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Thus, the position and the course and thephases of the moon, the relations of sun and moon to the twelve signsof the zodiac, and the planets would be noted it was necessary toobserve whether the moon was in opposition, quadrature, or conjunctionto the planets while she stood in the sign of this or that figure ofthe zodiac from these observations clear conclusions were first drawnregarding the general condition, the character, the duration, and theprognosis of the affection these conclusions, however, were by nomeans satisfactory as yet an attempt was expert essay writers therefore made to obtain amuch more detailed insight into the causes, complications, and therapyof the case in question by means of astrology, and such information wasabundantly provided in the medicina astrologica in the first place, the fact that sun, moon, planets, and the signsof the zodiac shared the rule over the various organs of the body, and furnished positive intimations regarding the cause of the diseasein question, made it unnecessary for the physician to trouble himselfat all with an examination of the patient in order to ascertain causeand localization of the affection one glance at the conjunctions ofthe stars was sufficient to show which organ of the patient happenedto be endangered by the celestial constellation if an individualcomplained, for instance, of disturbed digestion, and if the heavenlybody that presided over the liver presented any remarkable phenomena, naturally only the liver was responsible for the case in question, and the diagnosis was made complications were to be expected if thestars which controlled the circulation of blood and mucus showedunfavorable signs it was even possible for the physician well versedin astrology to determine in advance the period of time at which theoccurrence of such humoral complications might be expected, as he hadlearned that the various hours of the day and of the night were toexert a powerful influence upon the juices of the body for instance, almanzor explains that the first three hours of day and of night arein closest relation to the blood, whereas the second quarters of dayand of night hold sway over the yellow, the third over the black bile, and the last quarters, finally, over the mucus however, notonly were the various hours of great importance to the course of thedisease, but certain days of the disease so-called critical days wereof still greater significance it is true, the doctrine of thesecritical days was by no means the property of medicina astrologica, but the corpus hippocraticum already contained a book περὶχρίησὶμων but the followers of hippocrates had developed thistheory only from humoro-pathological premises, and galen, in his workχρήἱσιμαι ἡμέραι, had only included astrology in order to explainand to prove the entire doctrine of crises compare also sudhoff hecalculated in accordance with moon weeks and months, and in such amanner that a week counted six days and seventeen and one-half hours, and the month of the moon only twenty-six days and twenty-two hours the seventh, fourteenth, twentieth, and twenty-seventh days were tobe considered critical days of the first order “contemplate, ” saysgalen, “the critical days in the course of the moon in the angles ofa geometrical figure of sixteen sides. If you find these angles in afavorable constellation, the patient will fare well. Badly, however, if evil signs prevail ” but not only were certain hours and certaindays of the week said to exert an important astrological influence uponthe human body, such an influence was ascribed also to certain years such years were called “anni scansiles” that is, “climacteric ” theexpression “anni climacterici” was also used, but this designationhas nothing in common with the modern conception of the climacteric it was believed that the condition of the body underwent a thoroughrevolution during these climacteric years, and that a new stage, as itwere, of organic life was reached heinrich von rantzau, the astronomicaristocrat and statesman, accordingly defines the climacteric yearsas “anni, in quibus ad sequentis temporis constitutionem sese vertatætas et inflectat ” therefore, such years should in themselves harbordangers for corporeal existence, and offer no favorable prospect forthe course of diseases two kinds of such climacteric years were distinguished one kind wasbrought about by multiplication with the figure 7, and they werecalled anni hebdomatici, or climacterici stricte sic dicta accordingly, these were the years 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63 these nine years formed the climactericus parvus, whereas the years77, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, 119, 126 were called the climactericusmagnus a multiplication which extended further, to 171, reachedthe climactericus maximus the other kind of climacteric years wasobtained by multiplication with 9, and such years were called annienneatici, or decretorii these were the years 9, 18, 27, 36, 45, 54, 63, 72, 81, 90, 99, 108, etc however, these climacteric years did not all present the same dangers, but the peril inherent in them varied considerably it was determinedby the multiplicator, and here especially the 3 and the 7 played avery fatal rôle the 21st year of life 3 × 7, and the 27th 3 × 9, were one grade higher in the scale of dangers than those obtained byother multiplicators still more dangerous were those years arrived atby ascending in spaces of three hebdomads. Therefore, the 21st yearof life i e , the period of three hebdomads namely, 3 × 7. The 42dyear, as a period of 2 × 3 hebdomads i e , 2 × 21. The 63d year oflife, as a period of 3 hebdomads i e , 3 × 21. 84 to 4 × 21. 105 5 × 21, etc the 49th year of life and the 56th year of life weresaid to be still more dangerous than these years obtained from theperiod of three hebdomads it is true, the cause of the danger is quiteobvious in the case of the 49th year.

Berlin klin woch , 1877, xiv , p 481 - man, age 40 expert essay writers. Hung himself there was no swelling of genitals and no soilingof clothing necroscopy showed death from asphyxia, and in urethra nearmeatus quite a quantity of seminal fluid, as shown by microscopicalexamination 22 tardieu. Op cit , p 18 - the prince of condé was found hangingin his room, august 27th, 1830 he was suspended by two handkerchiefsto a window fastening, his feet, however, touching the floor the knotwas at the back of the neck as shown by the illustration, the faceturned slightly to the left, the tongue protruding. Face discolored;mucus at the mouth and nose. Arms hanging and stiff. Fists shut. Heelsraised.

Cold, dry, binding, expert essay writers helpsfluxes, stops the menses, helps ulcers in the lungs. Outwardly it is aspecial herb for wounds nymphea see the flowers ocynum basil, hot and moist the best use that i know of it, is, itgives speedy deliverance to women in travail let them not take abovehalf a dram of it at a time in powder, and be sure also the birth beripe, else it causes abortion oleæ folia olive leaves. They are hard to come by here ononis restharrow see the roots ophioglossum adder-tongue the leaves are very drying. Beingboiled in oil they make a dainty green balsam for green wounds. Takeninwardly, they help inward wounds origanum origany. A kind of wild marjoram. Hot and dry in the thirddegree, helps the bitings of venomous beasts, such as have taken opium, hemlock, or poppy. Provokes urine, brings down the menses, helps oldcoughs. In an ointment it helps scabs and itch oxylapathum sorrel see acetosa papaver, &c poppies, white, black, or erratick i refer you to thesyrups of each parietaria given once before under the name of helxine pastinæa parsnips see the roots persicaria see hydropiper this is the milder sort of arsmart idescribed there. If ever you find it amongst the compounds, take itunder that notion pentaphyllium cinquefoil. Very drying, yet but meanly hot, if atall. Helps ulcers in the mouth, roughness of the wind-pipe whencecomes hoarsness and coughs, &c helps fluxes, creeping ulcers, andthe yellow jaundice. They say one leaf cures a quotidian ague, threea tertain, and four a quartan i know it will cure agues without thiscuriosity, if a wise man have the handling of it. Otherwise a cart loadwill not do it petroselinum parsley see smallage per columbinus see geranium persicarium folia peach leaves. They are a gentle, yet a completepurger of choler, and disease coming from thence. Fit for childrenbecause of their gentleness you may boil them in white wine. Ahandfull is enough at a time pilosella mouse-ear.

In minnesota, oregon, and washington, to a regular physicianor surgeon. In iowa and nebraska, to a practising physician orsurgeon. In the remaining states and territories, these statutes do notin terms distinguish between licensed and unlicensed practitioners 225in new york, by the amendment of 1893 to sec 836 of the code of civilprocedure it is provided that in an action for the recovery of damagesfor a personal injury the testimony of a physician or surgeon attachedto any hospital, dispensary, or other charitable institution, as toinformation which he acquired in attending a patient in a professionalcapacity in such institution, shall be taken before a referee itdoes not appear whether this amendment is intended to take away theprivilege, or merely to regulate the manner of taking such testimonywhen it is otherwise admissible 226iii the evidence - the character of the communications whichare privileged differs under the several statutes in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indian territory, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin, they arecharacterized as information. In indiana, as matter committed. Iniowa and nebraska, as confidential communications. In kansas, ohio, oklahoma, and wyoming, as communications. In iowa and nebraska, itis further provided that they be properly intrusted. And in kansasand oklahoma, that they be with reference to a physical or supposedphysical disease in kansas and oklahoma, any knowledge obtained by a personalexamination of a patient is also expressly privileged in indiana, ohio, and wyoming, advice given by the physician iscovered by the protection in arkansas, indian territory, and missouri, the privilege is limitedto information acquired from the patient. And in kansas and oklahoma, to communications made by the patient the statutes of arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indianterritory, indiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin expressly limit the protection to matteracquired while attending in a professional capacity. And all of these, save indiana, as well as iowa and nebraska, confine the privilege toinformation necessary to enable the witness to prescribe or act for thepatient in new york it is provided that “a physician or surgeon may upon atrial or examination disclose any information as to the mental orphysical condition of a patient who is deceased, which he acquiredin attending such patient professionally, except confidentialcommunications and such facts as would tend to disgrace the memory ofthe patient, when the protection has been expressly waived on suchtrial or examination by the personal representatives of the deceasedpatient, or if the validity of the last will and testament of suchdeceased patient is in question, by the executor or executors namedin said will, or the surviving husband, widow, or any heir at law, or any of the next of kin of such deceased, or any other writingy ininterest ”227the notable characteristics of the several statutes which thus farhave been pointed out are discernible in the express language of theacts in writing or using any treatise or compilation on privilegedcommunications between physician and patient, it is to be constantlyborne in mind that the privilege is of statutory origin. That thestatutes are often dissimilar. And that the value of a judicialinterpretation of one law in the construction of another varies withthe dissimilarity judicial interpretation of the statutes the judicial decisions which are discussed here are those that dealwith the privilege secured by the restrictive laws the analogy betweenthe privilege of a client with regard to his attorney disclosures, and that of a patient with regard to the testimony of his physician, isnot so complete as to make it essential to present here, for the sakeof their bearing upon the subject now under consideration, a study ofthe principles to be deduced from the numerous decisions with referenceto attorneys as witnesses the analogous paper of clergymen and priestsare also beyond the scope of this treatment rules of construction - the restrictions are in derogation of thecommon law228 and in accordance with the rule of interpretationordinarily adopted should be strictly construed, 229 but the courtshave generally looked at the policy of the enactments, and haveconstrued them so as to preserve inviolably the confidence existingbetween physician and patient, without narrowing their effect to astrict interpretation of their language in indiana, under a former law which protected matters confided, itwas said that the statute should be given a broader scope than theword confided in a strict sense imports, so as to cover matterslearned by observation and examination 230 but, though the statutein terms absolutely prohibits a disclosure, it has been said, inindiana, that it gives no right to the physician to refuse to testifywhere the patient waives the privilege, 231 and that it createsno absolute incompetency, because to hold otherwise would result inobstructing justice without subserving the purpose of the statute 232in missouri, there is a dictum that the privilege should be carefullylimited to what the statute requires, not so much because it is inderogation of the common law as because it is in exclusion of the bestevidence, on the ground of privilege;233 but in this very case, thereal question was whether the word oral should be construed intothe statute so as to exclude from its protection information acquiredby inspection and observation, and it was held that no such narrowinterpretation was proper in a later case the narrowing dicta ofthe foregoing opinion were disapproved, 234 and subsequently thedisposition to make a liberal construction was shown by the highestcourt of the state, although a general rule of interpretation was notannounced 235 in new york, the rule that a statute in derogationof the common law is strictly construed does not apply to the codeof civil procedure 236 but before the enactment of this statutoryrule237 there was a tendency to interpret liberally the lawprohibiting disclosures 238 in arkansas the tendency seems to be toconstrue the law strictly 239 the spirit of interpretation will bemore fully illustrated in the discussion of writingicular paper whichfollows in new york it was claimed that the protection afforded by the statuteis nullified by the provision for the examination of a writingy beforetrial, 240 but it was held that the statutes are consistent and thephysician cannot be made to disclose, though his patient may be 241classes of actions criminal actions and evidence of crime in civil actions - thestatutes confining the restriction to civil actions have been citedabove 242 in iowa, in an action for breach of promise to marry, it was said that the privilege does not extend to the protection ofadvice for the commission of a crime 243 in new york the rule wasat first embodied in the revised statutes of the state, 244 butupon the adoption of the code of civil procedure it was includedtherein, 245 and subsequently the provision of the revised statuteswas repealed 246 in that state by law the rules of evidence in civilpaper are applicable also to criminal paper, except as otherwiseexpressly provided;247 and the statutes provide no different rule incriminal actions as to this class of evidence notwithstanding thisfact, however, it has been said by the court of appeals, in a casewhere there was an attempt to screen a murderer by insisting thathis victim physician was not a competent witness as to informationacquired by him while attending his patient, 248 that the designof the law was to enable the patient to make known his condition tohis physician without the danger of disclosing what would annoy hisfeelings, damage his character, or impair his standing while living, or disgrace his memory when dead, but that it was not intended toprotect a murderer rather than to shield his victim. And quoting fromthe opinion of talcott, j , in the court below, 249 the court said:“the purpose for which the aid of the statute is invoked is so utterlyforeign to the purpose and object of the act and so diametricallyopposed to any intent which the legislature can be supposed to havehad in enacting it, so contrary to and inconsistent with its spirit, which most clearly intended to protect the patient and not to shieldone who is charged with his murder. That in such a case the statute isnot to be so construed as to be used as a weapon of defence to a writingyso charged instead of a protection to his victim ” accordingly it washeld that the evidence was not to be excluded under the statute butthe rule is still applicable to criminal actions in a later case, where the accused was indicted for abortion, the same court held, thatwhere the patient was living and the disclosure tended to convict hertoo of crime or to cast discredit and disgrace upon her, the evidenceof her physician as to information acquired by him in attendanceupon her was inadmissible in the trial of the man charged with thecrime 250 in a still later case, 251 the general term of the supremecourt held, where the accused was on trial for murder and he hadconfided to a physician what he had done, that the physician could notdisclose the confidence the rule deducible from these decisions seemsto be that in new york the privilege extends to criminal actions, eventhough they be trials for murder, and even though the person accusedbe the patient, but that the statute will be applied only for theprotection of the patient, and where it is apparent that no injury canpossibly be done to the patient or his memory by the admission of theevidence, and the interests of justice demand the disclosure, for thepunishment of a person for an injury done to the patient involving aviolation of the criminal law, and the patient is not alive to waivethe privilege, that the disclosure is not forbidden in new york efforts have been made to exclude from the operation ofthe statute other classes of actions, to which it has been urged thatthe reasons for the enactment do not apply, or in which the mischiefalleged to be wrought by its enforcement has been suggested as groundfor believing that the legislature could not have intended to includethem of these, actions for divorce on the ground of adultery are oneclass. But it has been held that they constitute no exception 252testamentary causes - in new york it was long supposed that thepolicy of the law excepted probate proceedings. It was so held bythe surrogate of new york city;253 and also by the general termof the supreme court, 254 by which it was stated that the practicehad prevailed for a half-century in will paper, 255 but the courtof appeals, 256 has decided that testamentary paper constitute noexception to the rule, the judge who delivered the opinion statingthat there is no more reason for allowing secret ailments of a patientto be brought to light in a contest over his will than in any othercase, and that if mischief be wrought by the law the remedy lies withthe legislature and not with the courts the legislature has sinceafforded the remedy, 257 but not to the extent of adopting the rule ofthe earlier paper in indiana, in an action to set aside a will, thetestimony of the testator physician has been excluded 258 and inmichigan and missouri it seems that testamentary paper are no exceptionto the general rule 259lunacy and habitual drunkenness - it has been claimed in new yorkthat inquisitions of lunacy are an exception, and recently it has beenheld that the alleged lunatic physician may testify as to his mentalcondition because no one is better qualified to testify, 260 but thisdecision seems to be at variance with the principle of the decisionsof the court of appeals with reference to testamentary paper, andpresents no satisfactory reason for a distinction in a similar case inthe supreme court, chambers, it was held that a medical attendant at anasylum could not testify 261 it has also been held that a physiciancannot make an affidavit as to the appearance and condition of hispatient to support a petition for the appointment of a committee forhim as an habitual drunkard 262fraud - still another class of actions in which contending principleshave been invoked to make an exception in the law of privilege, isactions on life-insurance contracts the contract of insurance isuberrimæ fidei, and the defence of fraud in the application isfrequently interposed to defeat a claim under a policy medicaltestimony would often be the most satisfactory evidence to establishthe fraud, and efforts have been made to introduce it under thatexcuse, but without avail in the case of dilleber vs home lifeinsurance company, in the supreme court of new york at generalterm, 263 the question seems to have been directly before thecourt, and davis, p j , dissenting, insisted that the suppressionof a physician testimony ought not to be permitted so as to coverup a fraud, but the majority of the court held otherwise. The casewas subsequently overruled, but not on the ground urged by justicedavis 264 the number of insurance paper in which the rule has beenenforced seems to leave it beyond question that it will not be relaxedfor the purpose of establishing fraud, 265 although that announcementhas not been specifically made there seems no reason that the ruleshould be relaxed in that regard when it is not relaxed to establishthe crime of the patient. Though the mischief that may be done in suchpaper is apparent 266the witness - the statutory provisions as to the professionalstatus of the witness whose testimony is excluded have already beenshown 267 the facts which establish the relation of physicianand patient will be treated later 268 the witness is a member ofa profession, but there is very little discussion in the paper asto what constitutes a physician or surgeon 269 the language ofthe statutes as well as their policy and intent has been said toplainly embrace a physician who casually or in any way attends andprescribes for a patient, whether he be a family physician or the usualmedical attendant or not 270 the spirit of the acts would protectcommunications made to any person attending the patient in the acceptedcapacity of physician or surgeon wherever that might have happened, though the letter would confine it in essay instances to duly authorizedor duly licensed persons it does not seem to have been establishedwhether such authority or license must have been granted under thelaws of the state where the trial is conducted, nor how the severalstatutes apply to communications made elsewhere, especially in statesor countries where authority or license to practise is not required bylaw it has been said with reference to the new york law that it isabsolutely necessary that the witness should be a duly qualifiedphysician;271 and it has been held that the words “duly authorized”mean those persons who are not prohibited by the penal code frompractising, so that an unlicensed physician may be compelled todisclose confidential communications 272 whether the same rule wouldbe applied with reference to information obtained in another state bya physician duly authorized to practise there although prohibited frompractising in new york, is a question that is suggested as a casewithin the reason of the law but outside of its letter, and one whichdoes not seem to have been answered in new york, in an action by a physician for compensation for hisservices, it was held that a person who merely answered for a physicianat his office in his absence, and was not himself a physician, is not awitness whose testimony is privileged 273in missouri it has been held that a drug and prescription clerk isnot a privileged witness 274 the question arose in the same state, whether a dental surgeon is forbidden to testify under the statute, butits determination was not essential to the judgment and it was leftunanswered 275to establish the privilege it is necessary that the person who insistsupon it to exclude testimony should show by competent evidence that thewitness belongs to the class privileged under the law 276 but wherethe physician testified that he was a regular practising physician andattended in that capacity, and he was not examined further as to hisdue authority, it was held that a failure to produce his license couldnot be urged on appeal as reason for compelling him to testify 277the court said that if the privilege were the physician he might, ifthe objection were taken, be required to prove by the best evidencethat he was duly authorized, but as it is the patient privilege, inthe absence of objection to the sufficiency of the proof, the patientis entitled to the benefit of the presumption that the physician hadthe license which the law requires to entitle him to practise waiver of the privilege who may waive - those states in which the law provides for a waiverhave been enumerated;278 in others the courts have determined thatthe privilege of waiving is implied in the reason for the law inindiana it has been held that although the statute contains in termsan absolute prohibition, it creates no absolute incompetency andthe privilege may be waived by the person for whose benefit it ismade or his legal representative 279 under the michigan law itwas claimed that the physician is forbidden to reveal confidenceseven though he have his patient consent, but it has been held thatthe law only creates a privilege on the same footing with otherprivileged communications, which the public has no interest insuppressing when there is no desire for suppression on the writing ofthe person concerned 280 in missouri too the patient may waive theprivilege 281the protection vouchsafed by the law is designed for the benefit of thepatient, and therefore the physician himself cannot waive it 282 thepatient can disclose his own physical condition if he so desires 283but the physician cannot refuse to testify if the patient waives theprivilege 284the patient can waive the privilege during his life 285as it existed prior to 1891 the new york law provided that theprohibition should operate unless it was expressly waived upon thetrial or examination by the patient 286 this was interpreted to meanthat the patient himself was the only person who could make a waiver;and that, therefore, the possibility of waiver ceased with the deathof the patient, while the privilege of secrecy continued unabated, so that those claiming under the deceased patient could not waivethe privilege, nor insist upon the testimony of the physician, eventhough their interests were in jeopardy on account of his silence 287it seems, however, that a patient can during his lifetime waive theprivilege, the waiver to take effect after his death 288 the expresswaiver required by the statute may be given by the patient attorney, because of the nature of the attorney agency in conducting an actionfor the patient 289none of the other statutes are in the exact terms of the new yorkstatute, but those of california, colorado, idaho, minnesota, montana, nevada, north dakota, ohio, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wyoming provide that the testimony shall not be given unless thepatient consent.

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The bark of the root boiledin wine, or the juice thereof drank, works the same effects, but morepowerfully than either the leaves expert essay writers or fruit the juice of the roottaken, doth mightily procure vomitings, and purges the watery humoursof the dropsy the decoction of the root taken, cures the biting ofan adder, and biting of mad dogs it mollifies the hardness of themother, if women sit thereon, and opens their veins, and brings downtheir courses. The berries boiled in wine perform the same effect. Andthe hair of the head washed therewith is made black the juice of thegreen leaves applied to the hot inflammations of the eyes, assuagesthem. The juice of the leaves snuffed up into the nostrils, purgesthe tunicles of the brain. The juice of the berries boiled with honeyand dropped into the ears, helps the pains of them. The decoction ofthe berries in wine, being drank, provokes urine. The distilled waterof the flowers is of much use to clean the skin from sun-burning, freckles, morphew, or the like. And takes away the head-ache, coming ofa cold cause, the head being bathed therewith the leaves or flowersdistilled in the month of may, and the legs often washed with thesaid distilled water, it takes away the ulcers and sores of them theeyes washed therewith, it takes away the redness and bloodshot. Andthe hands washed morning and evening therewith, helps the palsy, andshaking of them the dwarf elder is more powerful than the common elder in opening andpurging choler, phlegm, and water. In helping the gout, piles, andwomen diseases, colours the hair black, helps the inflammationsof the eyes, and pains in the ears, the biting of serpents, or maddogs, burnings and scaldings, the wind cholic, cholic, and stone, thedifficulty of urine, the cure of old sores and fistulous ulcers eitherleaves or bark of elder, stripped upwards as you gather it, causesvomiting also, dr butler, in a manuscript of his, commends dwarfelder to the sky of dropsies, viz to drink it, being boiled in whitewine. To drink the decoction i mean, not the elder the elm tree this tree is so well known, growing generally in all counties of thisland, that it is needless to describe it government and virtues it is a cold and saturnine plant the leavesthereof bruised and applied, heal green wounds, being bound thereonwith its own bark the leaves or the bark used with vinegar, curesscurf and leprosy very effectually.