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You may take ten ortwenty grains at a time the froth of the sea, it is hot and dry, helps scabs, itch, andleprosy, scald heads, &c it cleanses the skin, helps difficulty ofurine, makes the teeth white, being rubbed with it, the head beingwashed with it, it helps baldness, and trimly decks the head with hair metals, minerals, essays service and stones gold is temperate in quality, it wonderfully strengthens the heart andvital spirits, which one perceiving, very wittily inserted these verses. For gold is cordial. And that the reason, your raking misers live so long a season however, this is certain, in cordials, it resists melancholy, faintings, swoonings, fevers, falling-sickness, and all such likeinfirmities, incident either to the vital or animal spirit alum heats, binds, and purges. Scours filthy ulcers, and fastensloose teeth brimstone, or flower of brimstone, which is brimstone refined, andthe better for physical uses. Helps coughs and rotten flegm. Outwardlyin ointments it takes away leprosies, scabs, and itch. Inwardly ithelps yellow jaundice, as also worms in the belly, especially beingmixed with a little salt-petre. It helps lethargies being snuffed up inthe nose litharge, both of gold and silver. Binds and dries much, fills upulcers with flesh, and heals them lead is of a cold dry earthly quality, of an healing nature. Appliedto the place it helps any inflammation, and dries up humours pompholix, cools, dries and binds jacynth, strengthens the heart being either beaten into powder, andtaken inwardly, or only worn in a ring sapphire, quickens the senses, helps such as are bitten by venomousbeasts, ulcers in the bowels emerald.

Hot because thenature of heat is to draw off thin writings that so they may penetrate tothe humours that are to to be drawn out their use is various, viz use 1 that the bowels may be disburdened of corrupt humours 2 outwardly used, by them the offending humour i should have said thepeccant humour, had i written only to scholars, is called from theinternal writings of the body to the superfices 3 by them the crisis of a disease is much helped forward 4 they essays service are exceedingly profitable to draw forth poison out of the body 5 writings of the body over cooled are cured by these medicines, viz by applying them outwardly to the place, not only because they heat, but also because they draw the spirits by which life and heat arecherished, to the writing of the body which is destitute of them. Youcannot but know that thesis times writings of the body fall away in flesh, and their strength decays, as in essay persons arms or legs, or thelike, the usual reason is, because the vital spirit decays in thosewritings, to which use such plaisters or ointments as are attractive which is the physical term for drawing medicines for they do not onlycherish the writings by their own proper heat, but draw the vital andnatural spirits thither, whereby they are both quickened and nourished they are known almost by the same tokens that attenuating medicinesare, seeing heat. And thinness of writings is in them both, they differonly in respect of quantity, thinness of writings being most proper toattenuating medicines, but attractive medicines are hotter chapter v of discussive medicines the nature of discussing or sweating medicines is almost the samewith attractive, for there are no discussive medicines but areattractive, nor scarce any attractive medicine but is in essay measureor other discussing the difference then is only this. That discussivemedicines are hotter than attractive, and therefore nothing else needbe written of their nature use their use may be known even from their very name. For diseasesthat come by repletion or fulness, are cured by evacuation or emptying;yet neither blood nor gross humours are to be expelled by sweating, or insensible transpiration as they call it but the one requiresblood-letting, the other purgation, but scrosus or thin humours andfilthy vapours, and such like superfluities, are to be expelled bysweat, and be wary in this too, for thesis of them work violently, andviolent medicines are not rashly to be given caution 2 besides, swellings are essaytimes made so hard by sweatingmedicines, that afterwards they can never be cured.

“alcohol, m 2-1/2 essays service. Creosote and guaiacol sulphonates of each, gr 1. Compound hypophosphites, gr 1 including quinine hypophosphites, gr 1/36 and strychnine hypophosphites, gr 1/256, with iodinized emulsion scott m 30 ”as in the case of iodinized emulsion scott, the advertising makesexaggerated therapeutic claims for the individual constituents of thepreparation and for the heterogeneous mixture of guaiacol and creosotesulphonates, hypophosphites, quinin, strychnin, turpentine, phenol, iodin, “lactated pepsin, ” etc thus, while it is well established thatin guaiacol sulphonate and creosote sulphonate the phenolic constituentis bound so firmly that, when administered, but very little is splitoff in the organism, yet the advertising claims “that the system canbe saturated in a shorter time and with smaller doses of creosote andguaiacol sulphonates than with any other form of these drugs” and that on the false premise that the guaiacol and creosote from these drugswill permeate the tissues of the lungs “they help to clear up thelocal infection and thus aid in returning to normal the diseased mucousmembrane ”in the advertising pamphlet, following a discussion of the effect ofclimate and food in the treatment of the tuberculous, we read. “while admitting the great importance of the foregoing points, we are firmly of the opinion that proper medication is a great aid in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, and, with this in view, we offer to the profession creosotonic scott believing that in it we have a superior preparation for this purpose ”this is unwarranted of course suitable medication to meet specialconditions is proper in the treatment of tuberculosis, but the routineadministration of a complex and irrational mixture such as creosotonic scott is bound to cause inattention to the prime requisites for theproper treatment of the tuberculous-- hygienic surroundings and goodfood creosotonic scott is an irrational mixture, sold under misleading andunwarranted claims it is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remediesfor conflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 -- from the journal a m a , aug 24, 1918 campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 has beenadopted by the council and its publication authorized w a puckner, secretary the following report of the a m a chemical laboratory on“campetrodin” and “campetrodin no 2, ” sold by the a h robinscompany, richmond, va , was submitted to the council by a referee ofthe committee on pharmacology:campetrodin and campetrodin no 2, double strength, are called “ethicalmedicinal specialties” by the a h robins company, richmond, va , which sells them an advertisement in the maryland medical journal december, 1917 contains the following claim for composition. “campetrodin made in two strengths of iodine this preparation is an oleaginous solution of iodine in camphor ”a booklet describing the “specialties” of the robins company containsthe following in reference to campetrodin. “composition. Camphor, iodine element, oleaginous solvent ” from this it appears that thepreparations are claimed to contain elementary free iodine in an“oleaginous solvent ” since free iodin, as is well known, readilycombines with fats, it was decided to determine the form in which theiodin was present in these preparations the examination demonstratedthat both preparations contained but a trace of free iodin on steamdistillation there was obtained from both preparations a distillateamounting to about 35 per cent by volume which had an odor stronglysuggestive of turpentine, while the residue contained the iodin and hadthe characteristics of an iodized fatty oil quantitative determinations indicated that campetrodin containedapproximately 0 03 per cent of free iodin and 1 3 per cent of iodinin combination with the fatty oil campetrodin no 2, double strength, contained approximately 0 03 per cent free iodin and 2 per cent ofiodin in combination with the fatty oil thus, contrary to the published statements, campetrodin is not apreparation of free elementary iodin and campetrodin no 2, doublestrength, does not contain twice as much iodin as campetrodin the report of the chemical laboratory shows that the statements madein regard to the composition of campetrodin and campetrodin no 2are incomplete in essay respects and false in others in view of thelaboratory findings it appears superfluous to inquire into thetherapeutic claims made for the preparations. It is evident, however, that a solution containing practically no free iodin is not, as claimedby the robins company, “adapted for use wherever iodin is indicatedexternally ”it is recommended that campetrodin and campetrodin no 2 be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because of falsestatements as to chemical composition and therapeutic action, constituting conflicts with rules 1 and 6 the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from the journal a m a , sept 21, 1918 carminzym report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following which explainswhy carminzym was not accepted for new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary carminzym is a tablet sold by fairchild bros and foster, new york each tablet contains, according to claims made, approximately 32 mg of an extract of pancreas, 50 mg sodium bicarbonate, 172 mg preparedchalk, 1 5 mg powdered ipecac and “aromatics q s ” withoutconsidering other possible conflicts with its rules, the council heldthe preparation inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rule 10 which holds that unscientific or useless articlesare not acceptable products the council holds that complex mixtures of remedial agents are, fromevery point of view, inimical to therapeutic progress and therefore tothe public welfare such mixtures are especially objectionable becauseit is impossible accurately to determine the effects which follow thesimultaneous administration of a number of drugs having dissimilaractions.

“ the equivalent of one and one-half grains of the combined iodids, potassium and calcium ”it will be observed that, 1 the two statements quoted from thecircular make no reference to bromids. 2 the statement that eachdram contains “the equivalent” of 1-1/2 grains of the combined iodids, potassium and calcium, accounts for but 12 of the 72 grains of “thecombined salts” per fluidounce declared in the preceding quotation. 3 the circular mentions the presence of a drug-- prickly ash-- notdeclared on the label and, finally 4 none of the “formulas” gives thequantities of all of the several constituents it is evident from these “formulas” that the tilden company continuesits policy of concealment and mystification as exemplified in the paperof hydrocyanate of iron, tilden discussed in the journal, june 19, 1909, p 2008, febrisol the journal, june 29, 1912, p 2043 andrespirazone the journal, june 14, 1913, p 1899 in the circular just quoted “the conquest of syphilis”, all hope forthe syphilitic is declared to rest in mercury and iodin, and it isimplied that only through elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp is itpossible to obtain the greatest good from these drugs “were the cleansing influences of these two drugs mercury and iodin unavailable to the luetic patient, he, truly, would be as pitiable an object as the leper “modern pharmacy has devised no better means of utilizing these anti-syphilitics than elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden with or without mercury the elixir, in proper dosage, acts in specific fashion and is adapted for use in all stages of the disease “in the early months elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden with mercury is a trustworthy weapon and the physician need have no fear but that it will subjugate the disease “when the virulent stage is passed elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp tilden without mercury may be given the patient with every assurance that medicine most aggressive measures are being resorted to from time to time, up to the very end of the time honored three years’ period of treatment, it is well to put the patient back on the bichloride, using for this purpose the form of the elixir administered in the first stages of the disease “this regime will indubitably antidote the virus of syphilis and eradicate from the organism its every vestige ”while it seems incredible that any physician would jeopardize thehealth-- even the life-- of a patient by accepting this boastfulmagniloquence as sound therapeutic advice, still the fact that certainmedical journals lend their advertising pages to advertisements fortilden elixir with the caption “the conquest of syphilis” makes itincumbent on the council to record its condemnation of the employmentof this unscientific, semisecret mixture it is recommended that elixir iodo-bromide of calcium comp “withoutmercury” and “with mercury” be held in conflict with rule 1 secrecyof composition, rule 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims and rule 10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , nov 6, 1915 lecithin preparations omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report was sent to the manufacturers of the variouslecithin preparations mentioned therein as the replies of themanufacturers were obviously written from the commercial point ofview and did not affect the council conclusion that lecithin, whenindicated, would be given more advantageously in the form of yolk ofegg than in the less pure manufactured product, the council directedthat the report be published, together with extracts from the repliesof the manufacturers w a puckner, secretary commercial lecithin preparations are at best very impure substances;all are more or less altered from the original composition evenwith great care, the methods of extraction and drying always produceconsiderable decomposition. And in essay paper the phosphorus andnitrogen contents bear but little relation to the theoretical values long, j h. Jour am chem soc , xxx, 881 mclean, hugh. Chem abstracts, may 20, 1915 there is not the slightest reliable evidencethat commercial lecithin has any advantage over the lecithin containedin natural foods. The weight of probability is on the other side the doses recommended, moreover, are absurdly small. And the amountthus administered is without practical value why administer a fewmilligrams of a more or less decomposed lecithin when it is possible togive a far larger weight of a purer substance in the form of yolk ofegg?. In view of these considerations the council voted that the followingproprietary products be omitted from the next edition of n n r. Glycerole of lecithin lecibrin lecithin solution lecithol neuro-lecithin-abbottand that the general article on “lecithin preparations” be transferredto the annual council reports as a matter of record the report was submitted to the manufacturers their replies wereevidently based on commercial consideration, and called for nomodification in the report the referee recommended that the preceding report be published togetherwith the following extracts from the replies of the manufacturers:from armour and company.

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His right leg hung down and he was found to have receiveda transverse fracture of the femur at the junction of the middle andlower thirds the writer had a case in bellevue hospital during the past winter 1892-93 of a man who stated that he had been well and active untilessay weeks previously, when, from muscular force alone, he sustained afracture of the neck of the femur essaything abnormal in the bone maybe present in such paper in paper of spontaneous fractures there are no marks of externalviolence which, if present, would remove the idea of spontaneity fractures of the extremities are not dangerous per se, unless theyare compound or occur in old, debilitated, or diseased persons, andthey are more severe the nearer they are to a joint the healing offractures is more rapid in the young than in the old and in the upperthan in the lower extremity it is not proven that adiposity of itselfimpedes union the question essays service may be asked, how long before examination a given bone wasfractured as a rule, we can only say as to whether the injured personhas lived a long or short period since the injury, as the process ofrepair varies according to age and constitution no changes occur untileighteen to twenty-four hours, when lymph is exuded according tovillermé the callus is cartilaginous anywhere between the sixteenthand twenty-fifth days, it becomes ossified between three weeks andthree months, and it takes six to eight months to become like normalbone the question may also be asked. Has a bone ever been fractured?. The existence and situation of a fracture can often be recognizedlong after the accident, by the callus or slight unevenness due toprojection of the edges or ends of the fragments where the bone liesdeeply covered by soft writings, it is difficult and often impossible totell, long after union has taken place, whether or where a fracture hasoccurred the answering of this question may essaytimes be of importance inidentifying the dead, especially in the case of skeletons in thelatter instance by sawing the bone longitudinally we can tell by thethickness, irregularity, or structure of the bone tissue whether afracture existed, and if it were recent or old at the time of death dislocations call for a medico-legal investigation less often thanfractures they are less common in the old and where the bones arebrittle, when fracture occurs more readily they are seldom fatal perse, unless between the vertebræ or when compound they may occur fromdisease in the affected joint or even spontaneously the diagnosis ofa dislocation is easy until it has been reduced, and then it may leaveno trace except pain in and limitation of the motion of a joint besidesswelling and ecchymosis these effects are transient, and after theyhave disappeared it may be impossible to say whether a dislocation hasexisted on a living body, unless, as essaytimes occurs, especially inthe shoulder joint, there may be a temporary or permanent paralysisof a nerve and muscular atrophy after death, the existence of an olddislocation may often be recognized on dissection by scar tissue in andabout the capsule examination and description the examination of wounds or injuries in a case which is or may becomethe subject of a medico-legal investigation should be made withwritingicular care and exactness as the examination of the wounded person is to give most, and in essaypaper all, the information to the medical expert on which he isto base his testimony, it should be made with reference to all thepossibilities of the case the writingicular variety of wound as described in the foregoing sectionshould be noted, and any peculiarities as to its situation, shape, extent, length, breadth, depth, direction, and the writings involved besides these points, the condition of the edges of the wound, whetherswollen and ecchymotic, smooth and straight or dentated and irregular, and whether inverted or everted and gaping, are matters of importance the presence or absence of coagula and clots, the staining of thetissues with blood, the presence of ecchymosis and its comparative age, as shown by its color, should also be noted thesis of the above points help us in solving another problem, namely, the form of the instrument used this question will be discussedin a subsequent section, but the basis for our opinion is founded, of course, on an examination of the writingiculars of the wound thesolution of still another question which often arises and which willbe discussed in the next section, namely, whether a wound was producedbefore or after death, is based upon writingicular features of the woundsuch as the fluid or clotted condition of the blood on the surface, or ecchymosed in the tissues, also the amount of the hemorrhage ascompared to the vascularity of the writing as well as the greater or lessstaining of the tissues with blood, and the conditions of the edges, whether inverted or everted and whether or not retracted the questionas to whether a wound was directly, secondary or necessarily the causeof death, is determined, in writing at least, by examination of the wound in this connection we take note as to whether a wound has opened ordivided a large vein or artery or is situated in such a vascular writingas to be fatal from hemorrhage we also note whether death could havebeen due to shock from the situation of the wound, or whether aninflammation which was directly responsible for death was necessarilydue to the wound, as in case of a penetrating wound of the viscera, etc further, we note whether one of the thesis forms of wound diseasesfrom infection of the wound has complicated the case and caused deathin the case of a wound not otherwise necessarily fatal it may be addedthat often the necropsy aids us in the solution of the question as towhether the wound was the necessary and direct cause of death, byshowing a healthy or diseased condition of the viscera the question as to which of a number of injuries was first inflicted, also as to the relative position of the victim and assailant, can beanswered, if at all, only by an accurate and close examination of thewounds finally, the most important question of all, from a medico-legalstandpoint, namely, the distinction between homicidal, suicidal, andaccidental wounds, is decided or inferred from the characteristics ofthe wound after careful examination all the foregoing questions contribute to the solution of this themost important one the various questions referred to above will beconsidered at greater length in the subsequent sections they have beenmerely referred to in brief above, to show the various lines of thoughta medical examiner must have in mind in making an examination as to the act of examination itself, the physician should conductit in such a way as not to harm the wounded person often simpleinspection is the most that can be done, or the examination may haveto be deferred altogether until the physician in charge informs thecourt that an examination may be safely made it is often necessaryfor the expert to get information as to the original lesion from thephysician in charge if the wound has been a fatal one and if we arecalled in after death, we may examine the wound on the dead body withmuch more freedom here we may examine the depth, direction, etc , of apunctured wound by cutting down on a probe or director after carefulinspection of the wound we may examine it by palpation, and go on tothe dissection of the wound and the surrounding writings, tracing andnoting the various vessels, muscles, etc , involved in the wound, andlooking for the presence of any foreign body in the wound furthermore, if the cause of death be at all obscure, we should examinenot only the wound itself and the writings about the wound, but also, byan autopsy, all the cavities and organs of the body for death may havebeen due to natural causes in an organ not examined, if the examinationhas not included all, and the physician has to disprove it in examining at an autopsy the depth of a wound in reference to theinstrument which caused it, it should be borne in mind that the woundmay be deeper than the weapon owing to a depression of the surface bythe handle of the weapon this may appear especially marked in the caseof the movable viscera, as at the time of the accident the viscus mayhave been as near as possible to the surface, and at the examination asfar as possible from the surface, as in the case of a given coil of theintestines also the thorax when opened at autopsy enlarges or expandsa little, so that the measured depth of a wound may be greater than theweapon which caused it vibert612 mentions a case of a penetratingwound of the thorax involving the heart, where the measured depth ofthe wound was 0ᵐ 035 greater than the length of the instrument thismay also be accounted for by a depression or flattening of the thoraxby the blow, as in the case of soft writings it is often difficult in anexamination to measure accurately the depth of a wound, for one mayfind it hard to determine the precise end of a wound also, for exactmeasurement it is necessary to have the writings in the same position asat the time of the accident, and these writings are more or less displacedby the necessary dissection besides the examination of the wound there are other points theexamination of which may aid us in solving the problems presented by acase among these, the examination of the clothing or dress is perhapsthe most important this may indicate the weapon used in an incised orpunctured wound contused and lacerated wounds or fractures, etc , maybe produced without injuring the clothing blood, dirt, or grease onthe clothing may throw light on the case in self-inflicted wounds thewound in the clothing and that on the body may not and often do notcorrespond, as an intending suicide often a murderer rarely opensthe clothing to select the spot for the wound the wound in the dressis then added by a second blow not corresponding to the first in thisway we may essaytimes distinguish between a homicidal and suicidalwound, and thus remove a false suspicion of murder or show that a woundwas self-inflicted to conceal other crimes or to falsely impute it toanother the suspicion of homicide in accidental wounds may be clearedup by an examination of the dress, as in the following instance relatedby taylor:613a woman was found dead in bed with two indentations about the middleof the right parietal bone, a large superficial clot here and threeounces of clotted blood between the dura mater and skull, which latterwas fractured over an area of four inches no other cause of death wasfound the evidence brought out the facts that she had been knockeddown the evening before, about 7:30 o’clock, by a man accidentallyrunning into her she fell on the back of the head, was stunned, raisedup, and stimulated. She then walked home, ate her supper, and waslast seen at 9 o’clock by a fellow-lodger who let her in and noticednothing unusual the next morning she had evidently been dead essaytime suspicion fell upon the lodger, who had often quarrelled withher, and the two claws of a hammer found in his room corresponded moreor less closely with the two indentations found in the skull at theadjourned inquest, however, the bonnet worn by the deceased at thetime of the accident was found to have two indentations on the back ofit corresponding to those on the woman skull and containing dust anddirt, and rendering probable what from the history seemed unlikely, that the fall in the road caused the fatal injury the examination ofthe dress thus avoided an unjust accusation of murder contused and lacerated wounds and fractures or dislocations may beproduced without injury to the dress, especially if the latter beelastic or yielding the comparison of the wound in the clothes withthat on the body may indicate the position of the body at the time ofthe blow the examination of the clothes of the injured person mayindicate a struggle which would support the idea of homicide a bluntinstrument may indirectly cause an injury by striking essaything in oron a person clothes instances have been reported where a wound hasbeen caused by an article in the pocket, or worn outside the clothing, without any trace of an injury to the clothes or pocket lining 614the examination of the dress may further show which of several cuts orstabs was first inflicted this is shown by the staining of the edgesof the cuts in the clothing, the edges of the first cut or stab showingno blood-stain or only on the inner surface, as the knife is cleanof blood on entering and all that is removed by the clothing on itswithdrawal is found on the inner edges if the edges of the cuts in theouter layers of clothing are bloody, it is evident that the knife wasalready bloody when used, and the corresponding wound was not the firstinflicted the imprint of the bloody hand of the assailant may essaytimes be foundon the clothing of the one injured, and is especially important asevidence, when the hands of the assaulted are not bloody in the caseof a severe wound, especially if it is likely to become the object of acriminal investigation, the physician should always require to see thedress of the wounded the examination of the clothing which the accusedwore at the time the assault took place may give important evidence byshowing evidences of a struggle or blood-stains absence of the latterwould not prove the innocence of the accused, as the clothes actuallyworn may be destroyed and others substituted, or the marks and stainsmay be removed in the latter case, the eye of a medical man may detecttraces of blood which otherwise would go unnoticed, and a microscopicaland chemical examination would reveal the real character of the stain besides the examination of the clothing of the accused, the examinationof his person may furnish evidence of his being engaged in a more orless desperate struggle by the scratches, marks of nails, contusions, bites, etc , on the face, neck, front of chest, forearms, and hands if the accused should attempt to explain these wounds and spots, thelatter may or may not verify the explanation, and thus additionalevidence may be obtained as to the guilt or innocence of the accused it is well for the medical expert, as well as for others, to collectthe statements of the wounded person relative to the circumstances ofthe injury also, if the accused will vouchsafe any such statements wemay compare these with one another and with the facts indicated by thewound, etc other points to examine, especially in paper of suspected suicide, may be briefly mentioned the presence of the weapon in the hand ofthe victim and firmly grasped in general indicates suicide, if itcorresponds to the weapon causing the wounds, for otherwise it mayhave been used for defence if not in the hand, note the spot wherethe weapon was found in the case of a suicide, the hand as well asthe weapon held by it is likely to be bloody, also in case of murderthe generally empty hand is apt to be bloody, as the hand is naturallycarried to the wound we cannot further describe the thesis points which the medical examinershould bear in mind in making an examination in a medico-legal case, without repeating too fully what will be given at greater length insubsequent sections, reference to which should be made for furtherwritingiculars tardieu proposed as a basis for examining and studyingwounds, 1 to visit the wounded person and see what state he is in, and to determine 2 the nature, 3 the cause, 4 the consequencesof the wound also if the wounded person is dead 5 to examine thebody for the cause of death in order to see if the latter is due to thewound also 6 to determine the circumstances of the affray the description of a wound should be given in plain language, avoiding the use of scientific terms or expressions, so as to bereadily understood by judge and jurors otherwise the usefulness of themedical expert is very much decreased the description should also beprecise and sufficient to justify the conclusions arrived at as to thecause of a wound, its gravity and results, and the weapon used witha view to exact statement in description, it is well to take notes asto the result of the examination and not depend merely on memory theobject of the witness should be to be understood and not to be thoughtthoroughly scientific was the injury inflicted before or after death?.