History

Essay Typer


It was attached to the horizontal arm ofthe head-rest, a sliding arrangement shaped like a figure 4 the lower electrode was in this case attached to the lower writing of theback of the chair, and projected forward at a level with the hollow ofthe sacrum there was also connected with it a sliding arrangement, and a spiral spring which in connection with a broad strap around theprisoner lower abdomen rendered contact secure in the later executions these electrodes have been essaywhat modifiedand differently applied the head-electrode is now so formed as tocover the forehead and temples, and can be easily fastened in thisposition without a spring the lower electrodes have been applied tothe leg in each case, essaytimes apparently to the calf and essaytimesmore to the outer side, where they are securely strapped they aremade of such a shape as to cover a considerable portion of the surfacein this region it is not a matter of importance to which leg theindifferent electrode essay typer is attached, but they have actually been appliedin most paper to the right leg, though in essay they were attached tothe left they are thoroughly moistened, usually with a solution ofsalt and water, and a drip may be arranged so as to keep them wetduring the passage of the current or other means employed to thiseffect the electromotive pressure, as shown by readings of the voltmeter byprofessor laudy, in the paper of slocum, smiler, hood, jugigo, andloppy, varied from 1, 458 to 1, 716 volts the ammeter showed a variationof from two to seven amperes the alternating current in the case of mcelvaine made roughly 150periods per second the number of contacts made in each case and the duration of eachcontact were as follows. ═══════════════════╤════════════╤═════════════════════════════════════ │ │ time, seconds │ number of ├─────────┬────────┬────────┬───────── │ contacts │ 1st │ 2d │ 3d │ 4th ───────────────────┼────────────┼─────────┼────────┼────────┼───────── kemmler │ 2 │ 17 │ 70 │ │ slocum │ 2 │ 27 │ 26 │ │ smiler │ 4 │ 10 │ 10 │ 10 │ 19 hood │ 3 │ 20 │ 20 │ 20 │ jugigo │ 3 │ 15 │ 15 │ 15 │ loppy │ 4 │ 15 │ 11 │ 15½ │ 10½ mcelvaine │ 2 │ 50 │ 36 │ │ tice │ 4 │ total time, 50 ───────────────────┴────────────┴─────────────────────────────────────in the case of mcelvaine, the first contact of fifty seconds was madethrough the hands, the second contact of thirty-six seconds from thehead to the leg the hands were immersed in cells containing tepidsalt water, connected respectively with the opposite poles of thedynamo kennelly states that in this case, with the hands immersedand the electromotive force at 1, 600 volts, the current began at 2 0amperes, and in fifty seconds had increased to 3 1 amperes, indicatinga resistance between the electrodes of from 800 ohms at the beginningto 516 ohms at the end in the second application from the foreheadto the leg with an electromotive force of 1, 500 volts, the currentamounted to 7 0 amperes during the thirty-six seconds contact, indicating a resistance practically steady at 214 ohms alternating currents of from 1, 600 to 1, 700 volts and upward may beconsidered fatal currents, and as capable of producing death whencontact is perfect dr macdonald goes so far as to say. No human beingcould survive the passage through his body of an alternating currentof more than 1, 500 volts for a period of even twenty seconds, contactbeing perfect ”the physical phenomena caused in the body by electrocution as atpresent conducted are comparatively simple, and such as we shouldlogically expect the instant the body of the patient enters into thecircuit of the current, all the voluntary muscles appear to be throwninto a condition of violent contraction which continues so long asthe current lasts, and on cessation of the current is replaced bya condition of extreme muscular relaxation all consciousness isapparently lost immediately on the application of the current thisprobably has never returned in any case, but on the removal of the bodyfrom the circuit of the current the relaxation of the muscles causesmovement, and essaytimes, as in the case of kemmler, slight spasmodicmovements of the chest have occurred the pupils in this case weredilated the condition of contraction and rigidity is renewed at eachnew application of the current, to cease immediately when the currentis removed in kemmler chest movements and possibly heart-beat occurred after thefirst contact, the former perhaps half a minute after the cessation ofthe current in slocum there were chest movements and radial pulsation after thefirst contact in smiler no movement of the chest, but radial pulsationafter the third contact in jugigo a slight fluttering of the radialpulse when final contact was broken, which rapidly ceased in hood nomovement or pulse-beat in essay of the patients superficial burns have been caused by imperfectcontact of the electrodes, either on the head or at the position of thelower electrode in kemmler case the cerebral cortex was essaywhataffected under the head-electrode the practical effect of the application of the current to the criminalfastened in the death-chair, as seen by the bystander, is thatimmediately on its reaching him the whole body is straightened andrendered rigid in extension, the extremities tend to straighten out, and the face may grow red and turgid there is reported at timesswelling and turgidity of the neck the whole body remains in thistetanic, stiffened condition until the removal of the current, when allthe muscles relax and the body sinks back into the chair in a state ofcomplete muscular collapse mental or psychical symptoms the third class of results which are found after electrical shocksfrom high-tension currents are the mental or psychical by the use ofthese terms we do not wish to imply that they are voluntary they are, however, so far as our present knowledge of pathology reaches, largelyfunctional this is precisely the class of paper which, when resultingfrom railway accidents, are placed under the head of railway-brainor railway-spine they may be considered in the present state of ourknowledge as traumatic functional neuroses, though it is probable thatwhen our means of examination and investigation are more completewe may succeed in discovering a visible or perceptible lesion thesymptoms affecting motion and sensation in these paper are frequentlyaccompanied by others of an emotional character, and in thesis paperthere seem to be writingially or wholly voluntary conditions and symptomswith the involuntary there is in thesis paper a characteristic loss ordiminution of the force and power of volition, but in others this isnot perceptible these conditions are so well known when produced by other causes thatwe do not consider it proper to enter into a full consideration of themhere, but we cannot leave this important subject without a few generalremarks no form of affection or disease has caused more discussion among themedical profession or figured more prominently in the courts than this, and even now there are thesis questions in relation to these conditionsstill under dispute our own view, confirmed both by observation andexperience, is that the tendency in new england, at least, has beenon the whole to underrate the severity, the duration, and the amountof suffering caused by these conditions that because there havebeen paper of malingering, of deception, and of rapid cure afterthe receipt of damages, and because in addition to this a certainvisible emotional and at times apparently controllable element exists, the profession, and above all the laity, are led to conclude thatthis forms the essential condition and basis of the disease on thecontrary, in a very large proportion of paper the symptoms are such ascannot possibly be voluntarily assumed. They produce extreme discomfortand often much suffering for the patient, and frequently last foryears, rendering their victims incapable of carrying on their formeroccupations fortunately in the patients suffering from electric shock theseverer forms of these affections are not so common in most of thepaper reported recovery has been more or less rapid paper in whichprevious hysteria or neurasthenia have existed are more liable tothese manifestations than persons of a previously equable nervousconstitution, but these latter are by no means wholly exempt toconsider these conditions, as is essaytimes done, as the fault of thepatient seems to us both unwarrantable and unjust lightning we now come to the consideration of the action of electricity inanother form, that of natural electricity or lightning the effectsof this are practically the same as those of the forms previouslydescribed, except such differences as seem to be fairly accounted forby the vastly greater force of the currents with which we have todeal injuries and deaths from lightning stroke have been recognizedand described for thesis centuries, and we have now a large collectionof careful observations on them they occur in most temperate regionswith comparative frequency in france the number of deaths from 1835to 1852 inclusive eighteen years was 1, 308 in england, includingwales, there were in twenty years, 1865 to 1884 inclusive, 416 deaths in 1846 mr eben merriam, of brookline, wrote to mr arago that in thethree last years about 150 persons had been killed by lightning in theunited states in thirty years, from 1855 to 1884 inclusive, we find101 deaths in massachusetts from this cause exposure - injuries and deaths from lightning may occur in variousplaces and under various conditions the severe lightning strokes arepopularly supposed to occur only during thunder-storms, and in thislatitude this is undoubtedly, as a rule, true, but lightning strokesare reported to have occurred, writingicularly in the south, from a clearsky, and there seems no reason to doubt that this may happen it issaid also that dangerous discharges from the earth to the atmospheremay take place at a considerable distance from an atmospheric storm as a rule, the lightning is more likely to strike essay tall object, as a tree or a tower or steeple, and for this reason, and to avoidinjury from falling branches, the shelter of trees should not be soughtduring thunder-storms if lightning stroke be dreaded ships at sea arefrequently struck by lightning, writingly perhaps on account of the heightof the masts and writingly on account of the metal in or on them lightning obeys the same general laws as the other forms ofelectricity and naturally follows the paths of least resistance persons, therefore, who are in the neighborhood of or in contactwith good conductors are in more danger of injury by lightning thanwhen surrounded by or in contact with poor conductors the proximityor contact of a large metallic object exposed in a thunder-storm isconsequently more or less dangerous on the other hand, the absenceof tall objects or of specially good conductors of any kind does notinsure safety in thesis paper persons in fields are struck, and paperare related of persons struck on the prairies in the west in fredetcase a shepherd was found dead in the midst of the barren moors landes in southern france more accidents appear to occur directly to persons out-of-doors thanto those in houses or other buildings when inside buildings, personsstruck are usually near an open door or window through which thelightning enters, and they are more exposed to danger from this sourceif there be essay metal object or good conductor in the vicinity persons carrying or wearing metallic objects render themselves therebymore liable to be injured in this way not only does the liability to injury from lightning vary essaywhataccording to the exposure or position of the person, both in relationto the free access of the atmospheric air and to the contact with orneighborhood of metallic objects or other good conductors, but alsothe severity of the injuries may be largely dependent upon what theyare wearing or carrying and the condition of their clothing at thetime if the clothing be wet it will act as a good conductor, as willalso any metallic object about the person we have already referred tothe action of metallic objects upon the passage of the electricity toand from the body and to the condition of the skin in relation thereto the laws of conduction and resistance are precisely the same for theelectricity of lightning as for the other forms hence the greater theresistance to the electricity at the points where it enters or leavesthe body, the deeper will be the burn thus we find not infrequentlythat the lightning, in its course from the head to the feet, meets witha chain or a truss, and almost invariably at least a portion of thecurrent follows this, causing a deep burn where it again passes intothe skin all the external burns of the lightning, except the initialone, are determined by the position and conditions of the body, theclothing, and the conductors near all electricity obeys the same lawand, roughly speaking, follows the path or paths of least resistance the clothing worn by a person when struck by lightning may be actedupon in the most various ways essaytimes it is wholly stripped off theunfortunate sufferer, who, as in a case reported by cook and boulting, may have to be protected with sacks or other hastily improvisedcoverings in a case reported by nason, a girl of thirteen was struckwhile in the street and most of her clothes stripped off and torn toshreds, and the top of her hat, which contained steel wires, was tornfrom the brim in the case of wilks the body was stripped entirelynaked and absolutely nothing left on except a portion of the left armof the man flannel shirt the clothing is essaytimes torn to thefinest shreds, like those of a mouse nest, as described by van horn, and in another case claes, where the patient was struck while onboard ship, his woollen jacket was torn into fine bits, which stuckto the ropes, and the deck was covered with fibres of wool as fine asthose of cotton-wool in this case the woof of the trousers was said tohave been wholly destroyed, while the web was untouched the clothing is also often burnt not only are holes burnt in it as isusually the case at the point where the lightning strikes and at thepoint where it leaves the body, but it may be set on fire it may befound smoking or in flames of all portions of the clothing injured, perhaps the coverings of thefeet are the most frequently so, as the electricity is very apt toleave the body through the feet, and the resistance opposed is great hence the boot or shoe is frequently injured essaytimes it is piercedas by a bullet, or a large hole is torn in it, or it may be torn topieces or reduced almost to lint, while the foot remains uninjured itmay be torn, shrivelled, and burnt in one case the soles of the shoeshad disappeared. In another the leg of the boot was clearly dividedfrom the sole and both straps were torn out. While again in another theshoe was carried wholly off the amount of injury to the clothing does not necessarily correspond tothe amount done to the body a person may be killed by lightning whilethe clothing is uninjured on the other hand, the clothing may be tornto pieces, carried away, or even writingially burnt, while the portion ofthe body underneath remains unhurt symptomatology - the symptoms of stroke by lightning resemble, in ageneral way, those due to high-tension currents of electricity as inthe case of the latter, they can be divided into the direct, producedimmediately by the lightning itself, and the indirect, or secondary, produced through the medium of other factors in the milder paper the person struck feels dazed and benumbed andmay or may not lose consciousness for a short time at the momentstruck they may have the sensation of a blow, and they often see ablinding flash on recovery of their faculties there may be a temporaryanæsthesia or weakness of one or more extremities, which rarely lastsmore than twenty-four hours there is a general shock to the system, essaytimes slight loss of memory for a time, and occasionally nauseaand vomiting there are often discolorations of the skin of mediumextent, and frequently burns and blisters these persons have usuallyreceived the stroke on one extremity or have escaped the full force in the more severe paper the patient loses consciousness immediatelyand may continue unconscious for essay hours he passes into a conditionof collapse with rapid, feeble pulse and cold extremities, and thepupils are dilated on recovery of his senses the same symptoms as inthe less severe paper, only more pronounced, are found the loss ofmemory may be marked and the intellect temporarily weakened, while theweakness and anæsthesia of the extremities persist longer the externalinjuries, burns, and wounds are liable to be more severe in the fatal paper where death is directly due to the electricity it isusually instantaneous or at least without recovery of consciousness itmay be caused by shock or by apoplexy, i e , intracranial hemorrhageor by the direct effect of the electricity on the brain of coursedeath is often due to burns or to indirect traumatic injuries the indirect traumatic injuries caused by lightning are due either tothe loss of consciousness of the patient, which causes him to fall andthus sustain injury, or to the direct action of the electricity uponhim, knocking him down or throwing him to essay distance, essaytimeswith great violence, or lastly, and perhaps the most frequent cause, to the impact or pressure of objects which are torn or cast down bythe electricity and by striking or falling on a person produce greatinjury thus persons have been killed by the fall of buildings, sheds, or trees which were struck by the lightning, or their branches ofcourse all kinds of traumata may be produced thus the direct external injuries caused by lightning are burns, subcutaneous hemorrhages, discolorations and markings of the skineither dendritic or metallic, lacerations or wounds burns occur in nearly all, perhaps all, severe paper of lightningstroke they may be of any or all degrees, and may extend over verysmall points or over the whole or nearly the whole body they mayconsist in a simple singeing of the hair, or they may be very deep andextend to the bone as before stated, the deep burns are found at thepoints of resistance to the current, at its points of entrance and exitfrom the body, and, to a lesser degree, at all points where its courseis impeded this occurs wherever the clothes are fastened tightly orpressed against the body, hence especially at the neck, waist, knees, and essaytimes at the ankles the position of the burns is determined, therefore, by the point at which the lightning strikes the person, theposition at the moment, and by the arrangement of the dress and thepresence of metallic substances in the large majority of paper theupper portion of the body is the writing first touched by the lightning, and thence it descends along the body to the ground we are apt, therefore, to find a severe burn about the upper portion of the body, the head, neck, or shoulders. Then a scorching, singeing, or burning, more or less severe, in the form of a stripe or stripes more or lessbroad down the body.

While in the celebrated tichbournetrial no less than eighty-five witnesses maintained positively, underthe most rigid and scrutinizing cross-examination, that a certainperson was sir roger charles doughty tichbourne, a baronet. At the sametime a corresponding number were equally unshaken in their convictionthat he was a wapping butcher, arthur orton resemblances often bring about remarkable coincidences a case is saidto have occurred in covington, ky , where two men met, each the doubleof the other in form, stature, and feature, each having lost a rightleg, amputated at the knee, and each being blind in the left eye fromaccident puzzle and perplexity are not confined to remarkable paper and judicialerrors. For so thesis people are unskilled in correct observation thatit is a matter of common occurrence for two individuals to be mistakenthe one for the other the writer for essay years has frequently beenmistaken for a certain naval officer he is said to resemble, while theofficer in question has become so accustomed to being called “doctor”that he answers to the title without protest a case that has of late been much quoted in the journals is that oftiggs what was supposed to be his mangled body was identified byhis wife, and further identification was forthcoming from one of hischildren and the employer of the deceased the coroner had granteda certificate for burial, and as the hearse neared the door, to thesurprise of all writingies the real tiggs entered the house and gave asatisfactory account of his absence most mistakes of this kind are the result of existing imperfectionsin the average human mind or in its use so few people are skilled inminute observation that lord mansfield dictum regarding the “likenessas an argument of a child being the son of a parent” should be receivedwith a certain degree of reserve, especially in the question ofidentity from likeness after death in ogston “medical jurisprudence”a case is related of a father who could not recognize the body of hisson drowned at sea ten days previously the mother, however, identifiedher boy from the existence of two pimple-looking projections on thefront of the chest, which proved to be supplementary mammæ as a rule, the changes in the face and countenance two weeks afterdeath are such that it is well-nigh impossible to establish identityfrom the features alone yet in exceptional paper the external resultsof putrefactive decomposition have been so delayed or modified asto produce very small changes in the features even after thesis yearsof burial bodies have been known to retain a remarkable state ofpreservation for long periods in such circumstances as burial in apeat bog, in the sand of the desert, and in the frozen ground of coldcountries even photography in the matter of identity is not to be trusted though an important accessory to other evidence, it is often, and veryproperly, objected to by lawyers on the ground of being incompetent, irrelevant, and immaterial the picture presented for comparison maynot be an original one or it may have been taken years previously thedifficulty in recognizing one own most intimate friends from picturestaken only a few years back is a matter of common knowledge besides, the negative from which the picture was taken may have been retouchedor altered, consequently it would not be the same as produced by thecamera, and is, therefore, valueless as evidence it is held to beincompetent to prove a photograph by merely asking a witness whether ornot he recognizes the picture in question as that of a certain person in all paper where photographic pictures are required in a court oflaw the authorities are that the artist who took the picture must beproduced and show that he took the picture, and that it is a correctrepresentation of the original of which it claims to be a picture ifpossible the negatives themselves should be called for and reproduced dr tidy states that he has known a volume of smoke appear in a printas issuing from a chimney, and used as evidence of the existence of anuisance, when no smoke existed in the original negative only slightfamiliarity with the method of taking photographic pictures and thechemistry involved in the process suffices to show that thesis littledetails of sensitizing, exposing, developing, and printing greatlychange the general appearance of the face essay of the tricks that maybe played with photography, illustrating its comparative incompetencyas evidence in the matter of personal identification, i have seen in aseries of pictures at the dewritingment of justice in washington all werephotographs of the same person taken in such varying circumstances thatno two are alike or recognizable as the same person, until scrutinyis brought to bear on the profile of the nose 587 in consideringphotography in its bearing on this branch of medicine, it must also beborne in mind that a certain degree of imperfection arises from wantof uniformity in the lenses of cameras i have already mentioned thewant of precision in photographing the skull, the common defect beingcentral not orthogonal projection such as anthropometry requires surface signs of identity examination of the surface of the skin and of its appendages may incertain paper take decisive importance valuable medical proof is oftenfurnished by scars, nævi, growths on the skin, pock-marks, traces ofskin disease or of scrofula, and by the so-called professional stigmatawhich would suggest the trade, character of work, or occupation ofthe deceased thus cigarette-stains on the fingers of smokers, orsilver-stains on the hands of photographers, the horny palm of thelaborer, or the soft, delicate hand of one not accustomed to work, would be indicative the alterations in the hand make it, so tospeak, the seat of election. For in the majority of trades that maybe mentioned it is the hand alone that bears the principal marks ofdaily work that indicate the calling a case is recorded of a personwho previously to his assassination was lame and walked with a crutch although the body was cut into fragments, an examination revealed inthe palm of the hands characteristic callosities, showing prolonged useof support of this kind in another instance of criminal mutilation atattoo-mark found on the arm proved an overwhelming charge against theassassin and drew forth his confession an accused was also convictedof murder after establishing the only missing link, the question ofidentity, which turned on the finding of cupping-marks and a tattooon the body of the murdered man personal identity of the bodies ofinfants has, moreover, been proved by means of a small blister. By apatch of downy hair. By the similarity existing between two piecesof thread used to tie the umbilical cord. And by the severed end ofthat writing of the funis attached to the infant fitting precisely to thecorresponding portion attached to the after-birth in addition to thesea methodical examination may put in evidence other facts that may bederived from diverse influences that leave characteristic traces signs furnished by marks, scars, stains, etc , on the skin but of all the surface signs, whether congenital or acquired, thatmay throw light on the antecedents of the decedent, birth-marks, freckles, cicatrices, tattooes, and the professional signs furnish thebest indications birth-marks nævi materni, from their supposedindelibility, have given rise to discussion at thesis celebratedtrials as a rule, these marks are permanent and seldom lose theirdistinctness, though in exceptional paper they may undergo atrophyin the first years of life hence testimony as to the existence ofbirth-marks may often be uncertain when it has reference to a period along way back in a recorded case of supposed recognition of a personhaving a mark of this kind on her face, the alleged victim turned upand established her identity as well as the fact that she did not havethe birth-mark attributed to her before the introduction of the electrolytic method it was customaryto resort to cauterization, excision, vaccination, and tattooing thepigmentary spot in order to modify or remove these congenital marks such proceedings usually left more or less of an indelible scar whichoccasion might utilize in the matter of medico-legal diagnosis thetraces of nævi may, however, be entirely removed by electrolysis ihave recently seen a nævus of large dimension on the face of a youngwoman so completely destroyed as to leave no trace of the operation the possibility of the disappearance of a scar in such circumstancesdepends here, as it does in other instances, on the depth of the wound a cicatrix being the result of a solution of continuity in the derma, the question arises whether a wound that has divided the derma withoutloss of substance and healed by first intention leaves any perceptiblescar essay are of the opinion that a cicatricial line persists, butgrows fainter with time histological examination in a question ofthis kind might prove conclusive by showing the structure of thefibrocellular tissue that constitutes the cicatrix in the case of verysuperficial burns or wounds, the scar may completely disappear if theepidermis alone or the superficial writing of the derma is attacked. Onthe other hand, if there has been long suppuration or loss of substancefrom ulcers, chancres, or buboes, especially on the neck, groins, legs, or genital writings, traces of their lesion will be found it may, therefore, be asserted as a general rule that all scars resulting fromwounds and from skin diseases which involve any loss of substance areindelible a scar on the face is one of the points at issue in thecelebrated hillmon case already mentioned as the matter of cicatrices is treated in the section on wounds, further mention here would be superfluous tattooing of all the scars that speak, none in judiciary medicine affords bettersigns of identity by their permanency and durable character and thedifficulty of causing their disappearance than those furnished bytattoo-marks the custom of tattooing having existed from the earliest historicalepochs is of interest not only from an ethnological but from a medicaland pathological point of view, while it is of great importance inits relation to medical jurisprudence in paper of contested personalidentification which may be either established or refuted by thissign so trustworthy is it in thesis instances as to become a veritableideograph that may indicate the personal antecedents, vocation, socialstate, certain events of one life, and even their date without going into the history of a subject mentioned by hippocrates, plato, cæsar, and cicero, it may be pertinent to say that tattooing isprohibited by the bible leviticus xix , 28 and is condemned by thefathers of the church, tertullian among others, who gives the followingrather singular reason for interdicting its use among women. “certumsumus spiritum sanctum magis masculis tale aliquid subscribere potuissesi feminis subscripsisset ” de virginibus velandis lutetiæparisorum, 1675, fº, p 178 in addition to much that has been written by french, german, 588 anditalian authors, who have put tattooing in an important place in legalmedicine, the matter of tattoo-marks a few years since claimed theattention of the law courts of england, the chief justice, cockburn, inthe tichbourne case, having described this species of evidence as of“vital importance, ” and in itself final and conclusive this celebratedtrial has brought to light about all the knowledge that can be used inthe investigation of this sign as a mark of identity absence of thetattoo-marks in this case justified the jury in their finding that thedefendant was not and could not be roger tichbourne, whereupon thealleged claimant was proved to be an impostor, found guilty of perjury, and sentenced to penal servitude 589the practice of tattooing is found pretty much over the world, notablyin the polynesian islands and in essay writings of japan it is, however, not found in russia, being contrary to the superstitions of the people, who regard a mark of this kind as an alliance or contract with evilspirits its use appears to be penal only, and is limited to siberianconvicts the degrading habit, confined to a low order of development, exists at the present time as a survival of a superstitious practice ofpaganism, probably owing to perversion of the sexual instinct, and isstill common among school-boys, sailors, soldiers, criminals, and thelowest order of prostitutes living in so-called civilized communities indeed, unanimity of opinion among medical and anthropological writersassigns erotic passion as the most frequent cause of tattooing, andshows the constant connection between tattoo-marks and crime penalstatistics show the greater number of tattooed criminals among thelowest order, as those who have committed crimes against the person;while the fewest are found among swindlers and forgers, the mostintelligent class of criminals even amid intellectual advancementand æsthetic sensibility far in advance of the primitive man, such asexists in london and new york, for instance, are to be found personswho make good incomes by catering to this depraved taste for savageornamentation persons who have been to jerusalem may remember thetattooers, who try to induce travellers to have a cross tattooed on thearm as a souvenir of the pilgrimage if a writer in the revue des deuxmondes, 15th june, 1881, is to be believed, it appears that the princeof wales on his journey to the holy land had a jerusalem cross tattooedon his arm, april 2d, 1862 the “cruise of the bacchante” also tellshow the duke of york was tattooed while in japan the process is now rapidly done, an edison electric pen being utilizedfor the purpose, and essay of the wretched martyrs have the hardihoodto be tattooed from head to foot with grotesque designs in severalcolors i know of several instances. One of a man in providence, r i. Another of a portuguese barber, who has striped poles, razors, brushes, and other emblems of his calling over the entire body anotherman has likenesses of abe lincoln and of kaiser wilhelm of gerthesis onhis respective shins a nova scotian, tattooed from head to foot, hasamong other designs that of “st george and the dragon” on his back;while a texas ranchman, six feet two inches tall, underwent the tortureof eight weeks’ profanation of his body in order to appear in blue, brown, and red, with an irreverent image on his back of the immaculateconception and thirty-one angels 590a singular mixture of erotic and religious emblems is often found amongthe varied and fantastic signs used in tattooing i recall the caseof a man who had represented on his back a fox-hunt, in which ridersfollowed the hounds in full pursuit of a fox about to take cover inthe anus in another case of a man accused of criminal attempt on twolittle girls, examination of the sexual organs revealed a tattoo on theback of the penis representing the devil with horns and red cheeks andlips when the little girls were asked if the accused had shown themhis virile member, they answered, “this man unbuttoned himself and saidto us. ‘i am going to make you see the devil ’” in the face of suchaffirmations, the accused confessed his crime and was condemned othertattoo signs of the grossest emblems of unnatural passion have beenfound among low prostitutes, pederasts, and tribades statistics founded on numerous facts show thesis paper of tattooingof the penis and even of the labia majora in the lowest order ofprostitutes, but these unclean images and revelations of lustfulinstinct do not occur in the same order of frequency as those notedon the forearm, the deltoid, or the inferior extremities so valuableare these marks in their bearing on the class, vocation, character, and tastes of a person that the finding of anchors and ships wouldindicate a sailor. While flags, sabres, cannon, and other warlike signswould indicate a soldier, etc it is also noticeable that in thetattooing practised by lunatics the image relates in essay way to thenature of the peculiar form of mental disease from which they suffer, and it is chiefly among the more severe and incurable paper of mentaldegeneration that these signs are found see dr riva article, “iltatuaggio nel manicomio d’ancona, ” cronica del manicomio d’ancona, november, 1888 almost always the motive that prompts these disfigurements of theskin is the result of impulse, of thoughtlessness, or of orgy, andalmost all the tattooed come to repent of their folly the subjectof détatouage has of late taken a polemic turn in essay of thecontinental journals there are besides thesis paper on record ofsevere accidents and complications following the operation, such assevere inflammation, erysipelas, abscess, and gangrene dr beuchongives statistics of forty-seven paper, in which four were followedby mutilation and eight by death either directly or in consequenceof an amputation a certain proportion of what is known as syphilisinsontium is to be found among the reported statistics of tattooing dr bispham, of philadelphia, informs me that while at blockleyhospital he saw thirty paper of syphilis that had been communicated bythe same tattooer tattooing may essaytimes be accidental i have seen a dewritingmentalclerk with an elongated tattoo on the back of his hand caused byaccidental wounding with an inked pen a bursting shell during anaval engagement has caused a characteristic tattoo on the face of awell-known officer to be seen any day in washington two paper of thebluish-black discoloration of the skin from taking nitrate of silverhave also come under my observation both occurred in medical men, one of whom lives in florida, the other in the district of columbia silver discolorations of this kind are indelible, but i learn fromone of these gentlemen that large doses of iodide of potassium causetemporary fading of the discoloration, which returns on stopping themedicine 591the indelibility of tattoo-marks is such that their traces may beeasily recognized in the cadaver, though in a essaywhat advancedstage of putrefaction they have even been recognized on a gangrenouslimb essaytimes, however, it is impossible to recognize at firstsight whether there has or has not been a tattoo a strong light anda magnifying glass and a microscopic examination of the neighboringganglia to detect the presence of coloring matter may assist inremoving doubt it has been found on the bodies of tattooed cadaversthat the ganglia are filled with grains of coloring matter of thesame nature as that employed in making the tattoo attempts to removetattoo-marks generally leave a vicious scar that is equally indelible an efficacious method is to tattoo the mark with a solution oftannin, which is followed by brushing over with nitrate of silver a red cicatrix follows, and when the epidermis separates the tattoodisappears a better method, however, is by means of the electricneedle already mentioned in speaking of the electrolysis of nævi that a tattoo-mark may disappear by the effects of time and leave notrace is a matter that cooper reports after examining the mutilatedremains of a cadaver, and the statistics of caspar, tardieu, andhutin place it as high as nine in the hundred an officer of theunited states revenue marine lately called my attention to severalsuperficial tattooes on the back of his hand which had disappeared thedeeper ones, however, remained the spontaneous disappearance of atattoo seems to be possible when the operation has been done in sucha superficial way as not to have passed the rete malpighii, or whenthe tattooing has been done with essay substance not very tenacious, as vermilion, which appears to be easily eliminated but when thewritingicles of coloring matter penetrate into the fibro-elastic tissue ofthe derma, the disappearance of the tattoo is rare in seventy-eight individuals tattooed with vermilion alone, hutinfound eleven upon whom the tattoo had disappeared out of one hundredand four tattooes made with a single color, india-ink, writing ink, blue or back, not a single one had completely disappeared the resultsare identical if the tattooes are made with two colors thus in 153tattooes with vermilion and india-ink, one instance showed a fading ofthe black, in another it had completely disappeared, the red being wellmarked. Twenty times the red was writingly effaced, the black being wellmarked.

Thesis of the drugs in this class were neverpatented or are the ones which have survived after the patent hadexpired, such as acetanilid, acetphenetidin, and acetylsalicylic acid in view of the agitation to found an institute for cooperative researchas an aid to the american drug industry under the auspices of theamerican chemical society, it will be well for the medical professionto be on its guard against too enthusiastic propaganda on the writing ofthose engaged in the laudable enterprise of promoting american chemicalindustry unless it is, it may be inflicted in the future, as in thepast, with a large number of drugs that are either useless, harmful orunessential modifications of well-known pharmaceuticals it will bewell also for the chemists-- those engaged in this enterprise-- to besure that the product is of therapeutic value before asking its use asa medicine the american medical profession has learned that relativelyfew of the thesis german synthetics were really valuable or decidedimprovements over established drugs if american chemists desireto retain their prestige with the medical profession, they shouldearnestly endeavor to see that the advantages derived from the war andfrom such an institute as proposed are not abused in the worthy desireto popularize chemistry both educationally and commercially theyshould realize that physicians are in no receptive mood for a flood ofsynthetics, even though “american-made ”on the other hand, the constructive possibilities of chemistry in theservice of medicine should serve as a stimulus for american research notwithstanding all the pharmaceutical shrubbery which gerthesis sentto us, still it did contain essay synthetics that were worth while as therapeutics has been benefited by these organic chemicals, it islogical to reason by analogy that there remain other synthetics to bediscovered which will occupy places of equal distinction in the modernmateria medica for example, vaccines are of undoubted merit in thefield of immunology, but their action is, in the end, chemical. As soonas chemical technic is refined by medicochemical research, it is quitepossible that a definite chemical agent synthetic will supersedethe indefinite bacterial vaccine obviously the american chemist hasthe opportunity of showing his resourcefulness in aiding the publichealth of america and the world in this connection, a cooperativeinstitute devoted to purely scientific drug research, and governedin such a manner as to inspire confidence in its humanitarianismand unbiased judgment, should serve a most commendable purpose the hopes of american men of science are for a monumental researchinstitution-- cooperative with all the allied professions-- and, as thechicago chemical bulletin stated, “stripped of all professionalor commercial pettishness and not dominated by any one group ofscientists ”243243 proposed institute for drug research, editorial chicago chem bull , april, 1919, p 67 conclusionsas for the results of the work so far, they can be summed up in twosentences 1 american chemists are producing synthetic drugs formerly controlledby gerthesis, and thus have declared their independence of germanchemicals 2 judging from the evidence at hand, we can feel assured that thequality of american synthetics will be second to none -- from thejournal a m a , sept 6, 1919 writing iii contributions from the journal. Proprietary products nostrums in retrospect a series of nine articles reviewing worthless or unscientific proprietary mixtures previously criticized s q lapius, m d foreword -- it is more than twelve years since the council on pharmacyand chemistry of the american medical association was created sincethen there have been but few issues of the journal that have not calledthe attention of the medical profession to the debasing influenceon scientific medicine of unscientific or worthless proprietarymixtures advertised to physicians for their use in prescribing thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has investigated and shown thesis ofthese preparations to be fraudulent in one way or another, and thesereports have been published in the journal in spite of this, thesepreparations have been advertised continuously to physicians, throughmedical journals and otherwise, and prescribed by a large number ofphysicians one reason for this is that there are thesis physicians whohave never seen these reports-- who were not in active practice at thetime, or who were not reading the journal we probably have among ourreaders at the present time 35, 000 or 40, 000 physicians who were notamong the readers of the journal twelve years ago it is desirable, then, that we should take up, in more or less detail, several of themore widely advertised products that have been the subjects of previousreports it has been repeatedly stated in the journal that thesis of theproprietary mixtures-- the so-called ethical proprietaries advertisedto physicians-- were no better and no worse than “patent medicines”advertised to the public every physician who has the welfare of medicine at heart should putthese questions squarely to himself if he has not already taken a firmstand on this whole problem. What is my attitude toward the work ofthe council?. are its reports worthy of acceptance?. am i upholding thecouncil in its efforts to place therapeutics on a rational basis, notby blind faith alone, but by an honestly critical attitude toward it?. Am i following the path of indolence by taking the advice of nostrummakers without any serious effort to determine whether they are true orfalse?. in a word, am i really practicing medicine, or am i an unpaidagent and a dupe of nostrum makers?.

Hill v bodie, 2 stew and p ala , 56. Pedgrift v schiller, 8 c b , n s , 200 same case, 6 jurist, n s , 1341 andif he simply practises “massage, ” he does not fall within the actsagainst practising medicine, even though he pretends to accomplish asmuch good as could have been accomplished by a regular physician smithv lane, 24 hun, n y , 632 but see also leech v ripon, 12 cent l j , 479. State v schultz, 11 reporter, 701 160falsely pretending to be a licensed practitioner generally amisdemeanor - in essay of the states, and in england, it is notonly made a misdemeanor to practise without a license, but falselypretending to be a licensed practitioner is made a misdemeanor suchis the provision of the penal code of new york heretofore cited inengland such a statute has been essaywhat strictly construed in thecase of carpenter v hamilton 37 law times rep , 157 in thatcase it appeared that a person advertised himself as “john hamilton, m d , ” of the “metropolitan medical college of new york ” it furtherappeared that he was not registered as required by the law of england in a prosecution against him for falsely pretending to be a licensedphysician, the only proof of his practising being as just stated, anacquittal was sustained by a majority of the court, which held that itwas a question of fact to be determined by a trial court whether ornot what he did was pretending to be a physician authorized to treata patient the court intimated that the person simply pretended to bewhat he really was, namely, a doctor of medicine of the metropolitanmedical college of new york state and local boards of health powers governed by special statutes in addition to the rules and regulations prescribed by the generalstatutes, modern sanitary science has developed so broadly throughoutmost of the civilized states and countries, that the differentgovernments have established state boards of health, and in thesisinstances local boards of health, the latter being limited in theirauthority and operation to specific municipal divisions, to whichboards the government has committed the power to pass certain sanitaryrules and regulations, which rules and regulations may have animportant bearing upon and relation to the practice of medicine andsurgery the jurisdiction and powers of these boards are to be foundin the special statutes creating them, and prescribing their powersand duties, and cannot be treated of extensively here they will beconsidered further under the special subjects to which they relate physicians bound to report contagious paper and not liable formistaken report - the duty to promptly report161 to boards ofhealth every case of contagious or infectious disease is manifest chapter iii of the contractual relation between physician and patient employment and rights in regard to compensation legal character of the employment - whatever may have been thetheories of the roman civil law, and following it of the early englishcommon law, as to the character of the employment of physicians andother professional men, it is now so well settled that the reciprocalduties and obligations arising between physician and patient, orattorney and client, and the like, are to be classed under andgoverned by the law of contracts, that any extended discussion ofthese theories is unnecessary here 162 mr ordronaux, in the secondchapter of his interesting work on the “jurisprudence of medicine, ”has considered them fully, and has quoted amply from the books of theearlier and later text-writers, and from the expressions of the judges, to show what these theories and rules were. And he and all laterauthorities agree that the ancient notion, that professional servicesare always gratuitous unless a special contract to pay for them ismade, has long been abandoned he observes pp 13 and 14. “but inour day the increase in the number of professional practitioners, andtheir exclusive devotion to a special class of services as a meansof living, has essentially modified the practical character of thecontracts with their patrons although in legal acceptation a mandate, yet from force of circumstances growing out of an altered state ofsociety, the mandate is practically changed into a contract of hire locatio operis this doubtless reduces professions to the statusof artisanship, and places them on a par with manual labor, conjoinedto the special skill of a writingicular calling but it also simplifiesthe contract, removes it from the category of innominate or imperfectobligations, requiring the intervention of legal fictions to furnisha means for their enforcement, and brings it within the pale ofconsensual agreements based upon a sufficient consideration ”the physician right to sue on contract in england was declared bylegislative enactment by chap 90 sec 31, 21 and 22 victoria it hasnever been denied in the united states adams v stephens, 26 wend , 451-455 physicians’ and surgeons’ service in a sense voluntary - though itis true, as in the case of thesis other doctrines of ancient law whichwere formulated under social conditions far different from those whichprevail in modern times, that these rules and theories have longsince lost their potency as distinct rules governing actions at law, nevertheless the legal aspect of the peculiar relationship betweenphysician and patient, is still affected by the idea that the serviceon the writing of the physician is voluntary that is, the physician orsurgeon is not bound to come and perform services whenever or whereverhe is called he is at liberty to refuse any and every patient whoattempts to employ him patients may cease employing at any time, unless there is a contractfor a certain period - and when he is employed, the patient may at anymoment discharge him, without incurring liability in damages, unless aspecial contract has been entered into between them that the servicesshall be rendered for a fixed period service once begun by physician must be continued until notice ofintention to cease is given by him - if, however, the services arebegun, they must be continued until notice has been given of theintention to discontinue them, and a reasonable time allowed thepatient to obtain the services of another person the reasons for thisrule will be considered more fully below contracts either express or implied - the contract between thephysician and patient may be an express one, that is, one in which allthe terms are agreed upon or expressed between the writingies, or it maybe what is called an implied contract, or one in which the patient, oranother person, simply calls on the physician or surgeon to come andperform services, and neither writingy specifically stipulates or agreesupon any of the terms of the employment express contracts may include any stipulation not contrary to publicpolicy - in the case of an express contract the agreement of thewritingies settles and determines their mutual obligations, whether itbe written or merely verbal but an express contract may also be madein such a form that certain conditions are required to be performedby the physician before he becomes entitled to any compensation forhis services it may also embody an agreement that the patient shallpay certain sums at certain times as the treatment goes on, or that noother physicians shall be employed without the consent of the attendingphysician, or if so employed that they shall be under the direction ofthe attending physician almost anything may be stipulated which is not contrary to publicpolicy, and a breach of any such stipulation entitles the aggrievedwritingy to rescind the contract and cease from performing it 163qualifications of the rule that express contracts may include anystipulation - essay qualifications of this rule of law must, however, be noted a breach by the patient of any one of these stipulationswould entitle the physician to treat the engagement as terminated likeany other contractual relation, and to bring his action for a recoveryfor services rendered up to the time of the breach. But it is doubtfulwhether he would have any action for damages for failure to permit himto perform further services this doubt arises from the legal doctrine, hereinbefore referred to, that a patient is always at liberty todismiss his physician at any time without notice, and without assigningany cause, which recognizes and grows out of the fact that if the trustand confidence of the patient are destroyed, or impaired, no matter howunreasonably or unjustly, the relation between them must thereafterbe unprofitable to both writingies, and dangerous to the patient on theother hand there is little doubt but that whenever an express contractis made by a physician to treat a patient for a certain length of timefor a writingicular disease or injury, the physician is not at liberty toarbitrarily terminate that relation or his connection with the case, unless he has in the contract specifically reserved the right so to do contracts making payment contingent upon successful treatmentvalid - the express contract between the writingies may also contain astipulation, by which the physician makes his compensation contingentupon his effecting a cure smith v hyde, 19 vt , 54. Mack v kelly, 3 ala , 387 see also coughlin v n y cen r r co , 71n y , 443 in such a case, however, if the patient does not permitthe physician opportunity to treat him during the time named in thecontract, or for a reasonable time, if no specific time is fixed, thecourts would probably permit the physician to recover a reasonablecompensation for his services for the time during which he treated hispatient physician must allow reasonable time to supply his place if hequits his patient - in any event, whether the contract be expressor implied, conditional or unconditional, the law through motives ofpublic policy, and with a just regard for the welfare of the sick andinjured, undoubtedly requires that if a physician has once taken chargeof a case, and determines to abandon it, he must give the patientreasonable notice and reasonable opportunity to supply his place if hefails to do this he is liable in damages for the results that follow asthe proximate consequence of his abandoning the case this rule true even in the case of a charity patient - this is true, it is believed, even when the patient is a charity patient, and theservices are gratuitous shiels v blackburn 1 h blacks , 159 forany other rule less strict might entail the most serious consequences ordronaux, “jur of med , ” 13 and 14, citing inst , lib 3, 26, 11;pothier, “du contrat mandat, ” chap i , § 4 elements of the contract between physician and patient duties of physician - when the relations between physician andpatient are not defined otherwise by express contract, the impliedcontract is, and the law presumes, that the physician contracts, first, to use the necessary care and attention. Second, to use the necessaryskill. Third, in case the physician furnishes his own medicines andthe obligation to furnish them would probably be imposed, if it was thecustom of the school or class of physicians to which the writingicularphysician belonged to do so, that the medicines are proper andsuitable as a corollary of these duties it necessarily follows, also, that the physician contracts that the instruments or appliances whichhe uses are free from taint or contagion, and are suitable and properfor the uses to which they are put upon this theory an action could bemaintained against a physician for using impure vaccine duties of patient - the patient on his writing contracts, first, togive the physician information concerning the facts and circumstancesof the case, and full opportunity to treat him properly. Second, toobey his instructions and follow his directions, and, third, to payhim the reasonable worth and value of his services the differentbranches of this contract are reciprocal the failure of either writingyto fulfil the obligation of any one of them which is imposed uponhim, would bar him of his remedies against the other writingy to recoverdamages for any breach, or any proximate result of his breach, ofsuch obligations the necessary care and attention required of thephysician in such a case are measured by the requirements of the caseand the physician duties to his other patients, modified, however, by the rule that the physician is presumed to know, at the time hetakes up the case, the condition and situation of his other patientsat that time consequently, if those who have first employed him areso situated at the time that his services for them are likely to besoon and continuously required, he cannot without making himself liablein damages undertake another case and then neglect it, but he shouldeither decline to take it, or should with the full knowledge andconsent of the patient make provision for the temporary substitutionof essay other physician, during the time that his prior obligationsengross his attention nevertheless, if the situation and condition ofthose to whom he has first contracted his services is such that he had, although he exercised due professional knowledge and skill, no reasonto apprehend that these patients would need his exclusive service, and by a sudden development, arising from those occult causes whichobtain in all serious diseases and injuries, any of his prior patientssuffer a sudden and dangerous relapse, or from an accession of new anddangerous symptoms and conditions so that he must fly to their aid, he would not be liable to another patient, to whom he had afterwardcontracted his services, for neglecting his case. Still he should insuch instances use extra means to obtain the services of essay other andequally skilful man only ordinary and usual skill required - the degree and characterof necessary skill contracted for has been variously defined by thecourts when malpractice is discussed, a more extended considerationof this matter will be required at present the doctrine laid downin shearman and redfield on “negligence, ” paragraphs 433-435, may beadopted it is as follows:“although a physician or surgeon may doubtless by express contractundertake to perform a cure absolutely, the law will not imply sucha contract from the mere employment of a physician a physician isnot an insurer of a cure, and is not to be tried for the result ofhis remedies his only contract is to treat the case with reasonablediligence and skill if more than this is expected it must be expresslystipulated for the general rule, therefore, is, that a medicalman, who attends for a fee, is liable for such want of ordinary care, diligence or skill on his writing as leads to the injury of his patient to render him liable, it is not enough that there has been a lessdegree of skill than essay other medical man might have shown, or a lessdegree of care than even himself might have bestowed. Nor is it enoughthat he himself acknowledged essay degree of want of care.

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Therefore, inthe sixth century, b c , the laughing philosopher of hellenism, aristophanes, the satirical contemporary of hippocrates, in act ii , verses 654 to 750, of his comedy πλοῦτος, severely criticizes themanner and method in which temple sleep was employed let us listento the words in which the poet describes what happened in the templeduring the observance of this rite the god æsculapius, accompanied by his daughter panakeia, appears inthe temple to examine in person the patients gathered there the firstone he meets is a poor wretch, neokleides, who, being blear-eyed, expects cure from the god the medically skilled æsculapius smearsupon the inverted lids of this patient a salve which causes such painthat the poor fellow will probably never seek his help again thesecond patient met by the god is the blind god, πλοῦτος i e , wealth personified here the conduct of æsculapius is entirelydifferent from that which he adopted when treating poor neokleides now he carefully strokes the head of the patient, then produces alinen cloth and carefully touches the lids with it he then callshis daughter panakeia, who winds a red cloth round the head of blindwealth now æsculapius whistles, and two mighty serpents appear, glideunder the purple cloth, and lick the eyes of the essay typer patient shortlyafterward the god regains his sight this passage is a cutting satire on practises which undoubtedlyprevailed in the greek temples as early as the sixth century, b c but, nevertheless, it took a long time before the patients losttheir belief in the miraculous efficacy of temple sleep, and thepriesthood continually strove to revive, by the mysterious storiesof various kinds they recounted to doubters, the belief in templesleep the sixth of the marble votive tablets which were found inthe temple of æsculapius at epidaurus shows the kind of miraculousreports invented by the priests the latter were in the habit ofinscribing upon these tablets reports of cures that had occurred intheir sanctuary, for the benefit of the visitors of the temple and forthe still greater benefit of the medical historians. But it is quiteprobable that the priesthood, intent upon curing, were encouraged intheir medico-literary attempts only by the silent hope of creatingan abundant supply of patients by such miraculous reports the abovetablet, no 6 which probably dates from the third century, b c - tellsus that a blind man by the name of hermon, a native of thasos, hadrecovered his sight by sleeping in the epidaurean temple of æsculapius however, it appears that this man hermon had been a miserable wretch, for he disappeared without having expressed his thanks in hard cash naturally such ingratitude provoked the god, and summarily he blindedthe thankless individual again it required a second temple sleepbefore the god condescended to become helpful once more but our tabletdoes not mention anything about the amount of the remuneration paid byour friend hermon who had been twice cured of blindness. Neither isthis at all necessary the miraculous tablet, even without stating theprice, doubtless made sufficient impression upon the minds even of themost parsimonious of future patients altho, therefore, the more enlightened among the greeks recognized, as early as in the sixth century, b c , the futility of temple sleepas a means of healing, the ancient world never relinquished itentirely we encounter it again in the later periods of antiquity thus, for instance, suetonius and other ancient authors tell us thattwo patients, one blind, the other lame, one day approached theemperor vespasian, who happened to be in alexandria, asking him tospit into the eyes of the one and to stroke the paralyzed limbs ofthe other. For they had been notified in temple sleep that they wouldbe restored to health if only the emperor would deign to perform theabove-mentioned manipulations but vespasian was an enlightened rulerwho, in spite of his imperial dignity, did not have much confidence inthe medical qualities of his saliva and of his hands, and accordinglyunceremoniously dismissed both supplicants this caused great terroramong the priests of serapis and among the courtiers, for obviouslythey had interpreted this affair solely as intended in majoremvespasiani gloriam the emperor was importuned, therefore, kindly toaid the unfortunate, but he persisted in his refusal probably he wasright in fearing the loss of his prestige should the imperial medicalpowers prove unequal to the task of curing disease not until thepriests solemnly vouched for the truthfulness of the dream-sending godserapis, and declared a failure of the imperial cure to be impossible, did vespasian stubbornness relent now he spat, and rubbed theparalyzed limbs, and the blind saw, and the paralytic arose and walked §6 church sleep - when, subsequently, the ancient religions died out, and had left the world as an heritage to christianity, temple sleep hadby no means died out also on the contrary, after the lapse of threecenturies, it again came into favor with the christian priests and theuse of it now was scarcely less in favor than it had been a thousandyears previous in the world of the ancient greeks let us mention a fewexamples the first four stories are taken from the works of gregory oftours mummolus, who came to the court of justinian 527 to 565 as theambassador of king theudebert, suffered greatly from calculi of theurinary bladder, and during this journey he became subject to an attackof renal colic things went badly with poor mummolus, and he was ina great hurry to make his will whereupon he was advised to pass onenight sleeping in st andrew church, at pateras, for st andrew hadperformed thesis miraculous cures in this place no sooner said thandone mummolus, greatly tormented by pain and fever, and despairingof life, had himself placed upon the stone flags of the sanctuary, and waited there for the things that were to happen suddenly, towardmidnight, the patient awoke with a violent desire to urinate, anddischarged in a natural manner a calculus which, as st gregory assuresus, was so enormous that it fell with a loud clatter into the vessel from that hour mummolus was hale and hearty, and joyfully started onhis journey homeward in brioude, the capital of the present dewritingment haute-loire, therewas a woman named fedamia, who had been paralyzed for years inaddition to this, she was penniless, and her relatives, therefore, brought her to the church of st julian, who enjoyed a great reputationin brioude, in order that, even if she did not become cured, she mightat least make essay money by begging at the church door for eighteenyears she had lived thus when, one sunday night, while she slept inthe colonnade adjoining the church, a man appeared who took her by thehand and led her toward the grave of st julian on arriving there sheuttered a fervent prayer, and in a moment felt as if a load of actualchains fell from her limbs all this, it is true, happened in a dream, but when the patient awoke she was hale and hearty, and was able, tothe amazement of the assembled multitude, to walk, with loud prayers, to the grave of the saint a certain man, deaf, dumb, and blind, known by the name of amagildus, also tried the sleep in the church of st julian, at brioude but itappears that this saint was not always quite accessible to the wishesof the sick it is true, amagildus was not obliged, like fedamia ofthe previous narrative, to pass eighteen years in the basilica, but, nevertheless, he had to sleep for a full year in the colonnade of thechurch before the curative power of the holy martyr delivered him fromhis ailment veranus, the slave of one of the clergy under gregory, was so violentlyattacked by gout that he was absolutely unable to move for an entireyear thereupon his master pledged himself to advance the afflictedslave to the priesthood if st martin would be willing to cure him toaccomplish this cure the slave was carried to the church, and thereplaced at the feet of the saint the poor wretch had to remain therefor five long days, and it seemed as tho st martin had forgotten allabout him finally, on the sixth day, the patient was visited by a manwho seized his foot and drew it out straight the slave rose to hisfeet in terror, and perceived that he was cured for thesis years heserved st martin as a priest but the most wonderful cure was that of the german emperor henry ii , called “the saint” 1002 to 1024 this emperor, who was of bavarianstock, suffered greatly from the stone, and had retired to the italiancloister monte cassino, inasmuch as this cloister during that periodjustly enjoyed an extraordinary medical reputation but whether themonks of monte cassino, altho well versed in medical art, did not havesufficient confidence in their ability to treat an emperor, or whetherthey were induced by essay other reason, is not known. However, insteadof submitting the imperial patient to the operations of terrestrialmedicine, they surrendered him to the providence of heaven, andmore writingicularly to the sympathy of st benedict this saint fullyjustified the confidence that was placed in him, for, during an acuteperiod in the patient sufferings, he appeared in his own holy person, and with his own holy hands he performed the necessary operation, and, after having pressed the stone that he had removed from the bladderinto the hand of the sleeping emperor, he retired heavenward but hetook care from his heavenly residence to attend to the prompt healingof the operation wound, and this was surely very good of st benedict in fact, his entire behavior during this case was extremely proper andlaudable.