Essay Writing Practice

Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 541 273 werner essay writing practice and szécsi. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1913, orig , i, 358 szécsi. Ibid , ref , 1913, ii, 1060 within a comparatively brief period of time, therefore, it fell to thelot of a number of observers, using strikingly different substances, to produce therapeutic effects amounting in a certain percentage ofpaper even to cure in the experimental tumors of the lower animals the various procedures have little in common both metals andnonmetallic substances have been employed either in colloidal form orin combination with organic radicals in essay instances a diffusiblecarrier is combined with the basic substances. In others not all ofthe preparations appear to possess a high degree of toxicity, althoughadequate data on this very essential feature are almost invariablywithheld wassermann results with eosin-selenium were soon critically examinedby other observers uhlenhuth274 and contamin275 were unable toconfirm his observations, but their negative results are attributedby keysser to the fact that they were not in possession of the properformula for the preparation of the eosin-selenium compounds as usedby wassermann apolant, 276 however, in ehrlich name confirmedwassermann findings 274 uhlenhuth, dold and bindseil. Ref , münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 1782 275 contamin, detoeuf and thomos. Bull de l’assn franç pourl’étude du cancer, vi, 62 276 apolant, h. Vi tag der freien vereinigung für mikrobiologie , berlin, 1912 ref münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 659 the most important critique of eosin-selenium has been contributedby the subsequent investigations of one of wassermann originalcollaborators, f keysser 277 keysser publication contains a largenumber of very careful observations on the various forms of eosinsupplied by the german manufacturers, as well as on other matters whichcannot here be considered in detail he finally reached the conclusionthat the eosin furnished by the manufacturing house of sandoz wasthe most effective for his purposes, inasmuch as it combined thelowest grade of toxicity with the highest capacity for discoloringthe tissues the selenium he used in the form of selenio-vanadiumfurnished by clin of paris, which was the identical preparation usedby werner and szécsi in combination with borcholin the maximum doseof this selenio-vanadium is 0 06 c c for each gram of mouse eosin, 0 01 gm , dissolved in 0 5 c c of physiologic salt solution, is mixedwith 0 5 c c of the selenio-vanadium this mixture is then used forintravenous injections the results produced by the injection of thismixture are to all intents and purposes similar to those obtained bywassermann, except that keysser induced cure in a larger proportion ofanimals, namely, from 6 to 8 per cent it is evident from his carefuldescription of his experiments that the treatment is extremely toxic tothe animals the therapeutic dose is considerably greater than one-halfthe toxic dose this accounts for the fact that an extremely largeproportion of the animals perish during the course of the treatment the tumors failed to be influenced unless the dose given fell verylittle short of the fatal amount moreover, in order to accomplish acomplete cure, at least eight to ten injections must be given, and inessay instances not less than fourteen 277 keysser, f. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 188 keysser most important conclusions, however, were obtained byfollowing an altogether different line of procedure it has beenpointed out by carl lewin272 that the therapeutic results obtainedfrom subcutaneous mouse tumors, however encouraging, could not belogically applied to the treatment of human cancers the subcutaneoustransplanted tumors, as is well known, are as a rule limited by adistinct capsule and show no tendency to infiltrative growth in thiswritingicular they present a most striking difference when comparedwith human tumors on the other hand, the metastases of mouse tumorsin the internal organs present an infiltrative mode of growth andthus approximate very much more closely to the human type of tumors keysser, therefore, determined to test the therapeutic effectivenessof his compounds on tumors implanted in various organs he developed atechnic which enabled him to implant tumors in the liver, the spleen, the kidneys and other writings of the mouse by means of injection throughspecial needles, often without the assistance of a cutting operation the tumors so implanted grew rapidly, and within from two tothree weeks reached the size of cherry pits the growth wascharacteristically infiltrative animals with these tumors were thensubmitted to intravenous injection of the therapeutic agents in exactlythe same fashion as the animals carrying subcutaneous tumors theresults, however, were absolutely different whereas the subcutaneoustumors invariably showed a much more intense discoloration than theother tissues of the mouse, this feature was entirely lacking in thecase of the internal tumors softening and liquefaction, which almostinvariably follows on the third or fourth injection in the case ofsubcutaneous tumors, and which is the first symptom of cure, neverpresented itself in the case of the internal tumors their consistencythroughout the treatment was indistinguishable from that of the tumorsof control animals the treatment, in fact, appeared to exercise notthe slightest influence on internal tumors there was neither cessationnor retardation in growth, but the tumors continued their normal rateof destructive increase with the production of metastases, leadingeventually to the death of the animal either during the course of thetreatment or shortly thereafter microscopic changes, such as had beenobserved by hansemann in the case of subcutaneous tumors, were entirelylacking no matter in what organ the tumors were implanted, theseresults remained the same no matter what type of tumor was employed, whether carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or sarcoma, the therapeutic outcomewas regularly and consistently nil these results induced keysser to determine whether or noteosin-selenium could actually be shown to exercise a deleteriouseffect on cancer cells outside the body in order to do this he made asuspension of mouse tumor cells in salt solution and mixed this withthe eosin-selenium-vanadium, using the latter in amounts equivalent tothree times the fatal dose for a mouse after the mixture had stoodfrom one to three hours, it was injected either subcutaneously orintravenously into mice in order to test the vitality of the cells in every instance the injections resulted in the production of tumorswhich could be in no way distinguished from the tumors produced byuntreated cancer cells in other words, the therapeutic preparation hadabsolutely no effect on the tumor cells in the same way keysser carried out experiments along the linesinaugurated by neuberg, using a combination of glycocoll and copper he also tested the combination of borcholin with selenium-vanadiumused by werner and szécsi he was able to confirm the fact that bothof these substances produced an unmistakable therapeutic effect onsubcutaneous tumors on the other hand, they were absolutely withoutinfluence on the internal tumors in this respect, therefore, they wereentirely comparable with the eosin-selenium compound the theoreticalbasis constructed by neuberg, which rests on the assumption that themetallic compounds stimulate autolytic processes in the tumors, wasalso subjected by keysser to destructive criticism finally, keysser showed that none of these therapeutic agents wereeffective even in the case of subcutaneous tumors, unless the latterhad reached at least the size of cherry pits if a therapeuticinjection were made immediately after inoculation of the tumors, noeffect was observed the tumors grew exactly as in the control animals, and the injected animals died in about the same period of time as they all of these facts, which taken together constitute a very remarkableand convincing piece of scientific investigation, permit of butone conclusion it is quite clearly established that none of thepreparations of which the therapeutic effectiveness has hitherto beenproclaimed exercise any direct influence on the life or developmentof the tumor under certain very definite and restricted conditions, however, they do appear to produce certain changes in the tumors, and in a small proportion even cures these results, however, areobtained only in the case of tumors which are subcutaneous in locationand not smaller than a cherry pit in size keysser interpretationof the striking differences between tumors is of interest in thisconnection he believes that the constant palpation and examinationof the subcutaneous tumors, which is prompted by interest in theexperiment, produces circulatory changes with hyperemia and hemorrhage these circulatory changes are responsible for the increased tendencyof the injected substances to lodge in the tumors, thereby possiblyincreasing the tendency to autolysis which the circulatory changes haveinaugurated it is, of course, questionable whether this explanationcan be regarded as final in a series of experiments which i performedthesis years ago, i was able to show that sodium iodid when injectedintravenously accumulates in tumors in larger amounts than in any othertissue of the body in rats a similar observation has been recordedby wells, de witt and corper 278 in the same way i found thatvarious dyes, such as congo red, when injected intravenously, could bedemonstrated in tumors long after the rest of the body had recoveredits normal color. The liver alone vied with the tumors in this respect the dyestuff was invariably sharply localized in the necrotic portionsof the tumor the conclusion seemed obvious that, owing to circulatoryconditions or possibly even to chemical conditions, the dye wasretained longest in the necrotic writings of the tumor this effect wasunquestionably not due to handling, inasmuch as the animals in myexperiments were not palpated from the time of injection until death 278 wells, h g , de witt, and corper. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1914, orig , ii, 110 i have, however, had an even more striking demonstration of the samefact i have given intravenous injections of dyes to patients sufferingwith various forms of internal tumors, as, for example, cancer of thebreast, in the hope of favorably influencing the growths at operation, the picture presented by the tumor is striking in the extreme itpresents areas of various size which are intensely discolored by thedye these areas, both to the naked eye and under the microscope, are the necrotic writings of the tumor the actively growing areas oftumor tissue and all the normal tissues of the organ present theirnormal color all of these observations lead to the conclusion thatthe necrotic areas in tumors either possess a higher affinity forsodium iodid and for the dyes than do the normal tissues, or thatthese substances are more slowly absorbed from the necrotic areasowing to the circulatory deficiency whichever of these explanationsis accepted, it is quite reasonable to believe that necrotic areasmight well undergo liquefaction under the influence of the varioussubstances which have been used for therapeutic injection such aresult is, of course, without direct effect on the growth or vitalityof the living writing of the tumor this fact is quite clearly evidencedby the experimental data, which show that the internal portions of thetumor might undergo liquefaction and yet the tumors were not cured indeed, löhe, who made microscopic examinations of the tumors treatedby caspari and neuberg, states writingicularly, with reference to a tumorwhich had been subjected to treatment, that “the central portion ofthe tumor showed softening, while the external margin was composed ofactively growing cells ” the central portions of implanted tumors are, of course, those which first undergo spontaneous necrosis it still remains to explain the small percentage of cures achieved bywassermann and by keysser it does not appear to me that this problempresents any insuperable difficulties the fact must be emphasizedthat practically 95 per cent of the animals die under the treatment, which sufficiently indicates the toxic effects of the agent used wemust remember that transplanted tumors are under all circumstancesat a certain disadvantage as compared with the normal tissues of thebody after all, they are implanted on a foreign soil their bloodsupply is impoverished and imperfect they have a natural tendency toundergo necrosis, and in thesis paper spontaneous retrogression it isnot strange, therefore, that they should prove in slight degree moresusceptible to toxic effects than are the normal tissues of the body if we remember that the various therapeutic agents introduced in allprobability reach a essaywhat higher degree of concentration in thenecrotic areas of the tumor than in the normal tissues of the body, anassumption which is entirely in accord with the facts as observed inthe case of sodium iodid and of various dyes, we may be quite preparedto believe that this factor is sufficient to induce the destruction ofthe marginal healthy and living cells of the tumor the fact that smallsubcutaneous tumors were found by keysser to be entirely refractoryto the treatment is entirely in accord with this assumption, in viewof the fact that tumors of this size present practically no centralnecrosis the same explanation holds of the observation previouslycited from caspari that the primary spontaneous tumors of animalsdo not yield to the treatment indeed, he himself states that thetreatment is effective only in tumors in which autolysis takes placeduring life the word autolysis, however, in this connection is amisnomer and represents a gratuitous assumption.

The profits to be made from the sale of a proprietary medicine on which the manufacturer holds a monopoly are usually large-- essaytimes enormous there are, broadly, two kinds essay writing practice of proprietary preparations advertised to physicians. One represents laborious research ending in the production of a new medicinal chemical. This product can be patented and the manufacturer can obtain a seventeen-year monopoly on its manufacture and sale the other represents no research but comprises simple mixtures-- frequently of the “shotgun” variety-- of well known pharmaceuticals, or biologic products sold under trade names as these do not represent anything new or original the manufacturer is unable to obtain a patent, but by means of the trade name he can and does obtain a perpetual monopoly this, from a business standpoint, is more valuable than the limited monopoly granted by a patent it is not surprising that proprietary remedies of the latter type flourish so long as physicians unthinkingly accept and prescribe them solely on the manufacturer valuation “the council has practically the undivided support of manufacturers of medicinal chemicals. That is, of proprietaries of the first mentioned type but pharmaceutical firms which have found it profitable to promote proprietaries of the second type-- “specialties, ” unscientific or ordinary mixtures of pharmaceuticals or biologic products sold under trade names-- have not supported the council “when the council was organized, it was hoped and believed that all the large pharmaceutical houses would find it possible and desirable, if not actually more profitable, to shape their business methods so as to make their proprietary and other articles conform to those conservative standards on which the council bases its rules, and thus render such articles acceptable for new and nonofficial remedies it soon developed, however, that the methods of the pseudochemical companies, whose sales propaganda in the interest of unscientific nostrums with its attending damage to scientific medicine had led to the establishment of the council, had found their lodgment in most of the pharmaceutical houses it was a genuine disappointment to the council to find that essay of the large and old-established firms were not only unwilling to cooperate with the council, but in thesis instances exhibited a definite antagonism to the council work “the object-- and duty-- of the officers of pharmaceutical houses is primarily to pay dividends to their stockholders through skilful advertising or the persuasiveness of “detail men, ” they are able to induce physicians to prescribe their controlled products, on which there are large profits, even though such products have not only not been accepted by the council, but in thesis instances, have been disapproved is it any wonder that concerns which put out such products are indifferent or openly antagonistic to the work of the council?. the matter is largely one of business policy when the medical profession as a unit will support the council in its work, then such firms will find it good business policy to accede to dr bevan suggestion-- but not before ”evidently the problem resolves itself into this. The council, constituted of scientific men, working without remuneration inthe interest of scientific medicine and the medical profession, expects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active, sympatheticcooperation of physicians. The cooperation of pharmaceutical houseswill follow as a matter of course j a m a 74:1235 may 11920 the following is the recommendation of the reference committee towhich the report of the board of trustees was referred. “a perusalof the trustees’ report, ‘cooperation of the pharmaceutical houses’, is well worth the time of every member of the profession, and yourcommittee would emphasize the statement of the trustees. ‘thecouncil, constituted of scientific men, working without remunerationin the interest of scientific medicine and the medical professionexpects-- and rightfully-- the cooperation and support of the members ofthat profession what is needed, therefore, is the active sympatheticcooperation of physicians.

And the next unto that, the greatround-leaved dock, or bastard rhubarb, for the one of these may happilysupply in the absence of the other, being not much unlike in theirvirtues, only one more powerful and efficacious than the other andlastly, shall shew you the virtues of all the three sorts garden-patience, or monk rhubarb descript this is a dock bearing the name of rhubarb for essaypurging quality therein, and grows up with large tall stalks, setwith essaywhat broad and long, fair, green leaves, not dented at all the tops of the stalks being divided into thesis small branches, bearreddish or purplish flowers, and three-square seed, like unto otherdocks the root is long, great and yellow, like unto the wild docks, but a little redder. And if it be a little dried, shews less store ofdiscoloured veins than the other does when it is dry great round-leaved dock, or bastard rhubarb descript this has divers large, round, thin, yellowish green leavesrising from the root, a little waved about the edges, every onestanding upon a reasonably thick and long brownish footstalk, fromamong which rises up a pretty big stalk, about two feet high, withessay such high leaves growing thereon, but smaller. At the top whereofstand in a long spike thesis small brownish flowers, which turn into ahard three square shining brown seed, like the garden patience beforedescribed the root grows greater than that, with thesis branches orgreat fibres thereat, yellow on the outside, and essaywhat pale. Yellowwithin, with essay discoloured veins like to the rhubarb which is firstdescribed, but much less than it, especially when it is dry place and time these also grow in gardens, and flower and seed ator near the same time that our true rhubarb doth, viz they flower injune, and the seed is ripe in july government and virtues mars claims predominancy over all thesewholeessay herbs. You cry out upon him for an unfortunate, when godcreated him for your good only he is angry with fools what dishonouris this, not to mars, but to god himself a dram of the dried root ofmonk rhubarb, with a scruple of ginger made into powder, and takenfasting in a draught or mess of warm broth, purges choler and phlegmdownwards very gently and safely without danger the seed thereofcontrary doth bind the belly, and helps to stay any sort of lasks orbloody-flux the distilled water thereof is very profitably used toheal scabs. Also foul ulcerous sores, and to allay the inflammationof them. The juice of the leaves or roots or the decoction of them invinegar, is used as the most effectual remedy to heal scabs and runningsores the bastard rhubarb hath all the properties of the monk rhubarb, butmore effectual for both inward and outward diseases the decoctionthereof without vinegar dropped into the ears, takes away the pains;gargled in the mouth, takes away the tooth ache.

Photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine”giving the conditions in which the stuff was alleged to be “veryuseful ”the significant requirements of paraffin for surgical dressings arethat it should be solid at body temperature, at the same time havingflexibility and adhesiveness, together with a certain amount ofstrength a number of brands of paraffin are sold in the united states, so that it seemed advisable to examine essay of them and compare themwith certain paraffin-film preparations they were tested as to theirmelting points, plasticity, ductility, strength of film, etc melting point determination -- the melting point was determined bythe method of the u s pharmacopeia ix, p 596 the melting pointas obtained by this method is lower than the melting point used bymanufacturers of paraffin after conversion to fahrenheit pliability and ductility, limit temperature 180-- a little of themelted wax was poured from a teaspoon on the surface of the water atabout 40 c , in a tin pan bread mold this formed a fairly thin film the temperature of the water was then lowered by the addition of coldwater at each temperature the pliability and ductility were testedthus:180 i am indebted to dr torald sollmann for these methods pliability test -- the film, immersed in water, was doubled on itself, note being taken whether or not it broke ductility test -- the film was pulled under water, note being takenwhether it stretched on being pulled and broke with a ragged fracture;or whether it broke sharp without stretching it is desirable thatthe pliability and ductility be preserved at as low a temperature aspossible cotton films, adhesives and detachability 180-- the melted wax wasapplied as it would be for burns. Namely, a thin layer was painted onthe inner surface of the forearm with a camel hair brush, 181 atransverse strip about an inch wide being made this was covered witha very thin layer of absorbent cotton, and over this another layer ofmelted wax was painted as soon as this had cooled a little, it wascovered by a few layers of bandage and left on for at least an hour atthe end of that time, the bandage was removed the cotton film shouldbe found at the place at which it was applied, showing that it issufficiently adherent it should detach without “pulling” the skin 181 when painting a surface with a paraffin film, i found that thetemperature of the paraffin should not be too close to the meltingpoint, but several degrees above. Otherwise it does not “set” well illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of thecarton in which “ambrine” is now sold the results of these tests are given in the accompanying table it canbe seen that nearly all the paraffins examined have properties whichwould make them useful, the notable exceptions being nos 8, 15 and16 the more satisfactory products would be those having a meltingpoint about 47 c , ductility of 30 or below, and plasticity of 28 orbelow the paraffin described in the u s pharmacopeia is not sosatisfactory, the required melting point being between 50 and 57 c the use of paraffin bandages has been suggested by fisher182 andsollmann 183 in such paper, it may very likely be that a paraffin ofhigher melting point would be more satisfactory, owing to its greaterresistance and tougher fiber 182 fisher, h e. Nonadhering surgical gauze, the journal a m a , march 25, 1916, p 939 183 sollmann, torald. Paraffin-covered bandages, the journala m a , april 21, 1917, p 1178 summary1 “ambrine” is essentially paraffin in which a small amount of fattyand asphalt-like body is incorporated. Like most secret mixtures, itscomposition varies 2 a simple formula for a paraffin film, similar in chemicalcomposition but superior in physical properties to “ambrine, ” is thatdescribed as formula 21 the superiority is due to using a grade ofparaffin that is better adapted to the purpose the cost of materialsis about 10 cents a pound 3 the properties of the paraffin used for a surgical dressing areimportant a number of different grades have been examined, in order todetermine the ones that appear most promising paraffins nos 3, 4, 10, 11 and 25 are the best in the table, and surpass “ambrine” itself 4 it is exceedingly probable that further experience will show thatfor most purposes simple paraffin will serve just as well as themixtures-- if, indeed, not better addenda reprinted from the annual report of the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association, vol 10 1917, p 32since the foregoing was published, two other products-- “cerelene” and“stanolind surgical wax”-- were submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for investigation as to their acceptability for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies in this connection the laboratory wasrequested to examine them “cerelene” is manufactured by the holliday laboratories, pittsburgh according to the manufacturers, “cerelene” is a compound composed of84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate and 1 per cent elemi gum as ordinarily marketed, “cerelene” contains the followingmaterials. To the beeswax is added oil of eucalyptus, u s p , 2 percent , and betanaphthol, u s p , 0 25 per cent the manufacturerfurther states that the myricyl palmitate is a purified form ofbeeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solelymanufactured by this company and for which patents are pending theproperties described for “cerelene” were as follows. When cold, cerelene is a solid wax-like cake of a fine yellow brown color on exposure to air for long periods, the amber color darkens to essay extent it is entirely free from solids, odorless and tasteless. Does not separate or change when melted repeatedly, and cannot in the melted state be separated by fractional crystallization it is entirely neutral to indicators being perfectly free from both acids and bases tests. Melting point, u s p method, 126 f density, u s p method, 0 907 iodin value, 0 5 saponification number, 0 9 “stanolind surgical wax” is manufactured by the standard oil company ofindiana in the submission of the product to the council on pharmacyand chemistry, it was stated that the product was a specially preparedparaffin “free from dirt or other deleterious matter it hasbeen steamed and resteamed to drive out any free oil and repeatedlyfiltered ”the examination of the foregoing products yielded the figures describedin table “b ”-- from the journal a m a , may 19, 1917 the stability of iodine ointments l e warren, ph c , b s in general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine ointment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, isconfusing the recorded evidence is often contradictory the attentionof the writer was brought to this condition by studies of severalproprietary preparations, iodex, 184 iod-izd-oil, 185 iocamfen, andiocamfen ointment 186184 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 89 185 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 106 186 rep chem lab , a m a , 1916, 9, 118 iodex was sold under the claim that it is “ an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced and standardized at 5 per cent by incorporation with a refined petroleum product ”the exact composition of iodex is a trade secret analysis showed thatit contains petrolatum-like substances and combined iodine, the latterprobably in combination with oleic acid tests for free iodine weremade in five specimens of iodex in one of these no free iodine waspresent. In the others the merest traces were found two years ago a preparation called “iod-izd-oil” was examined this wasclaimed to contain 2 per cent of free iodine in liquid petrolatum at the time of the examination the age of the preparation was notknown, but it had been obtained just prior to the analysis, and wasthought not to be very old the analysis showed that it contained butabout 0 43 per cent of iodine, all of which was in a free state thefact that all of the iodine present was in the free state appearedto indicate that iodine is relatively stable in liquid petrolatumsolutions iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol it wasclaimed to contain 10 per cent of free iodine analysis showed thatit contained 9 3 per cent of total iodine of which 7 5 per cent was present in an uncombined state, 66 1 per cent of camphor and19 7 per cent of phenol after storing for several months a secondassay of iocamfen showed no appreciable loss in iodine content this would indicate that iodine is relatively stable in presenceof phenol and camphor, although immediately after mixing there isessay loss of free iodine the iocamfen ointment was supposed tocontain 50 per cent of iocamfen equivalent to 5 per cent of freeiodine in a lard-wax-cacaobutter base the analysis showed that theointment contained but 0 4 per cent of free iodine, the balancebeing in combination from the results of the examination, and fromcorrespondence with the manufacturers schering and glatz, it becameevident that the only plausible explanation for the loss of free iodinein the preparation of iocamfen ointment from iocamfen lay in thecombination of the free iodine with the ingredients of the ointmentbase it seems likely that the free iodine originally present iniocamfen for the most writing had gradually gone into combination with thefatty substances after the ointment had been prepared the literature was then examined to determine the consensus of opinionconcerning the stability of iodine in iodine ointment in the olderliterature the belief that iodine ointment is unstable appears to bequite general such statements as the following are typical.

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“the medical treatment consists of the administration of a blood serum derived from a thyrodized goat formula. Iodine 0 16 grams according to a correction by mark white, this should read 0 26 gm , oil 0 25 c c , serum q s 1 c c ”this description of the treatment differs from that furnished to thecouncil by mark white in that here the iodin and oil appear to becombined with the serum dr watkins’ “formula” implies that the iodinis a routine medication, thus contradicting white statement, which, in turn, is at variance with the statements made in submitting thetreatment illustration. Photographic reproductions greatly reduced of essay ofthe letterheads used by the mark white concern during the past fiveyears the council does not accept any biologic product until its sale ininterstate commerce has been authorized by the secretary of thetreasury in accordance with the federal law regulating the sale ofviruses, serums, toxins and analogous products the sale of the markwhite goiter serum has not been so authorized. Consequently even if thepreparation complied with other rules of the council it could not beaccepted in addition, however, this treatment conflicts with other councilrules the statements regarding its composition are indefiniteand contradictory rule 1.