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Bronchi congested brain and abdominal organs normal proof of death by suffocation it is essaytimes difficult in a given case to state whether death is dueto suffocation there is no lesion which of itself could be accepted asproof but a collation of the lesions found taken in connection withthe surroundings of the body will in thesis if not in most paper lead toa definite conclusion infants have been found alive four and five hours after having beenburied in the earth 923 if the pulverulent material has penetratedinto the œsophagus and stomach, the burial has occurred during life exceptionally when burial has occurred after death and traces of thematerial are found in the air-passages, they are not found in theœsophagus or stomach the committee on “suffocation, ” of the new york med leg soc , reported924 the following group of appearances as evidences of death by suffocation. The general venous character of the blood, the turgidity of the larger veins, the congestion of the parenchymatous organs, especially at the base of the brain, the lungs congested in a variable degree and œdematous, frothy mucus in the bronchi, the right side of the heart always fuller than the left fitz925 holds that suffocation is a condition composed of a group of symptoms and appearances due most probably to accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood and a deficiency of oxygen the appearances are. The blood dark and fluid though in gradual suffocation there may be clots in the right side of the heart, the right side of the heart full, venous congestion of the lungs not constant, interstitial emphysema of the lungs, and venous congestion of the liver, kidneys, and brain he prefers the word engorgement to congestion in this connection tardieu926 holds that when in infants buried in pulverulentsubstances we find emphysema of the lungs in high degree, bloody frothin the air-passages, abundant subpleural and subpericardial ecchymosesand the blood fluid, the burial has occurred during life the samelesions are found in small animals similarly treated it must not be forgotten that an intoxicated person or one in anepileptic spasm is practically helpless, and can, therefore, besuffocated, accidentally or otherwise, under circumstances in which onein possession of his senses would be able to escape accidental, homicidal, and suicidal suffocation accidental suffocation is frequent, as has already appeared suicidal suffocation is very rare homicidal suffocation occurs foreign bodies have been forced into the air-passages smothering hasbeen done by holding the face in various materials to prevent accessof air. By pressure on the chest.

As soonas chemical technic is refined by medicochemical research, it is quitepossible that a definite chemical agent synthetic will supersedethe indefinite bacterial vaccine obviously the american chemist hasthe opportunity of showing his resourcefulness in aiding the publichealth of america and the world in this connection, a cooperativeinstitute devoted to purely scientific drug research, and governedin such a manner as to inspire confidence in its humanitarianismand unbiased judgment, should serve a most commendable purpose the hopes of american men of science are for a monumental researchinstitution-- cooperative with all the allied professions-- and, as thechicago chemical bulletin stated, “stripped of all professionalor commercial pettishness and not dominated by any one group ofscientists ”243243 proposed institute for drug research, editorial chicago chem bull , april, 1919, p 67 conclusionsas for the results of the work so far, they can be summed up in twosentences 1 american chemists are producing synthetic drugs formerly controlledby gerthesis, and thus have declared their independence of germanchemicals 2 judging from the evidence at hand, we can feel assured that thequality of american synthetics will be second to none -- from thejournal a m a , sept 6, 1919 writing iii contributions from the journal. Proprietary products nostrums in retrospect a series of nine articles reviewing worthless or unscientific proprietary mixtures previously criticized s q lapius, m d foreword -- it is more than twelve years since the council on pharmacyand chemistry of the american medical association was created sincethen there have been but few issues of the journal that have not calledthe attention of the medical profession to the debasing influenceon scientific medicine of unscientific or worthless proprietarymixtures advertised to physicians for their use in prescribing thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has investigated and shown thesis ofthese preparations to be fraudulent in one way or another, and thesereports have been published in the journal in spite of this, thesepreparations have been advertised continuously to physicians, throughmedical journals and otherwise, and prescribed by a large number ofphysicians one reason for this is that there are thesis physicians whohave never seen these reports-- who were not in active practice at thetime, or who were not reading the journal we probably have among ourreaders at the present time 35, 000 or 40, 000 physicians who were notamong the readers of the journal twelve years ago it is desirable, then, that we should take up, in more or less detail, several of themore widely advertised products that have been the subjects of previousreports it has been repeatedly stated in the journal that thesis of theproprietary mixtures-- the so-called ethical proprietaries advertisedto physicians-- were no better and no worse than “patent medicines”advertised to the public every physician who has the welfare of medicine at heart should putthese questions squarely to himself if he has not already taken a firmstand on this whole problem. What is my attitude toward the work ofthe council?. are its reports worthy of acceptance?. am i upholding thecouncil in its efforts to place therapeutics on a rational basis, notby blind faith alone, but by an honestly critical attitude toward it?. Am i following the path of indolence by taking the advice of nostrummakers without any serious effort to determine whether they are true orfalse?. in a word, am i really practicing medicine, or am i an unpaidagent and a dupe of nostrum makers?. there are other revolutions thanpolitical the public can be wronged just as certainly by the abuse ofits confidence in clinicians as by the usurpers of political power, andwhen the public is thoroughly aroused the heavy hand of retributionis not likely to be too discriminating that the sins of cliniciansare standing out plain for any one who wishes to read is becoming moreand more evident there is but one short and ugly word that properlycharacterizes the physician who accepts a fee for prescribing thatabout which he has no more knowledge than has the one for whom heprescribes it are you with the nostrum makers or with decent medicine?. The article below is the first of a series written for the journalby one who is thoroughly conversant with the work of the council onpharmacy and chemistry and can speak authoritatively on questionsdealing with the action of drugs and the treatment of diseases webelieve that these articles will prove of interest and profit and thatthey will help physicians to answer the questions just propounded article i bell-ans pa-pay-ans bellhh see also ?. ?. ?. ?.

Also honey of roses solutive is made of thesame infusions that the syrup is made of, and therefore works the sameeffect, both opening and purging, but is oftener given to phlegmaticthan choleric persons, and is more used in clysters than in potions, as the syrup made with sugar is the conserve and preserved leaves ofthose roses are also operative in gently opening the belly the simple water of damask roses is chiefly used for fumes to sweetenthings, as the dried leaves thereof to make sweet powders, and fillsweet bags. And little use they are put to in physic, although theyhave essay purging quality. The wild roses also are few or none of themused in physic, but are generally held to come near the nature of themanured roses the fruit of the wild briar, which are called hips, being thoroughly ripe, and made into a conserve with sugar, besidesthe pleasantness of the taste, doth gently bind the belly, and staydefluctions from the head upon the stomach, drying up the moisturethereof, and helps digestion the pulp of the hips dried into a hardconsistence, like to the juice of the liquorice, or so dried thatit may be made into powder and taken into drink, stays speedily thewhites in women the briar ball is often used, being made into powderand drank, to break the stone, to provoke urine when it is stopped, and to ease and help the cholic.

Being taken two hours before thefit comes, it helps agues mathiolus saith he seldom used any othermedicine for the quartan ague than a dram of myrrh given in muskadelan hour before the fit usually came. If you make it up into pills withtreacle, and take one of them every morning fasting, it is a sovereignpreservative against the pestilence, against the poison of serpents, and other venomous beasts. A singular remedy for a stinking breath ifit arise from putrefaction of the stomach, it fastens loose teeth, andstays the shedding off of the hair, outwardly used it breeds flesh indeep wounds, and covers the naked bones with flesh olibanum is hot in the second degree, and dry in the first, you maytake a dram of it at a time, it stops looseness and the running ofthe reins. It strengthens the memory exceedingly, comforts the heart, expels sadness and melancholy, strengthens the heart, helps coughs, rheums and pleurises. Your best way in my opinion, to take it is tomix it with conserve of roses, and take it in the morning fasting tachamacha is seldom taken inwardly, outwardly spread upon leather, and applied to the navel. It stays the fits of the mother, applied tothe side, it mitigates speedily, and in little time quite takes awaythe pain and windiness of the spleen. The truth is, whatsoever acheor swelling proceeds of wind or cold raw humours, i know no betterplaister coming from beyond sea than this gum it strengthens thebrain and memory exceedingly, and stops all such defluctions thence astrouble the eyes, ears, or teeth, it helps the gout and sciatica gum coopal, and gum anime, are very like one another both in body andoperation, the former is hard to come by, the last not very easy itstops defluctions from the head, if you perfume your cap with the smokeof it, it helps the headache and megrim, strengthens the brain, andtherefore the sinews gum tragaganth, which the vulgar call gum dragon, being mixed withpectoral syrups, which you shall find noted in their proper placesit helps coughs and hoarseness, salt and sharp distillations upon thelungs, being taken with a liquorice stick, being dissolved in sweetwine, it helps being drank gnawing in the bowels, sharpness andfreetings of the urine, which causes excoriations either in the reinsor bladder, being dissolved in milk and the eyes washed with it, ittakes away weals and scabs that grow on the eyelids, it is excellentlygood to be put in poultice to fodder wounds, especially if the nervesor sinews be hurt sagapen, dissolved in juice of rue and taken, wonderfully breaks thestone in the bladder, expels the dead child and afterbirth, clearsthe sight. Dissolved in wine and drank, it helps the cough, anddistillation upon the lungs, and the fits of the mother. Outwardlyin oils or ointments, it helps such members as are out of joint orover-stretched galbanum is of the same operation, and also taken from the sameplant, viz fennel, giant gum arabic, thickens and cools, and corrects choleric sharp humoursin the body, being dissolved in the white of an egg, well beaten, ithelps burnings, and keeps the place from blistering mastich stays fluxes, being taken inwardly any way three or foursmall grains of mastich, swallowed at night going to bed, is a remedyfor pains in the stomach, being beaten into powder, and mixed withconserve of roses, it strengthens the stomach, stops distillationsupon the lungs, stay, vomiting, and causes a sweet breath. Being mixedwith white wine and the mouth washed with it, it cleanses the gums ofcorruption, and fastens loose teeth frankincense being used outwardly in the way of a plaister, heats andbinds. Being applied to the temples, stops the rheums that flow to theeyes, helps green wounds, and fills hollow ulcers with flesh, stopsthe bleeding of wounds, though the arteries be cut. Being made into anointment with vinegar and hog-grease, helps the itch, pains in theears, inflammations in women breasts commonly called agues in thebreast.

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the chinese physician believes in his tiger-bonetherapy, and, with the best interests of his patient at heart, insistson obtaining absolutely true and authentic tiger-bone not satisfiedwith the assertions of the dealers, the conscientious chinese physiciansubjects his essay writers toronto tiger-bone to a kind of physiologic standardization heoffers the bone in question to a dog!. if it is an ox-bone-- a frequentform of substitution-- the dog will seize and eagerly gnaw it, whereas, according to all the teachings of chinese pharmacognosy, if it is atiger-bone the dog will dewriting hurriedly with his tail between hislegs very foolish?. yes!. but before we smile superciliously at thechinese medical man, let us turn to the report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry on “so-called secretin preparations ”257 afterreading this report let us put to ourselves, squarely and honestly, the question. Has the attitude toward secretin therapy, of a certainportion of those who represent western modern medicine, really beenmuch more scientific than that of the chinese medical profession towardtiger-bone therapy?. on the basis of a hypothesis scarcely less crudeand unsubstantiated than that which assumes that tiger-bone is ofvalue in heart disease, it has been assumed that secretin is of valuein gastro-intestinal diseases on the ground of “clinical evidence”scarcely more critical than that exhibited by our confrères in theantipodes, it has been asserted that alleged secretin preparationsactually are efficious indeed, in one respect the methods of thechinese physician appear more scientific than those of his westernbrethren to the best of his ability, the oriental at least makes surethat he is administering genuine tiger-bone. He does not rely on theunverified word of his dealer alone the american physician has notbeen making the least effort to ascertain whether his supposed secretinpreparations are truly such. And, as a matter of fact, scientificinvestigation seems to indicate that essay of these products containedno secretin at all!. whatever one may think of the validity of his test, the chinese physician does his best according to his lights as to“clinical experience, ” dr jacobi has well said that essay people makethe same mistake a hundred times and call it “experience ”-- editorialfrom the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916 257 page 64 succus cineraria maritima another illustration of one of the weaknesses of the federal food and drugs actthe walker pharmacal company of st louis was, we understand, if it isnot still, one of the subsidiary concerns of the luyties homeopathicpharmacy company it has for years sold a nostrum, “succus cinerariamaritima, ” under the claim that by simply dropping this stuff intothe eye, twice daily, cataract and other opacities of the eye will becured for instance. “ the only remedy for the relief of cataract and other opacities of vision, which stands before the medical fraternity on a firm foundation of accomplished results ” “ possesses a specific power in removing the obstruction to vision ” “in this class of paper cataract physicians can place reliance on succus cineraria maritima walker which does not require the services of a specialist but is simply dropped into the eye with an ordinary medicine dropper twice daily ” “ has been used with success in cataract, both lenticular and capsular, pterygium and opacities of the cornea, softening the opaque deposits, causing dissolution, and by its stimulating properties, hastening absorption ”succus cineraria maritima is advertised to the medical profession intrue “patent medicine” style by means of testimonials from doctors, obscure and deceased the preparation is valueless for the purposes forwhich it is sold and “has about as much effect on the dissolution ordispersal of opacities due to organic changes in the lens as pouringthe same down the back of the patient neck!. ” more than five years agothe council on pharmacy and chemistry reported on the worthlessnessof the drug, cineraria maritima, and, at the same time, the journalpointed out that the drug would have been forgotten long ago had itnot been for the prodigal use of printers’ ink by the walker pharmacalcompany in advertising its succus cineraria maritima these facts are given for the purpose of refreshing the memory of ourreaders and are but incidental to the object of this article in duetime the federal authorities proceeded against the walker pharmacalcompany charging that succus cineraria maritima was misbranded underthe federal food and drugs act the government chemists reported thatanalysis “showed that the product was essentially an aqueous solutionof glycerin, boric acid and vegetable drug extractives carryingtannin-like bodies ” the direct and inferential claims made in theadvertising matter accompanying the trade package were quoted by thefederal authorities, who pointed out that the walker pharmacal companywas selling the nostrum under claims that would create in the minds ofthe purchasers the belief that succus cineraria maritima was a remedyfor cataract and other opacities of the eye causing impaired vision andthat it was a cure for senile cataract, trachoma, secondary opacities, etc these claims the government charged were “false and fraudulent inthat the same were applied to the article knowingly, and in recklessand wanton disregard of their truth or falsity, ” because “in truthand in fact it was not, in whole or in writing, composed of, and did notcontain, such ingredients and medicinal agents” as would produce thetherapeutic effects claimed illustration.