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2012 dec essay writing service free 30 1916 animal experiments carried out in the u s hygienic laboratory byvoegtlin and smith143 show that mon-arsone is devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action thus the “therapeutic ratio” the ratio of theminimal effective dose to the lethal dose was about 1, that is, itwas effective therapeutically only in approximately fatal doses. Thetherapeutic ratio for arsphenamine in similar conditions was 17, andthat of neoarsphenamine, 28 143 voegtlin, carl, and smith, h w. J pharmacol and exper therap 16. 449, 1921 the findings that sodium dimethylarsenate sodium cacodylate, sodiummethylarsenate, and sodium ethylarsenate are devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action and the conclusion that sodium cacodylate isinefficient in the treatment of human syphilis does not provethat mon-arsone is without effect on the disease these findings, however, certainly demand convincing therapeutic evidence to warrantthe recommendation for the use of the drug in the treatment ofsyphilis-- writingicularly because the drug is proposed as a substitute forarsphenamine, the value of which is established when the council first took up the consideration of mon-arsone, theonly evidence for the claim that it “has a therapeutic value at leastequal to that of arsphenamine” consisted, with one exception, ofreports from those who had experimented with the drug for the harmerlaboratories company, including a report by b l wright, l a kennell, and l m hussey, 144 the latter of the harmer laboratoriescompany these reports appeared to show that the administration ofmon-arsone caused less reaction than arsphenamine, and that theimmediate effects, judged by clinical symptoms and the response to thewassermann test, appeared to be good these trials extended over tooshort a period of time to permit judgment as to the permanence of theresults a report by an independent observer seemed to indicate thatmon-arsone does not have the sterilizing action on syphilitic lesionswhich it is usually believed arsphenamine exercises 144 wright, b l. Kennell, l a , and hussey, l m. M rec 97. 607 april 10 1920 after examining the available evidence, the council advised the harmerlaboratories company that the claim that mon-arsone has a therapeuticvalue equal to arsphenamine appeared unwarranted.

After putrefaction has set in ammonia isdeveloped, the myosin dissolved, and so flaccidity results rigor mortis occurs first in the muscles of the eyelid, next themuscles of the lower jaw and neck are affected, then the chest andupper extremities. Afterward it gradually progresses from abovedownward, affecting the muscles of the abdomen and lower limbs therigidity disappears in the same sequence the period after deathwhen rigor mortis manifests itself, together with its duration, ischiefly dependent upon the previous degree of muscular exhaustion brown-séquard has demonstrated that the greater the degree of muscularirritability at the time of death, the later the cadaveric rigiditysets in and the longer it lasts he has also shown that the laterputrefaction sets in, the more slowly it progresses the more robust the individual and the shorter the disease, the moremarked and persistent is this muscular rigidity it has been noticedthat the bodies of soldiers killed in the beginning of an engagementbecome rigid slowly, and those killed late quickly this explains thereason why bodies are essaytimes found on the battle-field in a kneelingor sitting posture with weapons in hand if the rigidity of rigor mortis after it is once complete is overcome, as in bending an arm, it never returns. But if incomplete it mayreturn this will serve at times to distinguish real death fromcatalepsy and its allied conditions while the average duration ofrigor mortis has been given as sixteen to twenty-four hours, it mustbe remembered that in essay paper it has been known to last only a fewhours, as in death by lightning or by electrocution in other paper ithas persisted for seven and fourteen days this long continuance of rigor mortis has been noted in death fromstrychnine and other spinal poisons, in suffocation, and in poisoningby veratrum viride atmospheric conditions modify to a large extent the duration of rigormortis dry, cold air causes it to last for a long time, while warm, moist air shortens its duration also immersion in cold water brings onrigor mortis quickly and lengthens its duration cadaveric ecchymosis cadaveric lividity or hypostasis within a few hours after death the skin of the body, which is of apale, ashy-gray color, becomes covered by extensive patches of a bluishor purple color, which are most pronounced and are first seen on theback writing of the trunk, head extremities, ears, face, and neck, and aredue to the blood, before coagulating, settling in the most dependentwritings of the body, producing a mottling of the surface with irregularlivid patches there is also a stagnation of blood in the capillaryvessels, especially in those in the upper layer of the true skin or inthe space between the cuticle and cutis the discoloration continues toincrease until the body is cold, when it is entirely arrested lateron, just before putrefaction begins, the color deepens, and the changeappears to proceed from an infiltration of blood pigment into thedependent writings of the body at the same time the discolorations are appearing on the surface of thebody, internal hypostasis is also taking place, most marked in thedependent portions of the brain, lungs, intestines, kidneys, and spinalcord this condition in the brain may be mistaken for so-called congestiveapoplexy. In the lungs, for pulmonary apoplexy or the first stageof lobar pneumonia. In the intestines and spinal meninges, for thebeginning of inflammatory changes the position of these hypostases will afford the best correction forthis possible error the appearances presented by cadaveric ecchymoseshave often been mistaken for the effects of violence applied duringlife innocent persons have been accused and tried for murder ormanslaughter on charges afterward proved to be groundless therefore itis of the utmost importance that the medical jurist should be able todistinguish between ante-mortem and post-mortem ecchymoses the following are the points of difference:1 situation post-mortem ecchymoses are seen on that portion of thebody which has been most dependent, generally the posterior aspect, and they involve principally the superficial layers of the true skin;ante-mortem ecchymoses may occur anywhere, and generally the deepertissues are discolored 2 in cadaveric lividity there is no elevation of the skin and thediscoloration terminates abruptly 3 after cutting into the tissues where an ecchymosis has been producedby violence, the blood without the vessels is free in the tissue. Thisis not so in cadaveric ecchymosis 4 post-mortem ecchymoses are very extensive, ante-mortem generallylimited in area a peculiar appearance of cadaveric lividity is observed in bodieswhich have been wrapped in a sheet and allowed to cool or that havecooled in their clothing it occurs in the form of bands or stripesover the whole surface, and often gives an appearance as of a personflogged the explanation of this appearance is that the congestion ofthe vessels takes place in the interstices of the folds, while thewritings compressed remain whole the unbroken condition of the cuticle, together with the other characteristics just mentioned, are sufficientto distinguish these ecchymoses from those produced by violence whilecadaveric lividity is seen in all bodies after death, it is especiallypronounced in those persons who have died suddenly in full health orby violence, as from apoplexy, hanging, drowning, or suffocation itis very slight in the bodies of those who have died from hemorrhage oranæmia the time at which cadaveric lividity appears varies greatly casper, who has investigated the subject thoroughly, sets the time at fromtwelve to fifteen hours after death putrefaction at a period varying from a few hours to three days after death, certainchanges are seen in the human body which show that putrefaction hascommenced a change of color appears first upon the middle of theabdomen and gradually spreads over the rest of the body. It is firstpale green, which gradually deepens, and finally becomes purplish orbrown this change in color is due to the action on the hæmoglobin ofthe gases developed by decomposition similar discoloration makes itsappearance on the chest, between the ribs, on the face, the neck, thelegs, and lastly on the arms, where it is more marked along the largevenous trunks, and has essaytimes been mistaken for marks of violence the eyeballs become flaccid, and if exposed to the air the conjunctivaand cornea become dry and brown gases are formed, not only in thehollow organs of the abdomen but also in the skin those developed inthe cavities of the head and face force frothy, reddish fluid or mucusfrom the mouth and nostrils, and may cause swelling of the features andprotrusion of the eyes and tongue it must be remembered that the gaseswhile producing distention of the abdomen may also cause changes in theposition of the blood and slight displacement of the organs. They mayalso force undigested food into the mouth and into the larynx, and solead to suspicion of death from suffocation as putrefaction advances, after a period of five or six days the entiresurface of the body becomes green or brown, the cuticle becomes looseand easily detached. The tissues flaccid and often bathed in a reddishserum in such situations as the neck, the groin, and the back writing ofthe scalp the thorax and abdomen become enormously distended, thefeatures distorted and scarcely recognizable, and the hair and nailsloosened beyond this, it is impossible to follow the changes leadingto disintegration with any degree of certainty the changes which ihave just described as produced by putrefaction are the ordinaryones seen in a body exposed to the air at a moderate temperature, butit must be remembered that the time and rapidity of the development ofthese changes may be influenced by a large number of factors, and thatthey are of very little importance in estimating the time of death ihave seen bodies buried two months that have shown fewer of the changesproduced by putrefaction than others dead but a week the appearance of a body buried in a coffin will be as follows after aperiod varying from a few months to one or two years the soft tissueswill have become dry and brown and the face and limbs covered with asoft white fungus hard white crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatewill be found on the surface of the soft organs, and when found onthe surface of the stomach care should be taken not to confound themwith the effects of poison in time the viscera become so mixedtogether that it is difficult to distinguish them for the most writingthe changes that take place in a body buried in a coffin are similar, but much slower, to those that occur if the body is exposed to the airor buried in soil even under apparently identical circumstances themost varied results have been observed, so it is not possible for amedical jurist to fix a definite period of death or the time of burialfrom the appearance of an exhumed body for example, taylor records acase where after thirty-four years’ interment an entire and perfectskeleton was discovered, surrounded by traces of shroud and coffin, while in an adjoining grave all that remained of a body that had beendead twenty-five years were the long bones and base of the skull, inone case a body was found well preserved after six years’ burial and inanother after even thirty years’ interment this brings us next to a consideration of those factors that favor orretard decomposition circumstances favoring putrefaction 1 temperature - putrefaction advances most rapidly at a temperaturebetween 70° and 100° f it may commence at any temperature above 50°f , but it is wholly arrested at 32° f so one day exposure of abody in summer may effect greater changes than one week in winter after freezing, putrefaction takes place with unusual rapidity uponthe thawing out of the body a temperature of 212° f stops allputrefactive changes 2 moisture - putrefaction takes place only in the presence ofmoisture an excess of moisture, however, seems to retard the process, possibly by cutting off the excess of air the viscera according tothe amount of water they contain decompose at different times afterdeath for instance, the brain and eye rapidly, the bones and hairslowly 3 air - exposure to air favors decomposition by carrying to the bodythe micro-organisms which bring about putrefaction. Absence of air soonarrests the changes. This is seen in bodies hermetically sealed inlead coffins, which remain unchanged for a long period of time moistrather than dry air favors putrefaction by lessening evaporation airin motion retards while still air favors the change it is to be remembered that a body decomposes more rapidly in air thanin water or after burial given similar temperatures, the amount ofputrefaction observed in a body dead one week and exposed to the airwill about correspond to one submerged in water for two weeks or buriedin a deep grave for eight weeks 4 age - the bodies of children decompose much more rapidly thanthose of adults. Fœtuses still more rapidly aged bodies decomposeslowly, probably on account of a deficiency of moisture fat and flabbybodies decompose quickly for the same reason 5 cause of death - in paper of sudden death, as from accident orviolence, the body decomposes more rapidly than when death resultsfrom disease putrefaction sets in early in death from the infectiousfevers, such as typhus, pyæmia, and typhoid fever, also in death fromsuffocation by smoke or coal gas, by strangulation or after narcoticpoisoning those writings of a body which are the seat of bruises, wounds, or fractures, decompose rapidly. This is especially seen inwritings after a surgical operation 6 manner of burial - when a body is buried in low ground in a damp, swampy, clay soil, decomposition advances rapidly, as also when thegrave is shallow so the body can be exposed to constant variations oftemperature a porous soil impregnated with animal and vegetable matterfavors putrefaction, as also burying a body without clothes or coffin;this is especially seen where infants have been thrown into the groundand loosely covered with earth circumstances retarding putrefaction 1 the temperature - below 32° f and above 212° f putrefaction isentirely arrested the rapidity of the change considerably lessens asthe temperature advances above 100° f a remarkable instance of thepreservative power of cold is given by adolph erman, who states thatthe body of prince menschikoff, a favorite of peter the great, exhumedafter ninety-two years’ burial in frozen soil, had undergone hardly anychange buried in hot sand as is seen in the desert, a body putrefiesvery slowly and generally becomes mummified 2 moisture - absence of moisture retards decomposition in the dryair of the desert bodies have been preserved for a long period of time 3 air - if access of air to a body be prevented in any way by itsinclosure in a coffin, by closely fitting clothes, or by completeimmersion in water, putrefaction is retarded 4 age - adults and old people decompose more slowly than children males are said to change less rapidly than females, lean people thanfleshy ones 5 cause of death - putrefaction is delayed after death from chronicdiseases unless they are associated with dropsy poisoning by alcohol, chloroform, strychnine, and arsenic retard putrefaction in the lattercase the putrefactive changes seem to stop after they have oncecommenced, and often a result very similar to mummification is seen death from the mineral acids, especially sulphuric, appears to delayputrefaction 6 manner of burial - putrefaction is retarded by burial a shorttime after death. By interment on high ground, in dry, sandy, orgravelly soil. By having the grave deep, over six feet in depth ifpossible by the body being well wrapped and secured in a tight coffin, a lead one being the best in this respect lime or charcoal appliedfreely about a body will retard decomposition, as will also injectionof the body through the arteries with such substances as arsenic, chloride of zinc, or antimony the ultimate effect of putrefactionis to reduce all bodies to inorganic compounds, chiefly water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide three conditions are necessary for itsestablishment, 1 a given temperature, 2 moisture, 3 free accessof air the order in which the various organs and tissues undergodecomposition, as given by casper, who has investigated the subjectcarefully, is as follows. Trachea and larynx, brain of infants, stomachand intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver, brain of adults, heart and lungs, kidney, bladder and œsophagus, pancreas, largevessels, and last of all the uterus as the result of putrefaction, fluids, generally blood-stained, collectin the serous cavities of the body, and should not be confoundedwith serous effusions occurring during life so also the softeningof the organs and tissue resulting from decomposition should becarefully distinguished from those resulting from inflammation thesecadaveric softenings are most frequently found in the brain, spleen, and gastro-intestinal mucous membrane inflammatory softenings aredifferentiated by being rarely general but almost always limited, bythe substance of the inflamed writing being infiltrated with serum orpus and showing traces of vascular injection in doubtful paper thepathologist should have recourse to the microscope as the result of putrefaction, various changes take place in the mucousmembrane of the stomach and intestines which simulate the effectsof poisons the color of the stomach varies from red, which becomesbrighter on exposure to the air, to a brown, slate, or livid purple wecan only presume that these color-changes are the result of irritantpoisons when they are found in non-dependent writings and writings not incontact with organs engorged with blood, when they are seen soon afterdeath, and when the membrane is covered with coagulated blood, mucus, or flakes of membrane effects on putrefaction of submersion in water there are certain modifications of the putrefactive changes when bodieshave been submerged in water in the first place, the changes are muchless rapid.

And boiled in wine, killsworms that breed in old and foul ulcers one writing of plantain water, and two writings of the brine of powdered beef, boiled together andclarified, is a most sure remedy to heal all spreading scabs or itchin the head and body, all manner of tetters, ringworms, the shingles, and all other running and fretting sores briefly, the plantains aresingularly good wound herbs, to heal fresh or old wounds or sores, either inward or outward plums are so well known that they need no description government and virtues all plums are under venus, and are likewomen, essay better, and essay worse as there is great diversity ofkinds, so there is in the operation of plums, for essay that are sweetmoisten the stomach, and make the belly soluble. Those that are sourquench thirst more, and bind the belly. The moist and waterish dosooner corrupt in the stomach, but the firm do nourish more, and offendless the dried fruit sold by the grocers under the names of damaskprunes, do essaywhat loosen the belly, and being stewed, are oftenused, both in health and sickness, to relish the mouth and stomach, to procure appetite, and a little to open the body, allay choler, andcool the stomach plum-tree leaves boiled in wine, are good to washand gargle the mouth and throat, to dry the flux of rheum coming tothe palate, gums, or almonds of the ear the gum of the tree is goodto break the stone the gum or leaves boiled in vinegar, and applied, kills tetters and ringworms matthiolus saith, the oil preserved out ofthe kernels of the stones, as oil of almonds is made, is good againstthe inflamed piles, the tumours or swellings of ulcers, hoarseness ofthe voice, roughness of the tongue and throat, and likewise the painsin the ears and that five ounces of the said oil taken with one ounceof muskadel, drives forth the stone, and helps the cholic polypody of the oak descript this is a small herb consisting of nothing but roots andleaves, bearing neither stalk, flower, nor seed, as it is thought ithath three or four leaves rising from the root, every one single byitself, of about a hand length, are winged, consisting of thesis smallnarrow leaves cut into the middle rib, standing on each side of thestalk, large below, and smaller up to the top, not dented nor notchedat the edges at all, as the male fern hath, of sad green colour, andsmooth on the upper side, but on the other side essaywhat rough byreason of essay yellowish flowers set thereon the root is smaller thanone little finger, lying aslope, or creeping along under the uppercrust of the earth, brownish on the outside and greenish within, of asweetish harshness in taste, set with certain rough knags on each sidethereof, having also much mossiness or yellow hairiness upon it, andessay fibres underneath it, whereby it is nourished place it grows as well upon old rotten stumps, or trunks of trees, asoak, beech, hazel, willow, or any other, as in the woods under them, and upon old mud walls, as also in mossy, stony, and gravelly placesnear unto wood that which grows upon oak is accounted the best. Butthe quantity thereof is scarce sufficient for the common use time it being always green, may be gathered for use at any time government and virtues polypodium of the oak, that which growsupon the earth is best. It is an herb of saturn, to purge melancholy;if the humour be otherwise, chuse your polypodium accordingly meuse who is called the physician evangelist for the certainty of hismedicines, and the truth of his opinion saith, that it dries upthin humours, digests thick and tough, and purges burnt choler, andespecially tough and thick phlegm, and thin phlegm also, even from thejoints, and therefore good for those that are troubled with melancholy, or quartan agues, especially if it be taken in whey or honied water, or in barley-water, or the broth of a chicken with epithymum, or withbeets and mallows it is good for the hardness of the spleen, and forpricking or stitches in the sides, as also for the cholic. Essay useto put to it essay fennel seeds, or annis seeds, or ginger, to correctthat loathing it brings to the stomach, which is more than needs, itbeing a safe and gentle medicine, fit for all persons, which dailyexperience confirms. And an ounce of it may be given at a time in adecoction, if there be not sena, or essay other strong purger put withit a dram or two of the powder of the dried roots, taken fasting ina cup of honied water, works gently, and for the purposes aforesaid the distilled water both of roots and leaves, is much commended forthe quartan ague, to be taken for thesis days together, as also againstmelancholy, or fearful and troubleessay sleeps or dreams.

“will you kindly inform me regarding a essay writing service free drug manufacturing company by the name of the direct sales company, buffalo, new york?. are their products standard and reliable so far as you know?. ”the direct sales company, inc , buffalo, has, according to itsletterhead, the following officers. Geo j dotterweich, president and treasurer, c k dotterweich, vice-president, louis b seufert, secretary this concern circularizes physicians and emphasizes that it sells“only by mail ” it also features a “profit sharing rebate” scheme, whereby purchasers receive a coupon representing 10 per cent of theinvoice value of each purchase after $100 worth of merchandise hasbeen purchased the $10 worth of coupons when “presented for redemptionat one time” will be “honored as cash”-- presumably on the purchase ofadditional goods the direct sales company catalogues have for essay years, carried aguaranty, which reads, in writing. “we absolutely guarantee all preparations to be in exact accordance with the national pure food and drugs act, june 30, 1906 “we also absolutely guarantee all preparations bearing our label to be equal, if not superior, to any on the market ”in one of the quarterly bulletins of the state board of health of newhampshire, issued last year, this paragraph appeared. “the direct sales company, inc , buffalo, n y , is a pharmaceutical concern which until recently has done business direct with new hampshire physicians in two or three instances complaints have been received by this dewritingment that the preparations sold seemed to be lacking in potency essay time ago a physician sent us a specimen of codein sulphate tablets, one-fourth grain, concerning which he was suspicious, admission being made that the price paid was very much less than current quotations the amount of codein sulphate actually found per tablet proved to be but one-sixteenth grain later on, having subsequently received a new lot from this source, the same physician sent us a second sample, the composition of which was found to be practically identical with the first acting under the federal law, 500 lot packages of the following preparations were next purchased of the company direct, the analytical results indicating serious deficiency in every case, as follows. “tablets salicylic acid, 5 grains 1 72 grains found “tablets acetylsalicylic acid, 5 grains 2 31 grains found “tablets acetanilid, 3 grains 1 88 grains found “tablets codein sulphate, 1/4 grain 1/15 grain found “tablets nux and pepsin no 2, claiming pepsin 1 grain, extract nux vomica, 1/10 grain, found to have a gross average weight per tablet of only 1 17 grains, 0 54 grains of which was represented by sugar and other medicinally inert material “tablets infant anodyne waugh showed serious discrepancy from formula ”the bulletin added the statement that, as the company could not bereached under the new hampshire laws, the federal authorities wereappealed to the result of this appeal appeared in chemical supplement54, issued aug 21, 1918, by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment of agriculture this government bulletin contained noticeof judgment no 6193, which describes paper of adulteration andmisbranding of essay of the drugs put out by the direct sales company briefly, it may be said that essay 2 grain acetanilid tablets sold bythis concern were found by the government chemists to contain, roughly, about 1-2/3 1 61 grains. Essay 1/4 grain calomel tablets were foundto contain only about 1/6 0 163 grain. Essay 1 grain quinin sulphatetablets were found to have only about 2/3 0 63 grain. Essay 2-1/2grain salol tablets contained only about 1-1/3 1 39 grain.

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They remedy all infirmities of the headcoming of heat essay writing service free and wind, as vertigo, ephialtes, false apparitions, phrensies, falling-sickness, palsies, convulsions, cramps, pains inthe nerves. The roots ease pains in the back and bladder, and open thepassages of urine the leaves are good in wounds, and the flowers takeaway trembling if the flowers be not well dried, and kept in a warmplace, they will soon putrefy and look green. Have a special eye overthem. If you let them see the sun once a month, it will do neither thesun nor them harm because they strengthen the brain and nerves, and remedy palsies, greeks gave them the name paralysis the flowers preserved orconserved, and the quantity of a nutmeg eaten every morning, is asufficient dose for inward diseases. But for wounds, spots, wrinkles, and sunburnings, an ointment is made of the leaves, and hog grease crab claws called also water sengreen, knight pond water, water house-leek, pondweed, and fresh-water soldier descript it has sundry long narrow leaves, with sharp prickleson the edges of them, also very sharp pointed.