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2 that they were certain and unattendedwith any of the revolting scenes so frequently witnessed at thescaffold. 3 that the method is humane so far as inflicting physicalpain or suffering, and from all sides considered infinitely preferableto the death by hanging. And that so long as capital punishment formurder exists in new york, we need not desire to change the method ofpunishment ” these claims would seem to be thus far substantiated the value of this method of execution is now beyond doubt whenproperly performed it is rapid, painless, and not repulsive thecriminal has probably no physical sensation of pain or discomfort dueto the mode of death from the moment the first shock occurs since therapidity of the transmission of the electric current through the bodyis in these paper much greater than the rapidity of the transmissionof sensation, it seems just to conclude that no sensation from theelectricity reaches the consciousness the only distress sufferedby the criminal is the unavoidable mental suffering natural to hisposition the mechanical means employed in electrocution are practically thesame at sing sing, clinton, and auburn prisons a special room isprovided for the purpose, which should be, if possible, in thebasement with a concrete floor. This room must be of sufficient sizeto admit readily the criminal with the attendant officers, the wardenand other officials in charge or on duty at the execution, and thewitnesses for whom seats are usually provided at a little distancefrom the criminal chair, and also to allow of plenty of room for themanagement of the electrical apparatus, and a good space around thechair in which the criminal is placed the electrical plant consists ofan alternating-current dynamo and its accessories, placed wherever maybe convenient, according to the arrangements of the buildings of theinstitution, but connected by means of wires with the switch-board inthe execution-room in the execution-room also should be the voltmeter, the ammeter, and such other instruments of measurement or precision asmay be required in charge of these and of the switch-board during theexecution is the electrical expert, an official paid by the state ofnew york means of communication by electric bells or otherwise are, ofcourse, arranged between the execution-room and the engineer in chargeof the dynamo, so that the current can be produced as desired the chair in which the criminal is placed is made of stout beams of oakand is securely fastened to the floor and insulated it is perfectlyplain, with broad arms and an upright back, which latter can be tiltedbackward a little by means of a special arrangement and firmly fixed inthe desired position this is accomplished by means of a bar of woodwhich is firmly attached at one end to the lower portion of the backand runs forward thence parallel to the seat of the chair and alongsideof it. To the anterior end of this is fastened a perpendicular barrunning downward, which can be raised or lowered at will, and securelyfastened at any height as this is raised or lowered, it raises orlowers the anterior end of the horizontal beam and correspondinglylowers or raises the opposite end to which the back of the chairis attached, thus moving the latter when the anterior end of thehorizontal bar is raised the posterior end is lowered and the back ofthe chair is straightened attached to the upper portion of the back ofthe chair is a head-rest, which can be raised or lowered as desired. Itmay, as in the case of kemmler, have a horizontal arm which projectsforward and from which the head-electrode may be suspended the chairis also furnished with broad leather straps firmly attached, two ofwhich pass around the body, one around each upper arm, one around eachlower arm, and one around each leg there is also a broad conjoinedor compound strap which passes over the head, encircling the foreheadand the chin and securing the head firmly to the head-rest whenthese straps are properly adjusted and fastened, any marked degree ofmovement is impossible the adjustment and fastening of these strapscan be performed very rapidly, in practiced hands taking not more thanforty seconds the electrodes used have varied slightly in different paper in thecase of kemmler they each consisted of a bell-shaped rubber cup aboutfour inches in diameter, with a wooden handle through which passedthe wires into the bell to end in a metallic disk about three inchesin diameter, faced with sponge the upper electrode was so arrangedas to rest firmly on the top of the head, where it was held closelyby means of a spiral spring.

From a recent issue of a des moines newspaper we learn that the pulvanelaboratories are about to establish a sanatorium where the pulvanetreatment can be given this announcement is said to be made by john p mosher, the alleged discoverer of pulvane mosher is not a physician the newspaper article states, further, that mosher experiments weretried out “under the observation of major sharpe, ” commander at fortdes moines it appears also that an ex-newspaper reporter is connectedwith the pulvane laboratories the value of having a good publicityman is obviously recognized there also seems to be connected with theconcern a dr harry p hall we find in essay writting company the records reference to oneharry p hall who was graduated by the medical dewritingment of drakeuniversity of des moines, iowa, in 1894, and was licensed in iowa in1896 our records indicate that he has not been in practice for essayyears we also find in our files essay newspaper clippings regarding adr harry p hall who, in 1914, pleaded guilty to a charge of using themails to defraud and was fined in the federal courts whether there isany connection between these two names, we do not know reverting to the claims made by the pulvane laboratories that pulvanewas “developed in a united states army general hospital by officersof the medical dewritingment” the following statement has recently beenreceived by the journal from surgeon-general ireland of the unitedstates army. “it has been brought to my attention that a concern in des moines, iowa, known as the pulvane laboratories, has issued a pamphlet in which statements are made which would naturally lead medical men to believe that the experiments, etc , referred to therein were made with the approval of and more or less under the direction of the medical dewritingment of the army i wish to say that this is not so. That the medical dewritingment had nothing whatever to do with the matter and that it thoroughly disapproves of the methods used by the promoters of this concern -- from the journal a m a , march 11, 1922 sal hepaticasal hepatica is a saline laxative sold by the bristol-myers company ofnew york little information is given, or, apparently, ever has beengiven, concerning the composition of this product thesis years ago thestock medical journal advertisement contained this statement. “composition -- sal hepatica contains all of the tonic, alterative and laxative salts of the celebrated ‘bitter waters’ of europe, especially those of bohemia, as determined by actual chemical analysis of these waters, and fortified by the addition of lithium and sodium phosphates ”255255 essay of the sal hepatica advertising has claimed that it “is asaline combination with the addition of sodium phosphate and lithiacitrate!. ”sal hepatica no longer “contains all the tonic, alterative and laxativesalts , ” etc , for the label on a package recently purchased reads. “sal hepatica is an effervescent saline combination possessing medicinal properties similar to the natural ‘bitter waters’ of europe, and fortified by the addition of sodium phosphate ”in 1909, the druggists circular published an analysis of sal hepaticawhich showed that the preparation contained only 0 04 per cent oflithium phosphate by referring to the two quotations just givenit will be noticed that today the manufacturers make no claim thattheir preparation is fortified with any salt of lithium a circularaccompanying recent trade packages states. “sal hepatica is composed solely of harmless salts, being absolutely free from acetanilid, phenacetin, caffein, calomel, opium or coal tar derivatives ”since neither the names nor the amounts of the “harmless salts” arementioned, the composition of sal hepatica is secret it is a trickof the nostrum exploiter, old but ever popular, to mention numerousdrugs which his preparation does not contain. It helps to distractattention from the fact that he does not tell what the preparationdoes contain!. In the old-time medical journal advertisements, one reads, “salhepatica is the most powerful solvent of uric acid known ” the sameadvertisement as it appeared in those days in the journal showsthat claim toned down to, “sal hepatica is a powerful solvent ofuric acid ” in those easy going days, the bristol-myers companydeclared that “diabetes is treated with decided advantage by meansof sal hepatica it possesses the property of arresting thesecretion of sugar in the liver ” in the old days, too, sal hepaticawas recommended in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver, brightdisease, gravel, phthisis, etc the present advertising circular recommends sal hepatica as aneliminant, laxative or cathartic in gout, autointoxication, “biliousattacks, ” rheumatism, acute indigestion, catarrhal conditions ofthe stomach, pyorrhea, headache, dizziness, heart burn, “summercomplaints, ” “derangements of the stomach and liver, ” skin diseases, colic, alcoholic excesses, and as a “preventive of seasickness ”in 1914 the council on pharmacy and chemistry published256 a reporton sal hepatica declaring it secret in composition and sold underexaggerated and unwarranted claims 256 j a m a , feb 7, 1914, p 472 in view of the inquiries which the journal continues to receive itseemed worth while to make a chemical examination of the present-dayproduct accordingly specimens were purchased and analyzed in thea m a chemical laboratory the report that follows was submitted bythe chemists:“sal hepatica is a white, granular, odorless powder it effervesces onthe addition of water in which it eventually dissolves the aqueoussolution, after boiling to remove carbon dioxid, has an acid reactionto litmus “since a great thesis medicinal substances are sold in effervescent form, and since practically no information is given by the manufacturerconcerning the composition of sal hepatica, it became necessary totest for a considerable number of therapeutic agents the absence ofacetanilid, acetphenetidin, alkaloids, ammonium salts, benzoates, caffein, citrates, heavy metals, hexamethylenamin, magnesium, potassium, salicylates and sugars was demonstrated by appropriatetests the presence of a carbonate probably in the form of abicarbonate, a phosphate, a sulphate, a chlorid, tartaric acid, sodiumand traces of lithium was shown by qualitative tests “quantitative analysis indicated that the composition of the specimensexamined was essentially as follows.

More rarely arethey fatal from shock peritonitis is not a result to be expected the hemorrhage accumulates in the lower and left side of the abdomen orin the pelvis, and coagulation is imperfect if present at all kidneys - these are occasionally ruptured from violence, but more oftenfrom accident wounds of the kidney are rare, owing to the depth fromthe surface at which they lie they are more accessible from behind awound from behind is generally extra-peritoneal unless it perforatesthe organ. Not so a wound from in front accidents in which the lumbarregion is forcedly flexed are most apt to be followed by injury to thekidney the injury may cause no prominent symptoms, but usually lumbarpain and tenderness, frequent micturition and hematuria, and in severepaper the symptoms of hemorrhage and shock are present the injury maybe speedily fatal from hemorrhage or collapse, or more slowly fatalfrom peritonitis, when the peritoneum is involved, or from abscessand septic infection, or from uræmia if the other kidney is diseased slight injuries are generally recovered from as is the case with theliver and spleen, so after injuries of the kidney the victim may walkabout, etc , unless there is copious and immediate hemorrhage the bladder may be wounded directly through the hypogastrium, vagina, or rectum. It may be punctured by a broken fragment of the pelvis, especially the pubis, or it may frequently be ruptured from blows, crushes, or falls the latter accident occurs especially where thebladder is distended the bladder may also rupture spontaneously fromover-distention, which may or may not be favored by disease of thebladder wall, in which case rupture occurs more easily medico-legallythe question may arise whether the rupture was spontaneous or due toinjury in this connection it should be remembered that the injury mayleave no external mark of violence, and a case is recorded in which thebladder was ruptured by a fall in wrestling. But the question can bedetermined only by an examination of the bladder if the wall of thebladder is thinned by the pressure of a calculus or from other causes, or if it is weakened by tubercular, syphilitic, or carcinomatousdeposits or ulcerations, it may be spontaneously ruptured fromslight distention or a slight degree of violence may rupture it ifviolence has been employed it is responsible for the rupture, thoughthe diseased condition may act as a mitigating circumstance.

Hottentot and polynesian, each 1, 230 essay writting company c c. Australians, 1, 364c c. And nubians, 1, 313 c c the cranial capacity in man, like thatof the anthropoid apes, varies according to sex, the difference beingso great that it is necessary to measure separately in the troglodyte skulls of prehistoric times the variation is notmore than 99 5 c c. But in the contemporaneous races the differencevaries from 143 to 220 c c french craniologists usually speak of theauvernats as possessing the highest cerebral capacity 1, 523 c c , andmention the skull of a parisian of 1, 900 c c as the highest known essay eskimo skulls, however, measure from 1, 650 to 1, 715 c c , andtwo eurycephalic indian skulls in the anatomical section of the armymedical museum measure respectively 1, 785 and 1, 920 c c mr havelock ellis, speaking of the psychic characteristics ofcriminals, says that the lower human races present a far largerproportion of anatomical abnormities than the ordinary europeanpopulation. And sir william turner writes of the skulls collectedduring the challenger expedition that although their number iscertainly too limited to base any broad generalization on, as to therelative frequency of occurrence of writingicular variations in thedifferent races, there is obviously a larger proportion of importantvariations than would occur in a corresponding number of skulls ofthe white races thus, for example, the squamo-frontal articulationis found in less than two per cent of european skulls, while it isfound in twenty per cent of negroes, according to ecker, and 16 9 inaustralian skulls, according to virchow again, the spheno-pterygoidforamen is found in 4 8 per cent of european skulls and in 20 per centof american indians.

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Control period, 189 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 72 gm milk av daily yield for 11 days dog 3. Control period, 93 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis on bread, 17 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days dog 4. Control period, 28 gm milk av daily yield for 7 days nutrolactis period 8 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 47 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 43 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days control period, 41 5 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 33 5 gm milk av daily yield for 4 days dog 5. Control period, 67 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis on bread, 81 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days dog 6. Control period, 40 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 33 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days control period, 26 gm milk av daily yield for 4 days dog 7. Control period, 283 gm milk av daily yield for 9 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 155 gm milk av daily yield for 15 days 15 c c nutrolactis by stomach tube, 82 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days control period, 33 gm milk av daily yield for 3 days dog 8. Control period, 238 gm milk av daily yield for 8 days nutrolactis period 20 c c nutrolactis on bread, 223 gm milk av daily yield for 4 days 20 c c nutrolactis on bread, 46 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days dog 9. Control period, 223 gm milk av daily yield for 6 days nutrolactis period 10 c c nutrolactis on bread, 178 gm milk av daily yield for 15 days 15 c c nutrolactis on bread, 146 gm milk av daily yield for 5 days comment and conclusiongoat 1 had already been lactating for over two months, and the yieldwas gradually decreasing at the time the observations were begun theadministration of galega did not check this decrease goat 2 shouldhave been a very favorable subject, for the kid was about a week oldat the time the observations were begun both galega and nutrolactiscaused a decrease in milk yield of this animal this decrease isperhaps writingly due to the animal distaste for the drugs and herconsequent failure to eat as well as during the control periods administration of nutrolactis was accompanied by an increase in milkin only two animals, dog 4 and dog 5 a detailed examination of therecords of these two dogs shows that in both paper there was aprogressive increase in milk yield during the control period and thatadministration of the drug failed to accelerate this increase on thecontrary, the curve for dog 5 takes a sudden drop immediately after thefirst administration of the drug the records of dogs 6 and 7 show that the yield during the secondcontrol period is lower than that of the preceding periods althoughthe administration of the drug in both paper was followed by a decreasein the yield, it may be urged that the drug has essay lactagogue action, for its discontinuance was followed by a decrease in yield thiseffect, however, is also apparent rather than real, for the data show agradual falling off in yield during the period of administration of thedrug, which decrease was not accelerated by withdrawing the drug our data show that galega and nutrolactis, when taken by mouth, and the elements of suggestion excluded, had no beneficial effecton lactation-- at least in so far as the quantity of milk isconcerned -- from the journal a m a , may 26, 1917 the russell emulsion and the russell prepared green bone report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on “the russell emulsion” and “the russellprepared green bone, ” marketed by the standard emulsion company, wassubmitted to the council by a referee the council endorsed the reportand authorized its publication w a puckner, secretary the russell emulsion is put up in a neat package and advertised in anattractive pamphlet, on the cover of which we are told. “truth alwaysjustifies the superlative degree ” as what follows in the booklet andin the printed circulars certainly does not lack superlatives, this isdoubtless a warning in addition to the pamphlet and circular advertising, the product seemsto be systematically boomed by a lecture scheme in which one dr haguetalks before medical societies and distributes advertising matter the lecture is succeeded by a follow-up letter scheme through whichmatter is sent to members of the society hague ostensibly discusses“lime starvation in tuberculosis, ” but medical societies soon learnedto estimate his work as essentially to advertise the russell products last april the medical society of the state of pennsylvania sent outa circular letter to its county organizations on the subject of therussell-hague propaganda which opens in this way:“you have doubtless received a letter from dr william grant hague ofnew york, offering to address your county society on tuberculosis after due investigation, it is respectfully suggested that it may notbe desirable to ask him to address your society ”the statements in the pamphlet and circular published are typical ofthe whole method of exploitation for example, can such claims as thesebe surpassed by the veriest quack?. “science cannot improve the means employed in producing the russell emulsion ” “genius has not devised better methods than are used in manufacturing the russell emulsion ” “money cannot buy better products than are used in the russell emulsion ” “experience cannot suggest a more nutritious combination of fats than we use in the russell emulsion ”the emulsion is said to be made of equal writings of beef-fat, coconut, peanut and cottonseed oils, held in suspension by albumin the latterwe are told is applied to each globule of the emulsion by an “elaboratetechnical process” devised by dr russell the mixture is everywherespoken of as a “physiological” emulsion, but the word is always inquotation marks why it is called “physiological” is not clear, but theterm may be counted on to impress the unthinking or the unscientific numerous false and exaggerated statements are made about this“physiological” emulsion with reference to food value for instance. “the nutritional value of fats differ.