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“ where turpentine, carbolic acid or iodine or even pepsin is indicated, that it will give satisfaction in each and every case essay writing help online ”iodinized emulsion scott is not a “pharmaceutical triumph”. It is anirrational mixture-- a reminder of a decadent polypharmacy-- sold undermisleading and unwarranted claims it is inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies for conflict with rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 creosotonic scottcreosotonic scott, advertised as a “reconstructive tonic” for thetuberculous, according to the label, contains in each fluidram. “alcohol, m 2-1/2.

Either cold bynature, or cooled by accident, by which natural heat is cherished whenweak, or restored when wanting effect 1 the first effect then of medicines hot in the first degree, is, by their sweat and temperate heat to reduce the body to itsnatural heat, as the fire doth the external writings in cold weather, unless the affliction of cold be so great that such mild medicines willnot serve the turn effect 2 the second effect is, the mitigation of pain arising fromsuch a distemper, and indeed this effect hath other medicines, essaythat are cold, and essay that are hotter than the first degree, theybeing rationally applied to the distemper these medicines the greekscall anodyna, and shall be spoken of in their proper places in thisplace let it suffice that medicines hot in the first degree, makethe offending humours thin, and expel them by sweat, or insensibletranspiration, and these of all others are most congruous or agreeableto the body of man, for there is no such equal temperature of heatand cold in a sound man, but heat exceeds, for we live by heat andmoisture, and not by cold medicines then which are hot in the first degree, are such as justcorrespond to the natural heat of our bodies. Such as are hotter orcolder, are more subject to do mischief, being administered by anunskilful hand, than these are, because of their contrariety to nature;whereas these are grateful to the body by their moderate heat effect 3 thirdly, these take away weariness, and help fevers, beingoutwardly applied, because they open the pores of the skin, and bytheir gentle heat prepare the humours, and take away those fuliginousvapours that are caused by fevers discommodities yet may discommodities arise by heedless givingeven of these, which i would have young students in physic to be verycareful in, lest they do more mischief than they are aware of, viz it is possible by too much use of them, to consume not only what isinimical in the body, but also the substance itself, and the strengthof the spirits, whence comes faintings, and essaytimes death. Besides, by applying them to the writings of the body they are not appropriatedto, or by not heeding well the complexion of the patient, or thenatural temper of the writing of the body afflicted, for the heart is hot, but the brain temperate effect 4 lastly, medicines hot in the first degree, cherish heat inthe internal writings, help concoction, breed good blood, and keep it goodin temper, being bred of medicines hot in the second degree these are essaything hotter than the natural temper of a man use their use for such whose stomachs are filled with moisture, because their faculty is too hot and dry. They take away obstructionsor stoppings, open the pores of the skin, but not in the same mannerthat such do as are hot in the first degree, for they do it withoutforce, by a gentle heat, concocting, and expelling the humours, bystrengthening and helping nature in the work. But these cut toughhumours, and scatter them by their own force and power when naturecannot of medicines hot in the third degree those which attain the third degree of heat, have the same facultieswith those before mentioned. But as they are hotter, so are they morepowerful in their operations, for they are so powerful in heating andcutting, that if unadvisedly given they cause fevers use their useis to cut tough and compacted humours, to provoke sweat abundantly;hence it comes to pass they all of them resist poison of medicines hot in the fourth degree those medicines obtain the highest degree of heat, which are so hotthat they burn the body of a man, being outwardly applied to it, andcause inflammations, or raise blisters, as crowfoot, mustard-seed, onions, &c of these more hereafter of cooling medicines physicians have also observed four degrees of coldness in medicines, which i shall briefly treat of in order of medicines cold in the first degree those medicines which are least cold of all, obtain the first degree ofcoldness. And i beseech you take notice of this, that seeing our bodiesare nourished by heat, and we live by heat, therefore no cold medicinesare friendly to the body, but what good they do our bodies, they do itby removing an unnatural heat, or the body heated above its naturaltemper the giving then of cold medicines to a man in his natural temper, theseason of the year also being but moderately hot, extinguishes naturalheat in the body of man yet have these a necessary use in them too, though not so frequent ashot medicines have. And that may be the reason why an all wise god hathfurnished us with far more hot herbs and plants, &c than cold use 1 their use is first, in nourishment, that so the heat of foodmay be qualified, and made for a weak stomach to digest use 2 secondly, to restrain and assuage the heat of the bowels, andto cool the blood in fevers therefore if the distemper of heat be but gentle, medicines cold inthe first degree will suffice. Also children, and such people whosestomachs are weak, are easily hurt by cold medicines of medicines cold in the second and third degree use 1 such whose stomachs are strong, and livers hot, may easilybear such medicines as are cold in the second degree, and in paper ofextremity find much help by them. As also by such as are cold in thethird degree, the extremity of the disease considered, for by boththese the unbridled heat of choler is assuaged use 2 also they are outwardly applied to hot swellings, dueconsideration being had, that if the inflammation be not great, usethose that are less. If the inflammation be vehement, make use ofmedicines cold in the second or third degree, always let the remedycorrespond to the just proportion of the affliction use 3 thirdly, essaytimes the spirits are moved inordinately throughheat, thence follows immoderate watchings, if not deprivation of thesenses, this also must be remedied with cold medicines, for cold stopsthe pores of the skin, makes the humours thick, represses sweat, andkeeps up the spirits from fainting of medicines cold in the fourth degree lastly, the use of medicines cold in the fourth degree, is, to mitigatedesperate and vehement pains, stupifying the senses, when no othercourse can be taken to save life. Of the use of which more hereafter of moistening medicines there can be no such difference found amongst moistening medicines, that they should surpass the second degree for seeing all medicinesare either hot or cold, neither heat nor cold, seeing they areextremes, can consist with moisture, for the one dries it up, the othercondensates it use phylosophers therefore call moisture and dryness, passivequalities, yet have they their operation likewise. For moist medicineslenify and make slippery, ease the cough, and help the roughness of thethroat these operations are proper to medicines moist in the firstdegree those which are moister, take away naturally strength, help thesharpness of humours, make both blood and spirits thicker, looses thebelly, and fits it for purgation the immoderate or indiscreet use of them dulls the body, and makes itunfit for action of drying medicines drying medicines have contrary faculties to these, viz to consumemoisture, stop fluxes, and make such writings dry as are slippery, theymake the body and members firm, when they are weakened by too muchmoisture, that so they may perform their proper functions yet although the members be strengthened by drying medicines, they havenotwithstanding their own proper moisture in them, which ought to beconserved, and not destroyed, for without it they cannot consist. Ifthen this moisture be consumed by using, or rather over use of dryingmedicines, the members can neither be nourished, nor yet perform theirproper actions such medicines as are dry in the third degree, being unadvisedlygiven, hinder the writings of the body they are appropriated to, of theirnourishment, and by that means brings them into consumption besides, there is a certain moisture in the body of man, which iscalled radical moisture, which being taken away, the writings must needsdie, seeing natural heat and life also consists in it, and this may bedone by too frequent use of medicines dry in the fourth degree. And itmay be this was the reason of galen writing, that things dry in thefourth degree, must of necessity burn. Which is an effect of heat, andnot of dryness, unless by burning, galen means consuming the radicalmoisture the use then of drying medicines, is only to such bodies, and writings ofthe body, as abound with moisture, in which observe these rules 1 if the moisture be not extreme, let not the medicine be extremelydrying 2 let it be proper to the writing of the body afflicted, for if the liverbe afflicted by moisture, and you go about to dry the brain or heart, you may sooner kill than cure thus have we briefly spoken of the first qualities of medicines, and inthe general only, and but briefly, because we shall always touch uponthem in the exposition of the other qualities, in which you must alwayshave an eye to these section ii of the appropriation of medicines to the several writings of the body that the qualities and use of these medicines may be found out, andunderstood by every one, and so my country reap the benefit of mylabour, they shall find them presented to their view in this order medicines appropriated 1 to the head 2 to the breast and lungs 3 to the heart 4 to the stomach 5 to the liver 6 to the spleen 7 to the reins and bladder 8 to the womb 9 to the joints chapter i of medicines appropriated to the head by head is usually understood all that writing of the body which isbetween the top of the crown, and the uppermost joint of the neck, yet are those medicines properly called cephalical, which areappropriated to the brain, not to the eyes, ears, nor teeth.

Which avicen also confirms it is very goodto help digestion, and open obstructions of the brain, and hath somuch purging quality in it saith avicen as to expel those melancholyvapours from the spirits and blood which are in the heart and arteries, although it cannot do so in other essay writing help online writings of the body dioscorides says, that the leaves steeped in wine, and the wine drank, and the leavesexternally applied, is a remedy against the stings of a scorpion, andthe bitings of mad dogs. And commends the decoction thereof for womento bathe or sit in to procure their courses. It is good to wash achingteeth therewith, and profitable for those that have the bloody flux the leaves also, with a little nitre taken in drink, are good againstthe surfeit of mushrooms, helps the griping pains of the belly.

Fig 2 circle of petosiris after bouché-leclercq, p 540when it was sought, by means of the above-described figures, todetermine the medical future or the life and death of an individual, this could be accomplished with the aid of the diagram represented infig 1 in such a manner that the duration of the disease in days, thenumerical value of the name of the patient, and the phases of the moonwere added, and the sum divided by 29 the result thus obtained wasinterpreted by referring to the diagram if this figure happened to be, for instance, in the right upper quadrant, the patient, altho he wouldrecover from his illness, would live only for a very short period;if this number was found in the vertical line, below the horizontaldiameter, the patient was destined to die after a short struggle much more intricate was the use of the astrological apparatusillustrated in fig 2 here the number of the moon day, and thenumerical values of the name of the patient were not added, but eachof these figures was separately looked for in the diagram if the moonfigure was found in the lower, the figure for the name in the upper, ends of the verticals i e , where δυσις ὑπόγειος, setting, andἀνατολὴ ὑπέργειος, rising, stand the individual concerned, altho indanger, finally recovered if, on the other hand, the moon figure wasdiscovered in the upper, and the figure for the name in the lower, endsof the verticals, nothing but evil was in store for the questioner, butthe misfortune appeared under the guise of fortune if both numbers, however, were at the upper ends of the verticals, the prospects werefavorable, but bad if both figures occurred below the horizontal line a method which is similar to the simple apparatus of petosiris isrevealed to us in the so-called οφαῖρα δημοκρίτου it is contained inthe papyrus magica musei lugdunensis batavia, published by dietrich fig 3 shows the illustration belonging to this method, and alsothe greek directions for use, as given in the papyrus it will benoticed that in the method of democritus recourse is made to a tableof numerals divided by a cross-line into the upper and larger, and alower and smaller, section the upper writing contains in three verticalcolumns 18, in the lower, 12 figures to use the table, the day whenthe disease began, the numerical value of the name, and the days of themoon were added, and the sum thus obtained divided by 30 this quotientwas then looked for in the table of numbers if it was found above thecross-line, the patient recovered. If below, he succumbed illustration. Fig 3 the table of democritusthere existed a great thesis other methods besides those described above;for instance, the system of the 12 places, the circle of manilius, themethod of the mysterious hermes trismegistus, the circle of ptolemy, etc however, we can not here enter into a more detailed description ofthese forms, and refer those that wish more exhaustive information toberthelot, and, above all, to bouché-leclercq astrology, and, with it, sidereal medicine, subsequently traveled from its oriental home intoall civilized countries of the then known world as regards greek and roman antiquity, astrology in all its forms won ahigh reputation both in greece and italy even the most eminent ancientphysicians, altho they did not unreservedly adopt sidereal medicine, refrained from disavowing it thus we find in the corpus hippocraticum, the chief work of early greek medicine, passages which betray morethan a friendly feeling toward the astral art of healing it is true, expressions are not wanting which sound like a direct disowning ofastrology let us consider for a few moments the attitude of hippocratic medicinetoward astrology as to the rejection of astrologic medicine by the followers ofhippocrates, we read “ancient medicine, ” chapter i. In thetranslation of fuchs, vol i , page 19. “for this reason i believethat it medical art requires no basis of vain presumption, such asthe existence of invisible and doubtful factors, the discussion ofwhich, if it should be attempted, necessitates a hypothetic scienceof supernatural or of subterrestrial nature. For, if any one shouldcontend that he knew anything about such a matter, neither he, thelecturer, nor his hearers would clearly understand whether hisstatements were true or not, because nothing exists to which referencecould be had for purposes of verification ”this surely is a refutation as definite as can be desired of a medicinewhich depends upon witchcraft or astrologic vagaries however, variousother passages of the corpus hippocraticum take an exactly contraryposition for example, we find the following statement on “air, water, and locality, ” chapter xvii , in the translation of fuchs, vol i , page 390. “attention must be paid to the rise of the stars, especially to that of sirius, 4 as well as to the rise of arcturus, and, further, to the setting of the pleiades, for most diseases reach acrisis during such periods, essay of them abating in these days, othersceasing entirely, or developing into other symptoms and differentconditions ” these words indicate a distinct intention of bringingprognosis and course of diseases into the closest relations with themotions of the celestial bodies in the second chapter of the same booksimilar expressions occur. “he who knows how the change of seasons andthe rising and setting of stars take place will also be able to foreseehow the year is going to be therefore, any one who investigates thesesubjects and predicts coming events will be thoroughly informed as toeach detail of the future. He will enjoy the best of health, and takeas much as possible the right road in art however, if any one shouldbe of the opinion that these questions belong solely in the realm ofastronomy, he will soon change his opinion as he learns that astronomyis not of slight, but of a very essential, importance in medical art ”stars and diseases are also brought into mutual relations in the letterto king ptolemy emerins, page 293 4 this star, in writingicular, played a rôle in the astrologic prognosis of the egyptians. In fact, in various systems it was made the starting-point of medical predictions.

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But, at the same time, itwould be well for him to avoid all appearance of self-glorificationand all tendency to exaggerate his individual acquirements often hasit occurred that expert witnesses of undoubted capacity and honesty, who are unfortunately grandiose and self-assertive in their manner, have, however honest and able they might be, lost entirely their weightwith the court and jury by undue self-complacency and exaggeration oftheir personal qualifications, during their preliminary examination this is a matter requiring tact and judgment and nerve, and should befully understood between counsel calling him and the witness, beforethe witness is placed upon the stand in that event, it will be quitesafe for the witness to closely follow the questions of counsel by hisanswers, and to volunteer little or nothing if his answers are notfull and complete enough, counsel can renew the question in the same orin other form or carry the matter into greater detail if, on the otherhand, his answer is too full or he appears too eager, he may createa prejudice against him which nothing can overthrow, and which theart of counsel upon the other side in cross-examination and in makingcomments upon his testimony when summing up before the jury, will veryeffectually use to destroy his weight as an expert 184scope and extent of examination of expert witnesses - having statedhow experts may be summoned and qualified, it remains to consider thescope and extent to which they may be examined the advancement of the sciences and the progress of research in specialfields of knowledge have made expert testimony of large importanceduring the present century the basis of its admission is the factthat there are certain processes of reasoning which an ordinary juryis incapable of performing, even with the assistance of courts andlawyers oftentimes in the administration of justice in our courts, proof is given of circumstances which although admitted would havelittle or no essay writing help online significance in the mind of an ordinary juror, andwhich he would be unable to contrast and compare with other facts, successfully, without the aid of those more familiar with scientificmatters and the inductive process of reasoning than he is in suchpaper it is necessary that the jury should be specially enlightenedby persons who have, through training, skill and experience, acquiredthe power to enlighten them a common instance and illustration ofthis matter is to be found in the case of homicide by poisoning ahuman body is found dead. Externally there may be no indicia toshow positively the cause of death under such circumstances thelaws of all civilized countries permit what is called a post-mortemexamination by skilled physicians, who, finding no external evidencesof the cause of death, are permitted by the officers of the law toremove the internal portions of the body for special and carefulexamination if this discloses traces of inflammation or of lesions ofan abnormal character, further power is vested in the authorities tohave at the expense of the state a chemical examination of the internalorgans if this examination, which is necessarily long and excessivelytechnical, results in the discovery of any poisonous substance, suchas would produce death, and if it is found in sufficient quantities toproduce death, these persons who made the post-mortem examination anddiscovered the outward indications of the administration and effectsof the poison, and the chemists who discovered the poison itself inthe tissues of the body, in sufficient quantities to produce death, are called as experts before the jury the post-mortem examinersexplain what the appearance of the body was, as distinguished from theappearances of the body of an individual who had died from naturalcauses the chemist describes his course of experimentation, thevarious deductions which he made from his experiments, the tests whichhe applied in his investigation in discovering poison, and is thenallowed to testify that the poisonous substance was found in sufficientquantities to produce the physical appearances which the post-mortemexaminers have described, and to accomplish the death of the humanbeing in whose body the poison was found it is obvious that the powerof observation and the skill, which the skilled chemists and physiciansused as the basis of their reasoning in this case, were such as anordinary man, unskilled and inexperienced, would not possess, and theability to use them must have come from the study of treatises onsuch subjects, and from teaching and experience, to such an extent asto entitle the persons so testifying to be considered by the courtsas qualified to express an accurate and sound opinion on the mattersand things under investigation thus it appears how, in such paper, adewritingure became essential to the successful administration of justice, from the strict rule that witnesses shall testify solely to matters offact and observation, and why it has long been considered that essaywitnesses must be allowed to testify to opinions and conclusions again, in a like case, a body is found bearing evidences of wounds orbruises the question to be determined is whether they were inflictedbefore or after death. If before death, whether they were sufficient tocause death essay wounds and injuries might be sufficiently apparentand dangerous so that the common, inexperienced eye would at oncedetect that they were sufficient to cause death but in most instancesthis is not the case, and in such instances the testimony of expertsis required by the necessity of the case, to show that the wounds andinjuries were sufficient to cause death the general rules stated as to subjects for expert testimony - hencethe general rule is, that wherever the facts to be investigatedare such that common experience and knowledge of men do not enablethem to draw accurate conclusions, but are such that the study andexperience of specialists do enable such specially endowed persons todraw accurate conclusions, then the inferences and deductions theyhave drawn can be testified to by those who qualify themselves beforethe court as persons having sufficient skill and experience as suchspecialists to entitle them to give opinions the paper in which experttestimony is permitted to be given are set forth in rogers on experttestimony, sec 6, quoting from jones v tucker 41 n h , 546, asfollows:“1 upon questions of science, skill, or trade, or others of like kind “2 where the subject-matter of inquiry is such that inexperiencedpersons are unlikely to prove capable of forming a correct judgmentwithout such assistance “3 where the subject-matter of investigation so far writingakes of thenature of science as to require a course or previous habit of study inorder to the attainment of knowledge of it ”so also chief justice shaw of the supreme court of massachusetts, innew england glass co v lovell 7 cushing, 319, said:“it is not because a man has a reputation for sagacity and judgmentand power of reasoning that his opinion is admissible in testifyingas a witness if so, such men might be called in all paper to advisethe jury, and it would change the mode of trial.