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A toxic albuminuria has resulted in essay of my paper all of my paper have cleaned up so far of course, i cannot predict in any individual case, except that when the absorption has been completed and the toxin all eliminated, everything should return to normal, unless the toxin has destroyed tissue beyond physiological repair my suggestions as to treatment would be elimination, saving the kidneys as much as possible, by whatever methods you find best and necessary at present i am treating symptomatically thus-- atropin as a guanidine antidote, arsenic as a chorea coupled antidote as a prevention to the production of guanidine from the cyanimide, the use of dilute hydrochloric acid has proven successful to me even a urine boiling solid-- albumen has cleared up in one case in three days just by taking large quantities of 1/2 per cent hcl i am explaining the factors i have contended with in these paper, but do not want to influence your plan of treatment when your judgment finds me insufficient sincerely, wm f koch i shall have a publication out very soon on the treatment of these tetanics and eclampsia with hcl it is worth noting that this letter of dr koch was written june 28, just three days before dr de tarnowsky saw mrs -- -- and less than aweek before she died of generalized carcinoma not the least important element in the story which these two letterstell is the optimism engendered in the husband of the poor cancerpatient by the widely vaunted treatment of koch and herein lies oneof the most pernicious features connected with the exploitation ofalleged cures for cancer, tuberculosis, etc all such remedies, whetherfraudulent both in their inception and exploitation or those whichwhile equally worthless are at least honestly put forward and are basedon a certain amount of scientific investigation, produce a profoundand marked temporary change in the patient condition it is thisthat tends to warp the judgment not only of the unscientific layman, but also of the physician the psychic element in cancer has been welldescribed by weil. “it is, indeed, very remarkable that a patient who has been consigned to death as a victim of a hopeless malady, should regain his spirits and his appetite, when he is again confronted with the hope of a cure, and of the eradication of his disease?. it is a phenomenon well known to every student of the disease that a large proportion of paper responds in just this manner to any treatment which is offered them osler has described a case of cancer of the stomach in which the mere visit to a consultant of sanguine temperament, though poor judgment, whose assurance of the patient that there was no possibility of cancer, resulted in the disappearance of all the symptoms and a gain of 18 pounds in weight it is this psychic influence, which has occasionally deluded the honest student of cancer cure, and which has also so generously played into the hands of the dishonest ”-- from the journal a m a , feb 19, 1921 the lucas laboratories’ productsthe journal has received several inquiries about the products put outby the lucas laboratories, incorporated, of new york city a typicalinquiry is that received from dr f a jewett of brooklyn, who writes. “the enclosed circular is sent out to the medical profession by dr william lucas, 287 w 70th st , new york what do you know of this man and his methods?. ”william h lucas was graduated by the medical college of ohio in 1895and was licensed in 1897 he is not a member of his local medicalsociety the products put out by the lucas laboratories are forintravenous use, and their method of exploitation indicates that theconcern is less interested in the science of therapeutics than it isin taking commercial advantage of the present fad for intravenousmedication the journal has protested editorially against theunnecessary use of the intravenous administration of drugs, and theabuse of this method of drug giving prompted the council on pharmacyand chemistry recently to emphasize the danger of indiscriminateintravenous medication the products of the lucas laboratories, inc , have not been examinedeither by the a m a chemical laboratory or by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the composition of these products isessentially secret, which in itself should be sufficient to deterphysicians from using them of course, in accordance with all thetenents of orthodox nostrum exploitation, “formulas” are furnished even the crude hieroglyphics that used to be palmed off on themedical profession by nostrum exploiters under the guise of “graphicformulas” are outdone by the lucas laboratories in publishing thealleged formulas of its preparations if we, as physicians, knewmore chemistry, the lucas laboratories would not find it profitableto publish such ineffable nonsense as that which characterizes their“literature ” for instance.

Le rose v commonwealth, 84 pa st , 200 183general rule as to required amount of skill and experiencestated - the general rule may be stated thus, as derived from theseand other authorities:the extent of the previous study and investigation, and the amount ofskill and information which must be essays for buy shown, will depend upon the factsof each writingicular case but essay special and peculiar knowledge orskill must be established, the amount of it to be determined by thetrial judge in his discretion the possession of such knowledge andskill is presumed in medico-legal paper if the witness is a licensedpractitioner essay practical suggestions as to conduct of witnesses on thestand - in this preliminary examination, the conduct and demeanorof the witness are of no little importance, because it is then andthere that he makes his first impression upon the court and jury he should be perfectly open and unreserved in stating his means ofspecial information, in explaining what are the limits of his personalexperience and the extent of his reading. But, at the same time, itwould be well for him to avoid all appearance of self-glorificationand all tendency to exaggerate his individual acquirements often hasit occurred that expert witnesses of undoubted capacity and honesty, who are unfortunately grandiose and self-assertive in their manner, have, however honest and able they might be, lost entirely their weightwith the court and jury by undue self-complacency and exaggeration oftheir personal qualifications, during their preliminary examination this is a matter requiring tact and judgment and nerve, and should befully understood between counsel calling him and the witness, beforethe witness is placed upon the stand in that event, it will be quitesafe for the witness to closely follow the questions of counsel by hisanswers, and to volunteer little or nothing if his answers are notfull and complete enough, counsel can renew the question in the same orin other form or carry the matter into greater detail if, on the otherhand, his answer is too full or he appears too eager, he may createa prejudice against him which nothing can overthrow, and which theart of counsel upon the other side in cross-examination and in makingcomments upon his testimony when summing up before the jury, will veryeffectually use to destroy his weight as an expert 184scope and extent of examination of expert witnesses - having statedhow experts may be summoned and qualified, it remains to consider thescope and extent to which they may be examined the advancement of the sciences and the progress of research in specialfields of knowledge have made expert testimony of large importanceduring the present century the basis of its admission is the factthat there are certain processes of reasoning which an ordinary juryis incapable of performing, even with the assistance of courts andlawyers oftentimes in the administration of justice in our courts, proof is given of circumstances which although admitted would havelittle or no significance in the mind of an ordinary juror, andwhich he would be unable to contrast and compare with other facts, successfully, without the aid of those more familiar with scientificmatters and the inductive process of reasoning than he is in suchpaper it is necessary that the jury should be specially enlightenedby persons who have, through training, skill and experience, acquiredthe power to enlighten them a common instance and illustration ofthis matter is to be found in the case of homicide by poisoning ahuman body is found dead. Externally there may be no indicia toshow positively the cause of death under such circumstances thelaws of all civilized countries permit what is called a post-mortemexamination by skilled physicians, who, finding no external evidencesof the cause of death, are permitted by the officers of the law toremove the internal portions of the body for special and carefulexamination if this discloses traces of inflammation or of lesions ofan abnormal character, further power is vested in the authorities tohave at the expense of the state a chemical examination of the internalorgans if this examination, which is necessarily long and excessivelytechnical, results in the discovery of any poisonous substance, suchas would produce death, and if it is found in sufficient quantities toproduce death, these persons who made the post-mortem examination anddiscovered the outward indications of the administration and effectsof the poison, and the chemists who discovered the poison itself inthe tissues of the body, in sufficient quantities to produce death, are called as experts before the jury the post-mortem examinersexplain what the appearance of the body was, as distinguished from theappearances of the body of an individual who had died from naturalcauses the chemist describes his course of experimentation, thevarious deductions which he made from his experiments, the tests whichhe applied in his investigation in discovering poison, and is thenallowed to testify that the poisonous substance was found in sufficientquantities to produce the physical appearances which the post-mortemexaminers have described, and to accomplish the death of the humanbeing in whose body the poison was found it is obvious that the powerof observation and the skill, which the skilled chemists and physiciansused as the basis of their reasoning in this case, were such as anordinary man, unskilled and inexperienced, would not possess, and theability to use them must have come from the study of treatises onsuch subjects, and from teaching and experience, to such an extent asto entitle the persons so testifying to be considered by the courtsas qualified to express an accurate and sound opinion on the mattersand things under investigation thus it appears how, in such paper, adewritingure became essential to the successful administration of justice, from the strict rule that witnesses shall testify solely to matters offact and observation, and why it has long been considered that essaywitnesses must be allowed to testify to opinions and conclusions again, in a like case, a body is found bearing evidences of wounds orbruises the question to be determined is whether they were inflictedbefore or after death. If before death, whether they were sufficient tocause death essay wounds and injuries might be sufficiently apparentand dangerous so that the common, inexperienced eye would at oncedetect that they were sufficient to cause death but in most instancesthis is not the case, and in such instances the testimony of expertsis required by the necessity of the case, to show that the wounds andinjuries were sufficient to cause death the general rules stated as to subjects for expert testimony - hencethe general rule is, that wherever the facts to be investigatedare such that common experience and knowledge of men do not enablethem to draw accurate conclusions, but are such that the study andexperience of specialists do enable such specially endowed persons todraw accurate conclusions, then the inferences and deductions theyhave drawn can be testified to by those who qualify themselves beforethe court as persons having sufficient skill and experience as suchspecialists to entitle them to give opinions the paper in which experttestimony is permitted to be given are set forth in rogers on experttestimony, sec 6, quoting from jones v tucker 41 n h , 546, asfollows:“1 upon questions of science, skill, or trade, or others of like kind “2 where the subject-matter of inquiry is such that inexperiencedpersons are unlikely to prove capable of forming a correct judgmentwithout such assistance “3 where the subject-matter of investigation so far writingakes of thenature of science as to require a course or previous habit of study inorder to the attainment of knowledge of it ”so also chief justice shaw of the supreme court of massachusetts, innew england glass co v lovell 7 cushing, 319, said:“it is not because a man has a reputation for sagacity and judgmentand power of reasoning that his opinion is admissible in testifyingas a witness if so, such men might be called in all paper to advisethe jury, and it would change the mode of trial. But it is because aman professional pursuit, or his peculiar skill and knowledge of essaydewritingment of science not common to men in general, enable him to drawinferences where men of common experience, after all the facts havebeen proved, would be left in doubt ”to the same effect see muldowney v illinois central r r co , 36iowa, 472. Wharton on evidence, sec 436.

Heart contained fluid blood opinion given that she hadbeen struck essays for buy on head, causing unconsciousness. Then writingly stranded andwritingly suffocated by pressure on neck and chest body afterward burntto cover up the crime 31 ibid , p 211 - three murders by one man all women all injuredabout the head and then strangled by both hand and ligature two died;one had an odor of alcohol and had apparently not resisted the thirdwas resuscitated she was strong and stout, and resisted marks offingers and nails on neck afterward she had headaches and giddinessfor a long time suicide 32 francis. Med times and gaz , december 2d, 1876, p 634 - hindoo lunatic, a giant, strangled himself he passed two orthree coils of stout thread around his neck, attached the ends securelyto his wrists, and then extended his arms to their utmost limit thisoccurred during a ten-minute absence of his attendant, who, returning, found the man had fallen to one side from a kneeling position, with hisback against a wall, quite dead no reason to suspect homicide 33 badahur. Indian med gaz , december, 1882, p 330 - hindoowoman, age about 17, strangled herself with the border of her saree necroscopy. Circular depressed mark caused by the border of a bandof cloth, which she had passed in three coils around her neck, thecoils tightly overlapping each other. The short ends had been knottedtogether with a “granny” knot at the back of the neck, like the nativewomen tie up their hair the coils were so tight that they had to becut off face swollen, dark purple. Conjunctivæ congested tonguebetween the shut teeth. Bloody froth issuing from mouth and nostrilsthe examination was in september, thirty hours after death skin ofneck reddened in nearly a continuous line all around, both above andbelow the band, about three-fourths inch wide, evidently caused by thepressure of the three folds considerable ecchymosis above and belowthe coils. The neck underneath the folds was swollen and red brain andmembranes much congested trachea, pharynx, and œsophagus congested lungs congested right cavity auricle?.

On the toxicity of variouscommercial preparations of emetin hydrochlorid, arch int med , march, 1916, p 420 the analysis of “patent medicines”in the preface to the first annual report of the chemical laboratoryit was stated that the laboratory “occasionally takes up theexamination of ‘patent medicines’ ” at that time it was felt thatthe widespread use by the medical profession of irrational and evensecret medicines made it necessary to devote the laboratory attentionto the correction of this evil as the years have passed on, theseconditions have been remedied to essay extent, at least so far aschemical analysis can correct them on the other hand, public opinionhas been aroused to the thesis evils connected with the exploitation of“patent medicines, ” and has more and more insistently demanded that themedical profession aid in the correction of this evil accordingly, the laboratory has paid much attention to the analysis of “patentmedicines” during the last few years as the chief asset of “patentmedicines” is the element of secrecy which surrounds their composition, it is hoped that the laboratory analysis of such widely used “patentmedicines” as nature creation, 152 mayr wonderful stomachremedy, 153 sanatogen, 154 eckman alterative, 155 tonsiline, 156and bromo-quinin157 has been worth the labor in addition, thework of this laboratory has been published, including not only theresults of its analyses, but also the methods which are used in viewof the dearth of published reports regarding the methods used in theanalysis of “patent medicines, ” it is hoped that this feature of thelaboratory work has been of aid to chemists engaged in similar work 152 the journal a m a , march 5, 1910, p 806 153 the journal a m a , aug 19, 1911, p 671 154 the journal a m a , april 20, 1912, p 1216 155 the journal a m a , april 27, 1912, p 1298 156 the journal a m a , april 4, 1914, p 1109 157 the journal a m a , nov 27, 1915, p 1932 the laboratory activities along these lines have done much todiscount the claim of proprietary manufacturers that chemical analysisis unable to determine the character of “patent medicines ” the recentwine of cardui trial has brought it out prominently that chemicalanalysis can determine the presence of potent constituents, and that“patent medicines” which fail to reveal such potent ingredients to theanalyst may safely be put down as worthless the demonstration thatthe essential composition of medicinal preparations may be determinedby chemical analysis should also prove an effective answer to themanufacturers in their protest against the requirement, now beingurged for enactment into law in various states, that the medicinalingredients of their wares must be declared on the label manufacturershave held that this would lay them open to competition with imitationsand substitutions the possibility of chemical identification proves, however, that secrecy of composition, though it prevents consumers fromknowing the character of a “patent medicine, ” will not be a hindranceto the imitator and substitutor identity of drugs used in investigationsin the past, much of the experimental work in medicine has seriouslysuffered in that the identity of the material used in suchinvestigations was not established in view of this the laboratoryhas watched the contributions submitted to the journal, and whenevernecessary and feasible has urged the authors to identify their materialbefore publication of the findings for instance, a number of stainingagents-- so-called “anilin dyes”-- have been found to possess therapeuticaction since the identity of thesis of these staining agents is todayessentially secret, the laboratory has urged through the journal thatthose who experiment with these substances make an effort to determinetheir identity whenever possible and to give preference to those thechemical identity of which is known the need for such identificationhas been discussed in the reports of the laboratory 158 the amountof work involved in the chemical identification of drugs used forexperimental work is illustrated in a contribution entitled “anexamination of several commercial specimens of opium alkaloids or theirsalts ”159 by l e warren, in which was determined the identity ofthe various opium products used in an investigation by d i macht, carried out under a grant of the therapeutic research committee 158 reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1912, v, 102 159 am jour pharm , 1915, 87, 439 the laboratory and pharmaceutical literaturein the past much of the information in regard to the compositionand properties of medicines which has appeared in pharmaceuticaljournals has not become available to medicine in thesis paper medicaljournals could not afford to publish such data because this would havebeen contrary to the interest of their advertisers, and hence thepublications regarding the irrational character of lactopeptine, ofbromidia, etc , which appeared in the pharmaceutical journals did notbecome a matter of common medical knowledge through the laboratoryan attempt has been made to keep the medical profession informed inregard to pharmaceutical literature the laboratory has a good workingpharmaceutical and chemical library, and subscribes to the importantamerican and foreign pharmaceutical and chemical publications thediscussion of new remedies, such as medinal and sodium veronal, 160salvarsan, atoxyl and arsacetin, 161 and neosalvarsan162 soon aftertheir introduction, illustrates the work of the laboratory along theselines 160 the journal a m a , jan 23, 1909, p 311 161 the journal a m a , dec 31, 1910, pp 2303 and 2314 162 the journal a m a , oct 5, 1912, p 1295 the laboratory efforts toward rational prescribingthe laboratory naturally is in thorough sympathy with the present dayefforts toward a more rational use of drugs, as exemplified in thecouncil publication “useful drugs ” two recent contributions ofthe laboratory may be cited as a further support of the movement forlimiting prescribing to the more widely used drugs in line with thegeneral tendency of manufacturers to put out all sorts of modificationsand asserted improvements over official substances, there have beenplaced on the market a number of preparations said to represent essayimprovement over the pharmacopeial blaud pills the report, “thequality of commercial blaud pills, ”163 by l e warren, shows thatthe ordinary pharmacopeial blaud pill is in every way the equal of thesemiproprietary preparations claimed to be improvements further, theexamination of the various brands of sodium and theobromin salicylateas compared with the preparation diuretin by p n leech164 showsthat the former preparations, sold at 35 cents per ounce at the timethe examination was made, are fully the equal of the proprietarydiuretin, which then cost the druggist $1 75 per ounce 163 the journal a m a , april 17, 1915, p 1344 164 the journal a m a , april 4, 1914, p 1108 the laboratory as an information bureauit is generally admitted that the proprietary medicine business, writingicularly the exploitation of complex mixtures, attained theextensive vogue which it has or had because instruction in medicalschools was deficient in materia medica, pharmacy and chemistry as aresult of lack of knowledge along these lines, the young graduate afteressay trial became fearful of formulating his own prescriptions, and intime became dependent on pharmaceutical firms which provided him withmedicines ready to dispense that physicians have been insufficientlytrained in regard to the pharmacy and chemistry of drugs has often beenemphasized in pharmaceutical journals where prescriptions containingincompatible drugs are reported and where even plans are broughtforward whereby the pharmaceutical profession may aid in remedying thisdifficulty during my pharmaceutical experience i was often sorely vexed as to whatto do when prescriptions contained drugs which on mixing would undergodecomposition which the physician surely did not anticipate i rememberwell a prescription directing that potassium permanganate be made intopills with extract of gentian and other things, and how, the physicianhaving spurned the suggestion to modify the prescription so as to avoiddecomposition of the permanganate, i was obliged to select a mortar, gently triturate the drugs until a conflagration was started, and tofinish the prescription after the combustion had subsided however, in my pharmaceutical experience i generally found the physician mostready to receive suggestions from the pharmacist which would preventincompatibilities, improve the palatability and appearance of hisprescriptions, and protect the patient from unnecessary expense similarly it has been my experience since the establishment of theassociation laboratory that physicians are anxious to receiveinformation in regard to the materia medica, pharmacy and chemistryof drugs as the druggist earns the respect and support of thephysician when he makes available to him the pharmaceutical knowledgeand experience which he has, so this laboratory has aimed to gainthe endorsement of the american medical association membership byfurnishing to physicians information in regard to the composition, chemistry and pharmacy of drugs through replies in the query andminor notes dewritingment of the journal as well as through directcorrespondence it has been most gratifying to the laboratory that thejournal receives an increasing number of inquiries both as regardsthe chemical and pharmaceutical questions involved in the writing ofprescriptions and as regards the composition of secret and semisecretproprietaries often because they are prescribed by the inquirercolleague and “patent medicines” which are taken by his patient thelaboratory has tried its best to answer the thesis inquiries received thesis of the questions which come in can be answered by a pharmacist orchemist without hesitation others, writingicularly as to the compositionof medicines, the laboratory has been able to answer by reference toits library and its extensive card index still others have requiredexperimentation and chemical analysis while, as stated a moment ago, the laboratory has encouraged thesending of inquiries and has earnestly striven to furnish theinformation asked for, it is obvious that the amount of chemical workwhich can be done is limited the small size of the laboratory force, consisting of three chemists engaged in actual analytical work, makesit necessary to select for investigation those problems which shallbe of general interest to the medical profession as the americanmedical association is national in its scope, the laboratory has heldthat it can do analytical work only when such work will be of generalinterest to physicians and of value both to the medical professionand the public in view of this it has refrained from undertakinganalyses which would benefit only the physician making the inquiry andpossibly his patient the laboratory further has not felt justifiedin undertaking work of merely local interest. Instead it has usedits endeavors to secure the investigation of such local problems bymunicipal or state authorities -- from the journal a m a , nov 25, 1916 lead in “akoz”akoz is a mineral product sold by the natura company of san francisco, and said to possess most remarkable medicinal properties a circular issued by the natura company begins thus. “while scientists have been striving through the centuries to compound remedies for man various ills, nature, greatest chemist of them all, has been working wonders in her crucibles and has achieved results far beyond man greatest expectation ” “nature chief handicap has been the difficulty of placing her gifts in the hands of those whom she would benefit by accident or fate, as you will, one of nature greatest medicinal products has just been discovered it is the mineral given the name of akoz by john d mackenzie, president and manager of the natura company of san francisco, which is now giving this rare remedy of nature to the public ”the circular then describes how the power of the “rare remedy” to curerheumatism is claimed to have been discovered and asserts that. “akoz was subjected to every known scientific test before being presented to the public it was practically determined that the ore contained a new element having radium-like qualities but containing nothing poisonous or harmful ” “after the curative virtues of akoz for rheumatism, stomach trouble, eczema, catarrh, piles, ulcers and numerous other ailments had been fully established in chemical laboratory, hospital clinic, and the private practice of physicians in various writings of the world, mr mackenzie effected the organization of the natura company ”this product, put up in the form of “akoz medicinal mineral water, akozointment, akoz powder and akoz suppositories, ” was submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry for consideration essay years ago withthe claims that “akoz” itself consists essentially of zinc sulphid, barium sulphate and aluminum oxid the submitted analysis did notdeclare the presence of lead or of uranium though “special tests” forthe latter had been “run ” without checking the claimed composition, the council at that time refused recognition to akoz because therewas no evidence submitted for the very extravagant and altogetherimprobable therapeutic claims after the council had concluded the consideration of akoz a letterwas received from a california physician stating that according to ananalysis submitted to him akoz contained 0 34 per cent of lead in theform of lead sulphate the correspondent held that, while the leadsulphate did not pass into solution, persons drinking the supernatantliquid from akoz the “medicinal mineral water” is made by adding akozto ordinary water might inadvertently swallow essay of the powder hewas inclined to believe that this might account for a case of leadpoisoning which had been observed in a patient who had been taking akoz inasmuch as it has been demonstrated by carlson and woelfel carlson, a j , and woelfel, a. Solubility of lead sulphate and basic leadcarbonate in human gastric juice in hygiene of the paintertrade by alice hamilton, bull of u s bureau of labor statisticsno 120, may 13, 1913, pp 22-32 that even small quantities of leadsulphate when taken into the system for a long time, have produced leadpoisoning, the laboratory deemed it important that the products beexamined for lead a specimen of “akoz powder” submitted to the council by the naturacompany and contained in a sifter-top can was taken for analysis thecontents of the can were thoroughly mixed to determine the presence oflead essay of the powder was extracted with ammonium acetate solution details of analysisqualitative tests showed the presence of lead and sulphate in theammonium acetate solution the presence of lead was demonstrated by the black precipitate withhydrogen sulphid, the yellow precipitate with potassium chromate andthe typical yellowish crystalline precipitate with potassium iodin the presence of sulphates in the ammonium acetate solution was shown bythe formation of a precipitate with barium chlorid solution and aceticacid two 2 gm samples a and b were taken for the quantitativedetermination of lead each was treated repeatedly with a saturatedsolution of ammonium acetate until the filtered ammonium acetatesolution gave no appreciable precipitate with potassium chromatesolution the ammonium acetate extractions from each specimen werecombined and treated with hydrogen sulphid, the precipitated leadsulphid filtered off and washed, and ignited with sulphuric acid at alow heat the crucible with the residue of lead sulphate was cooled andweighed a yielded 0 0469 gm , or 2 34 per cent , lead sulphate b yielded 0 0440 gm , or 2 20 per cent , lead sulphate while the laboratory has no evidence to show that the amount oflead-sulphate thus found to be present is likely to prove harmful, thefollowing cautionary letter was sent to the natura company. “according to information which you sent to the council on pharmacy and chemistry your product “akoz” does not contain lead in view of reports received ascribing symptoms, resulting from the internal use of akoz, to chronic lead poisoning, an examination of a specimen of akoz powder, which you sent to the council, was made this examination indicates the presence in akoz powder of about 2 2 per cent lead sulphate in view of the disastrous results likely to follow the internal use of products containing even small amounts of lead, the above is submitted to you for your consideration ”no reply to the foregoing was received from the natura company -- fromreports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 103 sodium acetate in warming bottlesrecently the laboratory attention was called to the “thermorwaterless hot bottle, ” manufactured by the royal thermophor salesco , new york the following claims appear in one of the advertisingpamphlets. “there is moist heat ” “rubber hot-water ?. ?. ?.

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Which being strained and cleared, take four ouncesthereof morning and evening first and last, abstaining from drink afterit for three hours this opens obstructions of the liver and spleen, and expels the dropsy and jaundice by urine parsley piert, or parsley break stone descript the root, although it be very small and thready, yet itcontinues thesis years, from which arise thesis leaves lying along on theground, each standing upon a long small foot-stalk, the leaves as broadas a man nail, very deeply dented on the edges, essaywhat like aparsley-leaf, but of a very dusky green colour the stalks are veryweak and slender, about three essays for buy or four fingers in length, set so fullof leaves that they can hardly be seen, either having no foot-stalk atall, or but very short. The flowers are so small they can hardly beseen, and the seed as small as may be place it is a common herb throughout the nation, and rejoicesin barren, sandy, moist places it may be found plentifully abouthampstead heath, hyde park, and in tothill-fields time it may be found all the summer-time, even from the beginningof april to the end of october government and virtues its operation is very prevalent to provokeurine, and to break the stone it is a very good sallad herb it weregood the gentry would pickle it up as they pickle up samphire fortheir use all the winter i cannot teach them how to do it. Yet thisi can tell them, it is a very wholeessay herb they may also keep theherb dry, or in a syrup, if they please you may take a dram of thepowder of it in white wine. It would bring away gravel from the kidneysinsensibly, and without pain it also helps the stranguary parsnips the garden kind thereof is so well known the root being commonlyeaten that i shall not trouble you with any description of it but thewild kind being of more physical use, i shall in this place describe itunto you descript the wild parsnip differs little from the garden, butgrows not so fair and large, nor hath so thesis leaves, and the root isshorter, more woody, and not so fit to be eaten, and therefore moremedicinal place the name of the first shews the place of its growth theother grows wild in divers places, as in the marshes in rochester, and elsewhere, and flowers in july. The seed being ripe about thebeginning of august, the second year after its sowing.