sufficient to make it into a mass culpeper it is a gallant gentle purge, and strengthening, fittedfor such bodies as are much weakened by disease of choler the authorappropriates it to such as have tertian agues, the yellow jaundice, obstructions or stoppings of the liver. Half a dram taken at nightgoing to bed, will work with an ordinary body, the next day by noon pilulæ fætidæ or stinking pills college take of aloes, colocynthis, ammoniacum, sagapen, myrrh, rue-seeds, epithymum, of each five drams, scamony three drams, theroots of turbith half an ounce, the roots of spurge the less prepared, hermodactils of each two drams, ginger one dram and an half, spikenard, cinnamon, saffron, castoreum, of each one dram, euphorbium prepared twoscruples, dissolve the gums in juice of leeks, and with syrup made withthe juice of leeks and sugar, make it into a mass culpeper they purge gross and raw flegm, and diseases thereofarising. Gouts of all sorts, pains in the back-bone, and other joints:it is good against leprosies, and other such like infirmities of theskin i fancy not the receipt much pilulæ de hermodactilis or pills of hermodactils college take of sagapen six drams, opopanax three drams, melt themin warm juice of coleworts, so much as is sufficient, then strain itthrough a convenient rag, afterwards boil it to a mean thickness, thentake of hermodactils, aloes, citron, myrobalans, turbith, coloquintida, soft bdellium, of each six drams, euphorbium prepared, the seeds of rueand smallage, castoreum, sarcocol, of each three drams, saffron onedram and an half, with the syrup of the juice of coleworts made withhoney, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they are good against the gout, and other cold afflictionsof the joints these are more moderate by half than pilulæ fœtidæ, and appropriated to the same diseases pilulæ de hiera cum agarico or pills of hiera with agarick college take of species hiera picra, agarick, of each half anounce, aloes one ounce, honey roses so much as is sufficient to make itinto a mass according to art pilulæ imperiales or imperial pills college take of aloes two ounces, rhubarb one ounce and an half, agarick, sena, of each one ounce, cinnamon three drams, ginger twodrams, nutmegs, cloves, spikenard, mastich, of each one dram with syrupof violets, make it into a mass according to art culpeper it cleanses the body of mixt humours, and strengthens thestomach exceedingly, as also the bowels, liver, and natural spirits. Itis good for cold natures, and cheers the spirits the dose is a scrupleor half a dram, taken at night pilulæ de lapide lazuli or pills of lapis lazuli college take of lapis lazuli in powder and well washed, five drams, epithymum, polypodium, agarick, of each an ounce, scamony, blackhellebore roots, sal gem of each two drams and an half, cloves, annisseeds, of each half an ounce, species hiera simple fifteen drams, withsyrup of the juice of fumitory, make it into a mass according to art culpeper it purges melancholy very violently pilulæ macri college take of aloes two ounces, mastich half an ounce, driedmarjoram two drams, salt of wormwood one dram, make them all, being inpowder, into a mass according to art with juice of coleworts and sugar, so much as is sufficient culpeper it strengthens both stomach and brain, especially thenerves and muscles, and eases them of such humours as afflict them, andhinder the motion of the body, they open obstructions of the liver andspleen, and takes away diseases thence coming pilulæ mastichinæ or mastich pills college take of mastich two ounces, aloes four ounces, agarick, species hiera simple, of each one ounce and an half, with syrup ofwormwood, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they purge very gently, but strengthen much, both head, brain, eyes, belly, and reins pilulæ mechoacanæ or pills of mechoacan college take of mechoacan roots half an ounce, turbith threedrams, the leaves of spurge steeped in vinegar and dried, the seedsof walwort, agarick trochiscated, of each two drams, spurge rootsprepared, mastich, of each one dram and an half, mace, cinnamon, sal gem of each two scruples, beat them into powder, and with white wine, bring them into a mass when it is dry, beat it into powder, and withsyrup made with the juice of orris roots and sugar, make it the secondtime into a mass for pills culpeper they purge flegm very violently pilulæ de opopanace or pills of opopanax college take of opopanax, sagapen, bdellium, ammoniacum, hermodactils, coloquintida, of each five drams, saffron, castoreum, myrrh, ginger, white pepper, cassia lignea, citron, myrobalans, of eachone dram, scamony two drams, turbith half an ounce, aloes an ounce andan half, the gums being dissolved in clarified juice of coleworts, with syrup of the juice of coleworts, make them into a mass accordingto art culpeper it helps tremblings, palsies, gouts of all sorts, cleanses the joints, and is helpful for such as are troubled with coldafflictions of the nerves it works violently pilulæ rudii college take of coloquintida six drams, agarick, scamony, the rootsof black hellebore, and turbith, of each half an ounce, aloes oneounce, diarrhodon abbatis half an ounce, let all of them the diarrh abbatis excepted be grossly bruised, and infused eight days in thebest spirits of wine in a vessel close stopped, in the sun, so that theliquor may swim at top the breadth of six fingers. Afterwards infusethe diarrhodon abbatis in the same manner four days in aqua vitæ, thenhaving strained and pressed them hard, mix them both together, castingthe dross away, and draw off the moisture in a glass alembick, and letthe thick matter remain in a mass culpeper it cleanses both head and body of choler, flegm, andmelancholy. It must not be taken in any great quantity, half a dram issufficient for the strongest body pilulæ russi college take of aloes two ounces, myrrh one ounce, saffron half anounce, with syrup of the juice of lemons, make it into a mass accordingto art culpeper a scruple taken at night going to bed, is an excellentpreservative in pestilential times. Also they cleanse the body of suchhumours as are gotten by surfeits, they strengthen the heart, and weakstomachs, and work so easily that you need not fear following yourbusiness the next day pilulæ sine quibus or pills without which college take of washed aloes fourteen drams, scammony preparedsix drams, agarick, rhubarb, sena, of each half an ounce, wormwood, red roses exungulated, violet flowers, dodder, mastich, of each onedram, salt of wormwood, of each half a dram, with syrup of the juice offennel made with honey, make it into a mass according to art culpeper it purges flegm, choler, and melancholy from the head, makes the sight and hearing good, and gives ease to a burdened brain pilulæ stomachiæ or stomach pills college take of aloes six drams, mastich, red roses, of each twodrams, with syrup of wormwood, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they cleanse and strengthen the stomach, they cleanse butgently, strengthen much, help digestion pilulæ stomachiæ cum gummi or stomach pills with gums college take of aloes an ounce, sena five drams, gum amoniacumdissolved in elder-flower vinegar half an ounce, mastich, myrrh, ofeach a dram and an half, saffron, salt of wormwood, of each half adram, with syrup of purging thorn, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they work more strongly than the former pilulæ e styrace or pills of styrax college take of styrax calamitis, olibanum, myrrh, juice ofliquorice, opium, of each half an ounce, with syrup of white poppies, make it into a mass according to art culpeper they help such as are troubled with defluxion of rheum, coughs, and provoke sleep to such as cannot sleep for coughing pilulæ de succino or pills of amber college take of white amber, mastich, of each two drams, aloesfive drams, agaric a dram and an half, long birthwort half a dram, withsyrup of wormwood make it into a mass culpeper it amends the evil state of a woman body, strengthensconception, and takes away what hinders it.

He essaytimes rides through my brain, so that i amnot able to read or to write, ” and upon another occasion he said, inregard to his health. “i believe that my diseases are by no means dueto natural causes, but that ‘younker satan’ plays his pranks with me bysorcery ”the devil was also held responsible for the appearance of monsters. Itwas believed that the ruler of hell helped young girls against theirwill to enjoy the delights of motherhood however, these delights weresaid to be of a peculiar kind, in that intercourse with the devilwas always bound to be followed by the birth of the most frightfulmonsters the devil then unloaded these most remarkable monsters intorespectable people houses even luther was not able to free himselffrom this most astonishing delusion on the contrary, he was devotedto it with such conviction that, when once in dessau, he heard of amonster according to medical opinion, it was a question of a rhachiticchild that had grown to be twelve years of age, he advised, in allseriousness, that this sinful product of devilish intercourse be throwninto the river mulde compare möhsen, vol ii , page 506, etc , on “therelations of luther to the devil” if it was very improper of the devil to visit even clerical gentlemen, he crowned his wickedness, in that he very unceremoniously honored evenministers in the pulpit with his visit such an occurrence took placein friedeberg, neumark, in 1593, in which otherwise harmless town thedevil commenced suddenly to create an unheard-of commotion he harassedabout one hundred and fifty people, and even in church he gave solittle rest to those he possessed, that they raised various kinds ofmischief in this holy place when, thereupon, the preacher, heinrichlemrich, thundered against these deviltries from the pulpit, the devilbecame so incensed that immediately he promenaded into the reverendlemrich himself, so that the good minister raged in the pulpit exactlyas did the members of his congregation down below in the nave however, this variety of medical superstition finally spread to such anextent that, as medical aid was powerless against the devil, the aid ofgod, by order of the consistory, was invoked from all pulpits of themargravate against the above-described misdeeds of hell ruler but the clergy adopted still another plan to checkmate the devil invarious publications they enumerated the villainies which satan mightvisit on mankind, so that each and every one would be enabled toprotect himself against the aggressions of the devil, in whatever formhe might make his appearance the first publication of this characterwas issued in 1555 by the general superintendent of the electorate ofbrandenburg, professor of the university of frankfort, herr musculus;it bore the very appropriate title, the pantaloon devil in fact, asearly as 1575 a compilation was published in frankfort-on-the-main, in which twenty-four different forms, which the devil might assumein visiting humanity, were discussed most conscientiously and withbecoming diffuseness of style compare möhsen, vol ii , page 426, etc from that time it was impossible for mankind to shake off the belief indevil and demons the thought of being possessed played a conspicuouswriting even in the first half of the nineteenth century, thanks to theactivity of justinus kerner, and even medicine felt called upon to busyitself more thoroughly with this newly resurrected belief this wasdone, for instance, by dr klencke, who, in 1840, published a littlebook exclusively for the purpose of disproving the existence of spirits we have so far shown the potent influence exerted upon medicalsuperstition by antique as well as by medieval philosophy but thenewer philosophy greatly influenced the destiny of medicine, evenat the end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the nineteenthcenturies the natural philosophy based upon the doctrines ofschelling once more submerged the art of healing in mysticism, and thusnecessarily abetted superstition the physician no longer conceiveddisease as the effect of disturbances in the life of the bodilyorgans, but held various forms of inconceivable powers responsiblefor the incidence of a malady the soul wrapped in sin had powerto lead the life of the body from the normal into the pathologicalcondition, and, accordingly, prayer and the belief in christiandogmas again became active as curative factors it was especiallythe munich clinician, nepomuk von ringseis, who placed such theoriesbefore his pupils, and who, in his “system of medicine, ” published in1840, made them generally known ringseis states in this book. “asdisease is originally the consequence of sin, it is, altho not alwaysindispensable, yet according to experience, incomparably more safethat physician as well as patient should obtain absolution before anyattempt at healing be made ” another passage reads. “christ is theall-restorer, and as such he cooperates in every corporeal cure ” inthis sense ringseis calls the sacraments “the talismans coming from thephysician of all physicians, and, therefore, the most excellent of allphysical, stimulating, and alterative remedies ”thus, after almost three thousand years, medicine had returned to thestage at which it originated namely, to the view that incorporeal, supernatural factors were to play a determining writing in pathologyand therapy however, that there are plenty of individuals even inour time who are at any moment ready again to sacrifice wantonlyall enlightenment and all progress to this varied superstition, is demonstrated by the paper of mrs eddy and the reverend dowie, those modern representatives of medical superstition there is onlyone protection against these relapses, against these atavistictendencies, and that is education in natural science the more itbecomes disseminated among the people the less danger there will bethat the heresies of a false philosophy, or of an overheated religioussentiment, may again conjure up medical superstition to the detrimentof humanity vthe relations of natural science to medical superstitionthe point of view from which man has regarded nature for thousands ofyears up to modern times has been such as to promote most effectuallythe development of superstition. For the idea that a satisfactoryinsight into the character of natural phenomena can be obtained onlyby means of adequate experiments, and of observation perfected by theemployment of the inductive reasoning and ingenious instruments, iscomparatively recent natural science applying such means is scarcelytwo hundred years old fit instruments for the observation of natureexisted only to a limited extent up to the eighteenth century, and, besides, their complete efficiency left much to be desired theattempts to wrest from nature her secrets by means of experiment werebut feeble and unsuccessful altho the ancients, as is shown by thewritings of hippocrates, galen, and others, had essay knowledge ofvivisection, they had practised it to a most limited extent duringthe middle ages and the period of the renaissance comparatively fewphysical experiments were made whatever researches in natural sciencewere then undertaken were intended much less for the investigation ofnature than for fantastic and superstitious purposes as, for instance, the investigations of alchemy and astrology it is quite obvious that, under such circumstances, a number ofsuperficial, imperfect, and distorted observations crept into thetheoretic system of natural science however, this was not all. The diagnostico-theoretical method, bymeans of which antiquity, the middle ages, and even the greatest writingof more modern times, had seen the natural sciences treated, wasradically wrong man did not feel his way carefully from experimentto experiment, from observation to observation, until the generalprinciple was found which inductively comprised a number of phenomenaunder one uniform principle of law, but the principle which was atthe bottom of phenomena was fixed upon a speculative basis, and inaccordance with this principle the phenomena were interpreted as wasdone, for instance, in medicine in the case of humoral pathology andas this speculatively constructed principle was obtained exclusively bya method dangerous to the cognition of natural sciences, by conclusionfrom analogy, naturally the most fantastic and adventurous conceptionssoon became accepted in the realm of natural philosophy but naturalphilosophy once lost in such a labyrinth, an aberration of theperceptive powers can not fail to follow at least, in certain domainsof nature as a matter of fact, this fallacious perception promptlymade its appearance, and has proved the stumbling-block of sciencefrom its earliest days up to the present times occultism, mysticism, or whatever the names may be of the various forms of superstition, have sprung from these erroneous conceptions of natural science itmay even be contended that no variety of superstition exists which isnot essayhow connected with a distorted observation or explanation ofnature however interesting these considerations may be, we can nothere pursue them any further such investigations belong to the history of superstition in general, and any one who desires more detailed information is referred to theenormous literature of the subject we can here consider only thoserelations which prevail, or have prevailed, between superstition andnatural science, and principally the influence which was thus exertedupon the art of healing by astronomy astronomy and medicine became most intimately connected during theearliest periods of human civilization the literature of cuneiforminscriptions shows us that the attempt to bring the stars intoconnection with human destinies is primeval, and reaches back to theancient babylonian age, even to the sumero-accadic period sudhoff, med woche 1901, no 41 how primeval peoples came to connecttheir destinies with the heavenly bodies and their orbits is explainedso lucidly by troels-lund page 28, etc that we shall cite hisdescriptions, even if they are rather long for quotation he says.

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Each consists of seven members, appointedrespectively by those expository essay graphic organizer societies, physicians actually engaged in thepractice of medicine, and of recognized ability and honor. But nophysician having a pecuniary interest in the trade of pharmacy can beappointed 2 suitable provisions must be made by each examining board to prepare aschedule of written examination upon anatomy, physiology, chemistry, surgery, practice of medicine, materia medica and therapeutics, obstetrics, gynæcology, pathology, medical jurisprudence and hygiene;the same standard of excellence is required from all candidates. Intherapeutics and practice, the questions must be in harmony with thetenets of the school selected by the candidate. And the standardof acquirements therein is established by each board itself theexamination must be fundamental in character and such as can beanswered in common by all schools of practice 1, 42 application for license is made in writing to the president of eitherboard of medical examiners which the applicant may elect, withsatisfactory proof that the applicant is more than twenty-one years ofage, is of good moral character, has obtained a competent common-schooleducation, and has either received a diploma conferring the degreeof doctor of medicine from essay legally incorporated medical collegein the united states, or a diploma or license conferring the fullright to practise all the branches of medicine and surgery in essayforeign country, and has also both studied medicine three years andattended three courses of lectures in different years in essay legallyincorporated medical college or colleges prior to the granting ofthe diploma or foreign license. Two courses of medical lectures bothbegun or completed within the same calendar year do not satisfy therequirement. This condition is not applicable to students who shall bein their second year in a medical college, nor to physicians practisingat the time of the passage of the act such proof is made, if required, upon affidavit, upon making the application and proof and payment ofthe fee the president of the board, if satisfied, must direct thesecretary to issue an order for examination, and when the applicantshall have passed an examination as to proficiency satisfactory to theboard, the president must grant a license to practise medicine andsurgery 1, 43 all of the examinations are conducted so that the name, school ofgraduation, and preparatory training of the applicant shall not be madeknown to the board till his examination papers have been graded anapplicant receiving a majority of the votes of the board is consideredto have passed a satisfactory examination and is entitled to a license1, 44 the board must refuse a license to an applicant radically deficient inany essential branch in case of a failure, the candidate must havethe privilege, after the expiration of one year from his rejection, ofanother examination by the board to which his application was firstmade 1, 46 a license, or a certified copy, must be filed with the clerk of thecircuit court of the county or city in which the licensee may practise;the number of the book and page containing the recorded copy must benoted in the body of license evidence - the records have the same weight as evidence that is givento the record of conveyances of land 1, 48 exceptions - the act does not apply to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army, navy, or marine hospital service, to physiciansor surgeons in actual consultation from other states, nor to personstemporarily practising under the supervision of an actual medicalpreceptor, nor to a midwife or person who may render gratuitousservices in case of emergency 1, 49, 51 penalty - practising, or attempting to practise, without a license isa misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $200 for eachoffence, with confinement in jail, in default of payment, till fineand costs are paid. A person so practising is debarred from recoveringcompensation 1, 50 fees - to secretary of board, before examination, $10 1, 45 to clerk of court, for registration, $1 1, 48 massachusetts in massachusetts there is no statute upon this subject michigan qualification - it is unlawful to practise medicine or surgery or anybranch except dentistry, without the prescribed qualifications andregistration in the office of the county clerk laws 1883, c 167, s 1 a person who was practising when the law took effect, and had beenpractising continuously for at least five years prior thereto in thestate, is deemed qualified to practise medicine after registration2, as amended 1887, c 268 a graduate of a legally authorized medical college in the state, orany of the united states, or any other country, is deemed qualified topractise medicine and surgery in all dewritingments after registration a student or undergraduate is not prohibited from practising withand under the immediate supervision of a person legally qualified topractise medicine and surgery ib a person qualified registers by filing with the county clerk of thecounty where he practises, or intends to practise, a sworn statementsetting forth, if actually engaged in practice, the length of timehe has been engaged in such continuous practice. If a graduate of amedical college, the name and location of the same, when he graduatedand how long he attended the same, and the school of medicine to whichhe belongs. If a student or undergraduate, how long he has been engagedin the study of medicine and where, and if he has attended a medicalcollege, its name and location and the length of his attendance, and when, and the name and residence of the physician under whoseinstruction he is practising, or intends to practise the statement isto be recorded by the clerk ib penalty - no person practising medicine, surgery, or midwifery cancollect pay for professional services unless at the time of renderingsuch services he was duly qualified and registered 4 advertising, or holding out to the public, as authorized to practisemedicine or surgery, when not authorized, is a misdemeanor punishablewith a fine of from $5 to $50 for each offence 7 fees - to county clerk, for recording statement, 50 cents 2 minnesota board of examiners - the governor appoints a board of medicalexaminers of nine members, no one of whom can be a member of a collegeor university having a medical dewritingment, and two of whom must behomœopathic physicians act 1887, c 9, s 1 qualification - persons commencing the practice of medicine and surgeryin any of its branches must apply to the board for a license, and atthe time and place designated by the board, or at a regular meeting, submit to an examination in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, histology, materia medica, therapeutics, preventive medicines, practice ofmedicine, surgery, obstetrics, diseases of women and children, of thenervous system, of the eye and ear, medical jurisprudence, and suchother branches as the board deems advisable, and present evidence ofhaving attended three courses of lectures of at least six months each;the examination must be scientific and practical, but of sufficientseverity to test the candidate fitness to practise medicine andsurgery when desired, the examination may be conducted in the presenceof the dean of any medical school or the president of any medicalsociety of this state after examination, the board must grant, withthe consent of at least seven members, a license to practise medicineand surgery, which may be refused or revoked for unprofessional, dishonorable, or immoral conduct. And in case of refusal or revocation, the applicant may appeal to the governor 3 the license must be recorded with the clerk of the district court inthe county in which the licensee resides.