History

Explanatory Essay Example


But therefore too much must not be taken, becauseit makes the blood thin and wheyish, and turns it into choler, andtherefore choleric persons must abstain from it it is a safe medicinefor the biting of a mad dog, being bruised with salt and laid thereon the powder of it being dried and taken after meat, helps digestion, andthose that are splenetic taken with wine, it helps women in their soretravail in child-bearing it is good against the gravel and stone inthe kidneys, and the stranguary being smelled unto, it is comfortablefor the head and memory the decoction hereof gargled in the mouth, cures the gums and mouth that are sore, and mends an ill-savouredbreath. As also the rue and coriander, causes the palate of the mouthto turn to its place, the decoction being gargled and held in themouth the virtues of the wild or horse mint, such as grow in ditches whosedescription i purposely omitted, in regard they are well known areserviceable to dissolve wind in the stomach, to help the cholic, andthose that are short-winded, and are an especial remedy for thosethat have veneral dreams and pollutions in the night, being outwardlyapplied the juice dropped into the ears eases the pains of them, and destroys the worms that breed therein they are good against thevenemous biting of serpents the juice laid on warm, helps the kingevil, or kernels in the throat the decoction or distilled water helpsa stinking breath, proceeding from corruption of the teeth, and snuffedup the nose, purges the head pliny saith, that eating of the leaveshath been found by experience to cure the leprosy, applying essay ofthem to the face, and to help the scurf or dandriff of the head usedwith vinegar they are extremely bad for wounded people. And they say awounded man that eats mint, his wound will never be cured, and that isa long day misselto descript this rises up from the branch or arm of the tree whereonit grows, with a woody stem, putting itself into sundry branches, and they again divided into thesis other smaller twigs, interlacingthemselves one within another, very much covered with a greyish greenbark, having two leaves set at every joint, and at the end likewise, which are essaywhat long and narrow, small at the bottom, but broadertowards the end at the knots or joints of the boughs and branches growsmall yellow flowers, which run into small, round, white, transparentberries, three or four together, full of a glutinous moisture, with ablackish seed in each of them, which was never yet known to spring, being put into the ground, or any where else to grow place it grows very rarely on oaks with us. But upon sundry othersas well timber as fruit trees, plentifully in woody groves, and thelike, through all this land time it flowers in the spring-time, but the berries are not ripeuntil october, and abides on the branches all the winter, unless theblackbirds, and other birds, do devour them government and virtues this is under the dominion of the sun, ido not question.

there is a kind of gentian called also by thisname, explanatory essay example which i pass by is drying and binding, exceeding good for inwardor outward wounds, either inwardly taken, or outwardly applied. And anexcellent remedy for such as are bursten crassula orpine very good. Outwardly used with vinegar, it clearsthe skin. Inwardly taken, it helps gnawings of the stomach and bowels, ulcers in the lungs, bloody-flux, and quinsy in the throat, for whichlast disease it is inferior to none, take not too much of it at a time, because of its coolness crithamus, &c sampire hot and dry, helps difficulty of urine, theyellow jaundice, provokes the menses, helps digestion, opens stoppingsof the liver and spleen galen cucumis asininus wild cucumbers see elaterium cyanus major, minor blue bottle, great and small, a fine coolingherb, helps bruises, wounds, broken veins.

1st, in a female dog which hadhad ‘chronic stomach trouble’ for six months when draper saw her shehad had complete intestinal obstruction for five days, with symptoms oftachycardia, extreme nervousness and great weakness in the hind legs draper removed a pebble from her intestine but her condition was stillgrave “she was immediately put on small-intestine epithelium derived fromtwo dogs of different breed draper says that from a long experiencewith duodenally obstructed dogs, he should not have expected her torecover, but the symptoms gradually subsided and she lived the secondinstance in which he used the epithelium therapeutically was in thecase of a man who suffered from an annular cancer of the intestine withdefinite symptoms of obstruction after the operation, and realizingthat the patient was in a desperate condition, he fed him an emulsionof intestinal epithelium from a dog the pulse improved and the patientlived “essay of draper conclusions are as follows:“‘autotoxemia in intestinal obstruction undoubtedly arises from aninterference with cellular reactions of the intestinal epithelium when small-intestine epithelial cells of healthy animals are placedin the stomach106 of duodenally obstructed animals, such animals havelived nearly twice as long as not-fed controlled animals this evidenceis strongly opposed to the bacterial theory of origin of toxins ’“the point to be emphasized is this. If this emulsion of intestinalepithelium had been fed to a normal dog and a normal man, what wouldhave happened?. absolutely nothing on the other hand, given as it wasto a dog and a man in desperate need it exercised a potent effect “abundant clinical testimony can be cited in support of the opinionsof moore, edie and abram, hallion, marfan and draper as to the valueof extracts of the intestinal mucosa given by mouth in pathologicalconditions we have previously cited the published favorable opinionsof such gastroenterologists as anthony bassler, lewis brinton, g r lockwood, and r c kemp, so there is no need to recapitulate theirexperiences with what they honestly believed to be secretin-bearingextracts, but which were essentially extracts of the duodenal mucosa “supplementing the evidence of these men as to the value of theseextracts we submit an excerpt from a letter from one of the best knownphysicians of edinburgh:“‘i can speak in very high praise of secretogen, which i have used inboth tablet form and as the elixir there is no doubt about its valuein a certain class of intractable indigestion which refuses to bebenefited by any other remedy on several occasions i have been muchgratified by the definite relief obtained in this class of paper ithits the mark also in essay types of obstinate constipation-- i thinkthose paper where the trouble is wrapped up in impaired enervationof the intestine, and where stasis occurs at certain segments of thecanal ’“hallion very pertinently points out108 that it is now accepted thatopotherapy is not substitutive, but homostimulative and he remarksfurther that it is well to bear in mind that the so-called activesubstances which make the extract efficacious need not necessarily bethe hormones ‘it may be the elements of tissue structure which maycome to the aid of the injured organ the hormone should not thereforebe looked on as the only active agent of opotherapy and, while itsaction is important, it need not necessarily be preponderant thechemical isolation of the hormones is, of course, of interest but maynot be as vital to organotherapy as we have thought ’ ”108 presse médicale, 1912, p 433 comment by the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe g w carnrick company, which formerly claimed that secretogen wasefficacious because it contained secretin, now admits this claim to beunfounded notwithstanding, the manufacturers still call their productsecretogen and make for it practically the same therapeutic claims asbefore they now base these claims on vague “principles of opotherapy”and on so-called “clinical testimony ” the burden of proof rests onthem to show that these old claims, already discredited but put forthagain on new grounds, are justified have they done so?. The “clinical te stimony” is not convincing so much of it as isdefinite enough to permit of criticism has already been dealt with theremainder consists of mere assertions. It is not through reliance onsuch evidence that the council can discharge its trust on this side ofthe question there is nothing new to be said-- reassertion of a refutedargument does not constitute fresh proof nor is the case better on the experimental side the statements ofhallion, enriquez, zuelzer and others109 as to the existence of a“peristaltic hormone” not only have failed of confirmation, but alsohave been positively discredited with regard to draper work, whichdealt with acute intestinal obstruction, it is difficult to see what isits relevance to the present issue, writingicularly since draper resultswere obtained with a product derived from the mucosa of the jejunumand ileum and not with an extract of the duodenum such as secretogenpurports to be 109 cf interal schagindweit, e. Experimentelle versuche mithormonal, arch internat de pharmacod , 1913, p 77 the innuendo that the council discriminates in favor of certainmanufacturers, is itself a confession of weakness in publishing this correspondence the council sole object is to putthe medical profession in possession of the exact facts of the case these may fairly be summed up as follows:1 secretogen was originally marketed as a preparation containingsecretin none was found in it 2 notwithstanding proof of this fact, the g w carnrick companyretain the original name of the product, knowing that, by itsassociation with their former erroneous assertions concerningsecretogen, this name must inevitably convey to a physician usingthe product the impression that he is administering secretin in theadvertising literature no hint is given that this original statementwas erroneous 3 the product called “secretogen” has not been shown, eitherexperimentally and by sound clinical evidence, to possess usefultherapeutic properties under these circumstances the council reaffirms its decision -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 72 iron citrate green report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryh k mulford company and e r squibb and sons submitted to thecouncil ampules containing solutions of iron citrate green it thusbecame necessary to consider the eligibility of iron citrate greenitself for admission to new and nonofficial remedies as the rules ofthe council provide that nonessential modifications of official ornonproprietary preparations will not be recognized, the above namedfirms were asked to state what advantages, if any, the so-called ironcitrate green had over the official iron and ammonium citrate in replythe h k mulford company wrote that it had come to the conclusion thatiron citrate green and ampules thereof would undoubtedly be consideredby the council as a nonessential modification of an official product, adding. “it seems to differ from the official ferric citrate so far as essentials go only in color, but custom, which is exceedingly hard to change in south america, demands that this green variety of ampules be used in place of the official product ”in reply to a similar letter of inquiry e r squibb and sons wrote. “iron citrate green iron and ammonium citrate green differs from the u s p iron and ammonium citrate in that it contains less iron and more citric acid and more ammonium citrate than does the latter it is of course a modification of the official salt and is supplied to meet a real demand its reaction is quite decidedly acid and our present stock contains fe slightly below the u s p requirements for iron, assaying 15 74 per cent instead of 16 per cent fe the tests used to control its quality are those for the official product except as before indicated, it is always acid instead of neutral, as the u s p requires for that salt ”the smaller iron content 98 per cent of the u s p requirementof the green variety referred to by e r squibb and sons is so smallas to be negligible further, the low iron content as well as theacidity of the green salt would appear to be detriments rather thanadvantages inasmuch as no evidence has been presented to show thatiron citrate green is superior in any way to the well-known iron andammonium citrate the council held that iron citrate green, and with itthe dosage forms, was ineligible to n n r the preceding report was submitted to the mulford company and to e r squibb and sons for comment before publication the former firm repliedthat in the present case it felt bound to supply the existing demand, the latter replied that, to give the council its support in thismatter, the sale of iron citrate green and ampules thereof would bediscontinued -- from the journal a m a , jan 13, 1917 aspirin report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe referee report on aspirin-bayer which follows was submitted tothe council and adopted by it and, in accordance with the refereerecommendation, was sent to the bayer company, inc the company replycontained nothing to warrant the continued recognition of this productby the council it was accordingly directed that aspirin-bayer beomitted from new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary referee reportthe referee attention has been called to the systematic campaignof advertising aspirin to the public he is informed that tabletshave been marketed for essay time in “vest-pocket” boxes, bearing thename “aspirin” permanently affixed, which is in technical conflictwith the council rule against indirect advertising to the public more recently, conspicuous advertisements have appeared in dailypapers these are technically in conflict with the rule against directadvertising to the public in addition to the plain technical conflicts with the council rulesthere is a feature of the case which has not hitherto been raisedand which should be fully considered. It may be remarked that theadvertisements contain no therapeutic recommendation, and do not, ontheir face, urge the public to employ aspirin but apparently merelytell the public how it may protect itself against sophistication in substance, they say. “if you are a user of aspirin, this is howyou may obtain the genuine ” it might be said that this is not anattempt to increase the use or sale of aspirin-- the ordinary object ofadvertising-- but that the means of protection against adulteration isa “subject on which the public should be instructed ” the principleof such exceptions is stated in the comments to rule 3 new andnonofficial remedies, 1916, p 15. And although the present case doesnot come under the exceptions specified under these comments, it may beurged that the exceptions need to be increased as occasion arises thenotorious adulteration of aspirin may well be urged as establishing aneed for a similar exception in its use the general principle of protecting the public against fraud, adulteration and substitution is directly in line with the objects ofthe council, and deserves commendation and support it is obvious, however, that the means adopted for this end must be efficient, that they must not open the door to other, perhaps greater evilsand that they must be used in good faith the policy of advertising“aspirin-bayer” must be examined in these respects in the first place, the acceptance of a product by the council impliesan agreement by the manufacturers or agents that they will adherestrictly to the council rules and will not dewriting from the letter orspirit of these rules without notice to the council this principle hasbeen grossly infringed in the present case there can be no doubt thatthe agents were aware that their advertisements conflicted, at leastwith the letter of rule 3 nevertheless, they did not, in any way, inform the council of the change in policy in this respect, at least, they have not acted in good faith secondly, the wording of the advertisement implies that only thetablets stamped with “the bayer cross” are genuine this is misleading, since every druggist has the right to make unstamped tablets ofaspirin, fully as genuine as those stamped with the cross thirdly, the cross itself cannot be considered an efficient protection;for people who imitate aspirin will not hesitate to imitate thestamp the remedy, in either case, and as with any other drug, is theexamination of trade samples, and the vigorous prosecution of thoseguilty of violating the law fourthly, the permanent affixing of the name “aspirin” to thevest-pocket boxes is also inefficient as a protection, and servesmainly as an advertisement fifthly, whatever may have been the motives of the advertisers, andhowever carefully the advertisements are worded, they will inevitablytend to increase the use of aspirin by the public, and this is directlyagainst the interests of public health the public does not know, asphysicians do, that headaches are merely symptoms of other, essaytimesvery serious conditions. And that they are often the signal for theneed of a thorough physical examination and diagnosis it is true thatthey are often also the symptoms of very minor derangements, which willright themselves spontaneously. And that, in such paper, drugs likeaspirin may give relief and may do no harm the patient, however, isnot educated to distinguish one class from the other, and thereforeanything that tends to promote the indiscriminate use of such remediesas aspirin is detrimental to the public health furthermore, aspirinitself is not always harmless alarming idiosyncrasies are sufficientlycommon that the use of the first doses, at least, should requiremedical supervision with these considerations in mind, the referee isof the opinion that the direct and indirect advertising of aspirin isto be condemned -- from the journal a m a , jan 20, 1917 pil cascara compound-robins report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrya circular issued by the a h robins company of richmond, va , contains the following statement. “pil cascara compound-robins is a rational therapeutic formula, composed of cascara, podophyllin, colocynth and hyoscyamus, which promotes a natural flow of secretions, which is, in turn, the physiologic stimulant of peristalsis thus, a normal evacuation is produced without subsequent inhibition “they contain no mercury, strychnia nor belladonna “an ideal aid to any remedial agent, when a mild, medium or strong alimentary stimulant is needed sic “made in two strengths, the dosage may be easily regulated so as to obtain the effects of an anti-dyspeptic, aperient, laxative or cathartic, as desired they never cause discomfort unless given in larger dose than needed ”this preparation is another example of the innumerable mixtures ofwell-known drugs having nothing in the way of originality or of specialtherapeutic value to recommend them the advertising implies that this writingicular combination has a specialaction on the secretions of the gastro-intestinal tract. Otherwiseit would be hard to explain the claim that the preparation isantidyspeptic, if that means anything more than a laxative or cathartic the claim is made that this preparation contains no belladonna-- yetit admittedly contains hyoscyamus!. this manifests either ignorance onthe writing of the manufacturers, or an effort to impose on the medicalprofession both belladonna and hyoscyamus contain variable amountsof similar alkaloids, chiefly hyoscyamin hyoscyamus is feeblerthan belladonna in its action, as it contains less alkaloid thequalitative differences between the two drugs, with reference to theiruse as laxatives, is so slight as to make the company claim forhyoscyamus appear either deliberately misleading or to be the resultof crass ignorance promoting this mixture of well-known laxatives andcathartics as an “ideal aid to any remedial agent when a mild, mediumor strong alimentary stimulant is needed” is a slur on the intelligenceof physicians pil cascara compound-robins is not acceptable for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , jan 27, 1917 casta-flora report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycasta-flora is one of those complex preparations which are offeredto the medical profession, with plausible arguments in support ofthe claims made it is put out by the wm s merrell chemical co , cincinnati each fluidounce is said to represent. “castanea, fresh leaves, 40 gr.

Then if your liver be weak, it is none of thewisest courses to plague it with an enemy if the liver be weak, aconsumption follows. Would you know the reason?. it is this, a manflesh is repaired by blood, by a third concoction, which transmutes theblood into flesh, it is well i said, concoction say i, if i had said boiling every cook would have understood me the liver makes blood, and if it be weakened that if it makes not enough, the flesh wastes;and why must flesh always be renewed?. because the eternal god, when hemade the creation, made one writing of it in continual dependency uponanother. And why did he so?. because himself only is permanent. To teachus, that we should not fix our affections upon what is transitory, butwhat endures for ever the result of this is, if the liver be weak, andcannot make blood enough, i would have said, sanguify, if i had writtenonly to scholars, the seriphian, which is the weakest of wormwoods, isbetter than the best i have been critical enough, if not too much place it grows familiarly in england, by the sea-side descript it starts up out of the earth, with thesis round, woody, hairy stalks from one root its height is four feet, or three at least the leaves in longitude are long, in latitude narrow, in colour white, in form hoary, in similitude like southernwood, only broader andlonger. In taste rather salt than bitter, because it grows so near thesalt-water.

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The roots of which are drying and binding, stop fluxes, bleeding, take away cold swellings, and ease the pains of the teeth spatulæ fœtidæ stinking gladon, a kind of flower-de-luce, calledso for its unsavory smell it is hot and dry in the third degree;outwardly they help the king evil, soften explanatory essay example hard swellings, draw outbroken bones. Inwardly taken, they help convulsions, ruptures, bruises, infirmities of the lungs tamarisci of tamaris see the herbs, and barks tanaceti of tansie the root eaten, is a singular remedy for thegout. The rich may bestow the cost to preserve it thapsi, &c a venomous foreign root. Therefore no more of it tormentillæ of tormentil a kind of sinqfoil. Dry in the thirddegree, but moderately hot. Good in pestilences, provokes sweat, staysvomiting, cheers the heart, expels poison trifolij of trefoil see the herb tribuli aquatici of water caltrops the roots lie too far underwater for me to reach to trachellij of throat-wort. By essay called canterbury bells.