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And appeal from hisdecision lies to a judge of the supreme court in a summary way, whosedecision shall be final, and no unregistered person may vote s 16, 17 register - the council is required to appoint a registrar and to causea register to be kept by him of the names of all persons who havecomplied with this act and with the rules and regulations made by thecouncil respecting the qualifications of practitioners of medicine orsurgery, and those persons only whose names are inscribed in the saidregister, are deemed qualified and licensed to practise medicine orsurgery except as hereinafter provided 26 the registrar is required to keep his register correct, and to make thenecessary alterations in the addresses and qualifications of registeredpersons 27 qualification - every person at the passage of the act 1886registered under the medical ordinance of 1867 is entitled to beregistered under this act 28 the council is required to admit upon the register any person who shallprocure from any college or school of medicine and surgery requiringa three-years’ course of study, a diploma of qualification, providedhe furnish to the council satisfactory evidence of identity and passbefore the members thereof a satisfactory examination touching hisfitness and capability to practise as a physician and surgeon s 29 the council is required to admit upon the register every personmentioned in 49 and 50 vict , c 48, of the acts of parliament of theunited kingdom, duly registered under the imperial medical act, priorto and inclusive of june 30th, 1887, upon complying with the orders, regulations or by-laws of the council and giving due proof of suchregistration, and that the person applying for registration has notlost the benefit of same by reason of misconduct or otherwise, and uponpayment of the fees fixed by the council, not to exceed one hundreddollars act 1893, c 27, s 2 duties of council - the council is required to make orders, regulations, or by-laws for regulating the register and the fees tobe paid for registration, and to make rules and regulations for theguidance of examiners, and may prescribe the subjects and modes ofexamination, and make all such rules and regulations in respect ofexaminations not contrary to this act as they deem expedient andnecessary cons acts 1888, c 81, s 31 forfeiture of right - any registered practitioner convicted of anyfelony thereby forfeits his right to registration and by direction ofthe council his name is required to be erased from the register, or incase a person known to have been convicted of felony presents himselffor registration, the registrar has power to refuse such registration32 rights of registered practitioner - every person registered under theact is entitled to practise medicine and surgery, including midwifery, or any of them as the case may be, in british columbia, and to demandand receive in any court of the province, with full costs of the suit, reasonable charges for professional aid, advice, and visits, and thecosts of any medical or surgical appliances rendered or supplied by himto his patient 33 evidence - the registrar of the council, under the direction of thecouncil, is required to publish a correct register of the names andresidences with the medical titles, diplomas, and qualificationsconferred by any college or body, of all persons appearing on theregister at the date of publication said register is called “thebritish columbia medical register ” a copy of such register for thetime being, purporting to be so printed and published, shall be primafacie evidence that the persons therein specified are registeredaccording to the provisions of this act. And, subject to sub sec 2of this section, the absence of the name of any person from such copyshall be prima facie evidence that such person is not registeredaccording to this act 34 in the case of a person whose name does not appear in such copy, acertified copy under the hand of the registrar of the entry of the nameof such person on the register shall be evidence that such person isregistered under this act 34, sub s 2 homœopathic physicians - any homœopathic physician holding a diplomaof qualification from any authorized school or college requiring athree-years’ course of study may be registered, and shall not be boundto pass the examination required by sec 29, but in lieu thereof, shallpass before the council, or such of them as may be appointed for thatpurpose, a satisfactory examination in anatomy, physiology, pathology, chemistry, obstetrics, and surgery 35, as amended, act 1890, c 30, s 2 neglect to register - those entitled to register and neglecting to doso are not entitled to any of the rights and privileges conferred byregistration and are liable to all penalties against unqualified orunregistered practitioners 37 fraudulent registration - if a person procures or causes to be procuredhis registration by means of any false or fraudulent representation ordeclaration, the registrar may, on receipt of sufficient evidence tothat effect, report the matter to the council and, on the written orderof the president, attested by the seal of the council, erase the nameof such person from the register and make known the fact and the causethereof in the british columbia gazette, and after such notice hasappeared such person shall cease to be a registered practitioner, andto enjoy any of the privileges conferred by registration, without theexpress sanction of the council 39 to wilfully procure or attempt to procure registration by falserepresentations or declarations is punishable by a penalty notexceeding $100 to knowingly aid or assist therein is punishable with apenalty of from $20 to $50 for each offence 40 unlawful practices - it is not lawful for any person not registeredto practise medicine or surgery for hire, gain, or hope of reward to so practise or profess to practise, or advertise to give advice inmedicine or surgery, is punishable with a penalty of from $25 to $10041 for a person to wilfully or falsely pretend to be a physician, doctor, or medical, surgical, or general practitioner, or assume any title, address, or description other than he actually possesses and is legallyentitled to, is punishable by a penalty of from $10 to $50 s 42 a person not registered who takes or uses any name, title, addition, ordescription implying or calculated to lead people to infer that he isregistered or recognized by law as a physician, surgeon, or licentiatein medicine or surgery is punishable with a penalty of from $25 to $10043 costs may be awarded in addition to the penalty against an offender, and on default of payment he may be committed to the common jail forone month unless the costs are sooner paid 47 unregistered persons - no one but a person registered under this act isentitled to receive any charge for any medical or surgical advice orattendance or the performance of any operation or for any medicine thathe may have prescribed 44 appointments as medical officers, physicians, or surgeons in any branchof the public service, or in a hospital or a charitable institution notsupported wholly by voluntary contribution, are conferred on registeredpersons only 45 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer is registered 46 evidence - in a prosecution, the burden of proving registration is uponthe person charged 48 registration may be proved by the production of a printed or othercopy of the register certified under the hand of the registrar of thecouncil for the time being, and any certificate on such copy purportingto be signed by any person as registrar is prima facie evidence thathe is registrar without further proof 49 limitations - prosecutions under the act must be commenced within sixmonths from the date of the offence 50 stay - the council may stay proceedings in prosecutions 51 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant under the act52 fees - to the registrar, for registration under this act, such sum asmay from time to time be fixed by the council by resolutions or by-law, but not exceeding $100 36, as amended, act 1893, c 27, s 1 to the medical council, on or before march 1st, annually, $10, or suchother sum as may from time to time be fixed by the council s 53, as amended, act 1890, c 30, s 3 for registration, by persons registered under act 1893, c 27, s 2, afee fixed by the council not to exceed $100 act 1893, c 27, s 2 manitoba college of physicians and surgeons - the medical profession isincorporated as “the college of physicians and surgeons of manitoba” rev stat of man , 1891, c 98, s 2 all persons lawfully registered under previous acts or the present actare members of the said college 3, 4 council - there is constituted by law a council of the said collegecomposed of representatives selected as provided in the act, each ofwhom must be a practitioner licensed under this act 5 to 8 no member of the college who is in arrears for his annual fees or anywriting thereof is entitled to vote at the election for members of thecouncil or be eligible for election as a member thereof 15 register - the council is required to appoint a registrar and to causea register to be kept in which shall be entered the name of everyperson registered under this act or under the consolidated statutes ofmanitoba, chap 9, and the acts amending the same, and of all personswho comply with this act, and the rules and regulations made by thecouncil respecting the qualifications of practitioners of medicine, surgery, and midwifery only those whose names are inscribed in thebook are deemed qualified and licensed to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery 17, 24, 25 qualification - all persons duly registered under existing laws whenthe revised statutes took effect are deemed registered under thepresent law 27 the registrar was required immediately upon his appointment to registerthe name of every person registered under previous acts 28 every person who possesses one or more of the following qualificationsshall, upon the payment of the fee, to be fixed for each writingicularclass by by-law of the council, be entitled to be registered on theproduction to the registrar of the document proving such qualification:1 persons entitled to be registered at the time of the coming intoforce of the revised statutes 2 any member of any incorporated college of physicians and surgeonsof any province of the dominion of canada, or any member of any otherincorporated body of medical men in canada, exercising powers similarto those conferred by this act on the college of physicians andsurgeons of manitoba, where, by the laws of the province under whichthe said incorporated body exists, similar rights to register and topractise medicine are granted to the persons incorporated under thisact 3 every person mentioned in chap 48 of act 49 and 50 vict of theparliament of the united kingdom 4 every graduate in medicine upon examination of the university ofmanitoba 5 every person who produces to the registrar the certificate under thecorporate seal of the university of manitoba hereinafter provided for29 the registrar is required to keep his register correct, and to makefrom time to time the necessary alterations in the addresses orqualifications of the persons registered 30 every person registered who obtains a higher degree or otherqualification is entitled to have it inserted in the register insubstitution of or in addition to the qualification previouslyregistered, on the payment of such fees as the council may appoint34 no qualification is entitled to be entered on the register unless theregistrar be satisfied by proper evidence that the person claiming itis entitled thereto appeal lies from the registrar decision to thecouncil 35 the registrar, if dissatisfied with the evidence adduced, may, subjectto appeal to the council, refuse registration until proper evidence isfurnished, duly attested by oath or affirmation before a judge of anycounty court 36 fraudulent registration - any entry proved to the satisfaction of thecouncil to have been fraudulently or incorrectly made may be erasedfrom the register by order in writing of the council 38 if a person procures or causes to be procured his registration by falseor fraudulent representations or declarations, the registrar may, on the receipt of sufficient evidence of the falsity or fraudulentcharacter, represent the matter to the council, and may on the writtenorder of the president, attested by the seal of the college, erase hisname from the register, and cause notice of the fact and cause to bepublished in the manitoba gazette, and after such notice has appearedsuch person shall cease to be a member of the college of physiciansand surgeons, and to enjoy any privilege enjoyed or conferred byregistration at any further time without the express sanction of thecouncil 39 forfeiture of rights - any registered medical practitioner convictedof felony or misdemeanor before or after the passage of the act or hisregistration forfeits his right to registration, and by direction ofthe council his name shall be erased if a person known to have beenconvicted of felony or misdemeanor presents himself for registration, the registrar may refuse registration if any person registered bejudged, after due inquiry by the council, to have been guilty ofinfamous or unprofessional conduct in any respect, the council maydirect the registrar to erase his name 40 the council may, and upon the application of any three registeredmedical practitioners shall, cause inquiry to be made into the case ofa person liable to have his name erased from the register, and on proofof such conviction or such infamous or unprofessional conduct shallcause his name to be erased. But no erasure shall be made on account ofhis adopting or refraining from adopting the practice of any writingiculartheory of medicine or surgery, nor on account of conviction for apolitical offence out of her majesty dominions, nor on account of theconviction which ought not in the opinion of the council or committeedisqualify him from the practice of medicine or surgery 41 the council may order to be paid, out of funds at their disposal, such costs as to them may seem just, to any person against whom anycomplaint has been made which, when fully determined, is found to havebeen frivolous and vexatious 42 an entry erased by order of the council shall not be again enteredexcept by order of the council or a judge or court of competentjurisdiction 43 if the council think fit, they may direct the registrar to restore anyentry erased, without a fee, or on payment of a fee not exceeding theregistration fee, as the council may fix 44 the council is authorized to ascertain the facts of any case for theexercise of its powers of erasing and restoring by committee s 45 the act provides in detail for proceedings before such committee46 to 50 no action shall be brought against the council or committee foranything done bona fide under the act appeal from the decision toerase lies to any judge of the court of queen bench for manitoba, and such judge may make such order as to restoration or confirmationof erasure or for further inquiry, and as to costs, as to him may seemright 51 evidence - in a trial under this act the burden of proof as toregistration is on the person charged 53 the production of a certificate that the person named is dulyregistered, certified under the hand of the registrar, is sufficientevidence of registration, and his signature in the capacity ofregistrar is prima facie evidence that he is registrar without proofof signature or that he is registrar 54 the registrar is required to print and publish from time to time underthe direction of the council a correct register of the names andresidences, with medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferredby any college or body, with the date thereof, of all persons appearingon the register as existing on the day of publication 55 the register is called “the manitoba medical register;” a copy thereoffor the time being purporting to be so printed and published is primafacie evidence that the persons specified are registered s 56 in the case of any person whose name does not appear in such copy, acertified copy under the hand of the registrar of the council of theentry of the name of such person on the register is evidence thatsuch person is registered 57 the absence of the name ofany person from such copy is prima facie evidence that he is notregistered 58 practitioner rights - every person registered is entitled accordingto his qualifications to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, orany of them as the case may be, and to demand and recover full costsof suit, reasonable charges for professional aid, advice, and visits, and the cost of any medicine or other medical appliances rendered orsupplied by him to his patient 59 neglect to register - a person neglecting to register is not entitledto the rights and privileges conferred, and is liable to all penaltiesagainst unqualified or unregistered practitioners 60 unregistered persons - it is not lawful for any person not registeredto practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery for hire, gain, or hope ofreward 61 no person is entitled to receive any charge for medical or surgicaladvice or attendance, or the performance of any operation, or forany medicine which he may have prescribed or supplied, unless he beregistered, but this provision does not extend to the sale of any drugor medicine by a licensed chemist or druggist 62 no person can be appointed as a medical officer, physician, orsurgeon in the public service, or in any hospital or other charitableinstitution not supported wholly by voluntary contribution, unless hebe registered 63 no certificate required from any physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer be registered 64 definition - the expression “legally qualified medical practitioner, ”or any other words importing legal recognition as a medicalpractitioner or member of the medical profession, in any law, isconstrued to mean a person registered under this act 65 immunities - a person registered under this act is exempt from jury andinquest duty if he desire it 66 limitations - no duly registered member of the college of physiciansand surgeons is liable in an action for negligence or malpractice byreason of professional services requested or rendered, unless it becommenced within one year from the termination of such service s 67 examinations - the university of manitoba is the sole examining bodyin medicine, and the council of the university may grant to any persona certificate under the seal of the university that the council ofthe university have been satisfied that the person mentioned in thecertificate is, by way of medical education and otherwise, a properperson to be registered under this act. But such certificate shall notbe granted until the person making such application shall have givenevidence of qualification by undergoing an examination or otherwise, as the statutes of the university require, and the applicant shall inall other respects first comply with the rules and regulations of theuniversity in that behalf 68 homœopathists - until a homœopathic medical college for teachingpurposes is established in manitoba, in the case of candidates wishingto be registered as homœopathists, the full time of attendance uponlectures and hospitals required by the university statutes may be spentin such homœopathic medical colleges in the united states or europe asmay be recognized by the university of manitoba 69 every candidate who at the time of his examination signifies hiswish to be registered as a homœopathic practitioner shall not berequired to pass an examination in materia medica or therapeutics, ortheory or practice of physic, or in surgery or midwifery, except theoperative practical writings thereof, before any examiners other thanthose homœopathic examiners who shall be appointed by the university ofmanitoba 70 unlawful practices - to wilfully procure or attempt to procureregistration by false or fraudulent representation or declaration, ispunishable by a penalty not exceeding $100 to knowingly aid or assisttherein, is punishable by a penalty of from $20 to $50 for each offence73 persons not registered, for hire, gain, or the hope of reward, practising or professing to practise medicine, surgery, or midwifery, or advertising to give advice in medicine, surgery, or midwifery, areliable to a penalty of from $25 to $100 74 a person wilfully or falsely pretending to be a physician, doctorof medicine, surgeon, or general practitioner, or assuming a title, addition, or description other than he actually possesses and islegally entitled to, is liable to a penalty of from $10 to $50 s 75 for a person to assume a title calculated to lead people to infer thathe is registered, or is recognized by law as a physician, surgeon, or accoucheur or a licentiate in medicine, surgery, or midwifery, ispunishable with a penalty of from $25 to $100 76 on prosecution, costs may be awarded in addition to the penalty, andthe offender may be committed to the common jail for one month, unlessthe penalty and costs are sooner paid 78 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant under the act80 limitations - prosecutions are limited to commence within six monthsafter the date of the offence 81 appeal - a person convicted under this act, giving notice of appeal, must before being released give satisfactory security for the penaltyand costs of conviction and appeal 82 stay - the council may stay proceedings in prosecutions 84 fees - the council is authorized to determine by by-law an annual fee, which is required to be paid by each member of the college the fee canbe not less than $2, nor more than $5, is payable on january 1st, andmay be recovered as a debt by the college 32 the fee for registration is subject to regulation by the council33 new brunswick medical society - all persons registered under the act constitute thenew brunswick medical society act 1881, c 19, s 2 council - there is a medical council called the council of physiciansand surgeons of new brunswick, of nine legally qualified medicalpractitioners, of not less than seven years’ standing. Four arenominated and appointed by the governor in council, and five by the newbrunswick medical society 3, 5 the secretary of the council is the registrar 7 register, evidence - the registrar is required before may 1st annuallyto print and publish in the royal gazette of the province, and suchother manner as the council shall appoint, a correct register of thenames and residences and medical titles, diplomas, and qualificationsconferred by any college or body, with the dates thereof, of allpersons appearing on the register on the 1st of january the registeris called the medical register. A copy for the time being purporting tobe so printed and published, or a certificate signed by the presidentof the council, and attested by the registrar with the corporate sealof the council, is prima facie evidence that the persons thereinspecified are registered and qualified. The absence of a name from suchcopy or the want of such certificate is prima facie evidence thatsuch person is not registered if a name does not appear on the copy, acertified copy, under the hand of the registrar of the council, of theentry of a name on the register is evidence of registration s 8 entrance upon study - a person beginning or entering on the studyof physic, surgery, or midwifery, for the purpose of qualifying topractise in the province, must have obtained from the council acertificate that he has satisfactorily passed a matriculation orpreliminary examination in the subjects enumerated in the act, unlesshe has passed a matriculation examination for the medical course inarts and science at essay college in great britain, ireland, canada, theunited states of america, or the continent of europe 10 the act prescribes formalities for admission to such preliminaryexamination 10 qualification - subject to the exceptions hereinafter, no personcan lawfully practise physic, surgery, or midwifery unless he beregistered, or unless he shall have received from the council a licenseto practise 11 no person is entitled to registration or license unless he shallsatisfy the council that he has passed a matriculation or preliminaryexamination. That after passing such examination he has followed hisstudies for not less than four years, one of which may be under thedirection of one or more general practitioners duly licensed. Thatduring such four years he has attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school of medicine in good standing, courses oflectures amounting together to not less than twelve months on generalanatomy, on practical anatomy, on surgery, on practice of medicine, on midwifery, on chemistry, on materia medica and pharmacy, and onthe institutes of medicine or physic, and one three-months’ courseof medical jurisprudence. That he has attended the general practiceof an hospital in which are not less than fifty beds under the chargeof not less than two physicians or surgeons, for not less than oneyear or two periods of not less than six months each.

Allg wien med zeit , 1870, xv , pp 192-214 - man, age 60 suicide essay topics for kids by hanging or homicide. Opinion, that it was the former 34 van haumeder. Wien med woch , 1882, xxxii , pp 531-533 - suicide by hanging or homicide there were thesis wounds inthe head. These occurred during the delirium of typhus 35 maschka. “sammlung gericht gutacht , ” etc prag, leipzig, 1873, p 137 - boy, age 9. Found dead in sitting position injuries on neckand elsewhere question, had he hung himself or been choked?. were theinjuries inflicted before or after death?. opinion, suicide 36 ibid , p 144 - boy, age 13 found hanging in sitting position question whether murder, suicide, or accident opinion, suicide 37 ibid , p 149 - woman, age 60. Found hanging, sitting position suicide or homicide opinion, suicide 38 ibid , p 156 - woman, age 30. Found hanging opinion, suicide 39 ibid , p 165 - man, age 63 suicide by hanging, or homicide bystrangling?. opinion, suicide 40 berliner.

”the fourth page is a post card addressed to “h l roberts, room 1126, masonic temple, chicago ” on the reverse side there is a printedstatement which the recipient is expected to sign to the effect thathe is interested in “dr ogden clinic” and wishes to have “fullwritingiculars of the course ”a visit to room 1126, masonic temple, failed to disclose the name ofh l roberts, either on the door or doors, for there are two roomshaving this number or on the office building directory board in fact, rooms 1126 seem to contain a essaywhat miscellaneous assortment thesigns, either on the door or on the directory board, show that thereis a public stenographer who essay topics for kids operates a “mailing service, ” and does“addressing, mailing, multigraphing, mimeographing”, a bookstore, achocolate company, a publishing company, a lumber company, and one ortwo other concerns. But the name of “h l roberts” does not appear incidentally, no “h l roberts” is to be found listed in the chicagotelephone directory a few yards away from rooms 1126 and on the same floor there appearsthe name, “dr willard e ogden” on room 1102 according to our records, willard ealon ogden was born in 1866 beforetaking up the study of medicine he seems to have been a preacher in1899 he was graduated by the saginaw valley medical college, saginaw, mich he was licensed in michigan in 1900, in illinois and indiana in1913, and in wisconsin in 1921 from 1900 until 1904 he practiced inlyons, mich. From 1906 until 1911 he was at ionia, mich in 1911, he was in grand rapids, mich , and was associated withburleson and burleson, an advertising pile cure concern from essayof the voluminous burleson advertising on file, we learn that they“cure all diseases of the rectum except cancer;” and claim to have“the most successful method ever discovered, ” and to have cured “thesisdesperate paper that have been given up to die ” furthermore, they“guarantee to cure in every case or make no charge ”on jan 1, 1914, ogden was sending out a card to physicians in whichhe stated that he had removed from grand rapids, mich , and laporte, ind , to 36 w randolph st , chicago, and that he would limit himself“exclusively to the treatment of diseases of the rectum ” later, ogdenwas sending out an advertising booklet filled with testimonials in 1914, ogden was carrying display advertisements in chicago papersreading, in writing, in large back-faced type. “piles cured absolutelywithout knife, anesthetics, pain or loss of time cure guaranteed ormoney refunded ”in march, 1918, he became a member of the chicago medical society andqualified for fellowship in the american medical association, august, 1918 in 1921, ogden had a copyrighted mail-order course on the “treatmentof rectal diseases by improved method ” this “course” consisted ofthirty-eight pages of foolscap printed on one side in imitationtypewriting the material abounded in typographical errors amongthe proprietary products recommended in this “course” as “essential”to those taking it, was “mecca ointment ” this nostrum, made by achicago concern, was declared misbranded in 1916 because of falseand fraudulent claims made knowingly, recklessly and wantonly the“course” was divided into ten writings, and with it, apparently, cameten consecutively numbered sealed envelops, and the purchaser wasinstructed to open these envelops, one at a time, as he completed thecorresponding writing in the “course ” he would there find questions whichwere to be answered and returned to ogden this, according to thedescription, was to enable ogden to determine whether it was necessaryto “enter more into detail upon that writingicular subject, ” which, hestated, he would gladly do if necessary illustration. Photographic reproduction reduced of the first page ofa booklet ogden was sending out in the latter writing of 1914 furthermore, the purchaser had the privilege of asking questions ofogden relative to symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for a period ofsix months after the purchase of the “course ” although, in ogdenopinion, “you should have the subject well understood long before thattime ”the charge for this course and “services as outlined” was $200, but inorder to show his confidence in the ability of those who purchased it, ogden was willing to take $100 down and the other $100 paid in “fiveper cent of monies received from cured patients” until the balance waspaid reverting to the present “post-graduate course” and “clinic”. Thosewho send in the postal card to “h l roberts” receive a form-letter, signed “h l roberts” in facsimile handwriting, stating thatinformation was enclosed “regarding the ogden methods” and statingthat dr ogden would be in indianapolis or cleveland or pittsburgh, asthe case might be, on a certain date and that the fee for the “clinic”would be $100 with this letter is an eight-page pamphlet entitled“essay facts concerning the ogden method of treating rectal diseases ”the first page is headed in black-faced type. “about referencesand endorsements ” it then states that the “usual references andendorsements are omitted from this booklet ” further. “as to dr willard e ogden. The professional and social standing of dr ogden is such that he does not need to offer any “as to ‘the ogden method’ and its value to you in your professional work. What others say or think has little if any weight you are your own man you do your own thinking you decide for yourself-- do you not?. ”illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of anadvertisement of the burleson concern with which ogden was connectedprevious to 1914, and which connection he is capitalizing in hispresent advertising the booklet gives an outline of the “course of instruction, ” which isalmost identical, word for word, with the outline given in the letteradvertising the mail-order course previously referred to the booklet further states that “the ogden method has entirelyeliminated the use of cautery, the ligature or any injections, in thetreatment of hemorrhoids, ” but that “the use of the electric currenthas proved to be the very correct method in such paper, as will bedemonstrated at the clinic ” the booklet reiterates the statement thatogden association with the burleson and burleson concern at grandrapids makes him “eminently well qualified to instruct members of themedical profession in this important branch of the medical science!. ”in addition to this booklet there is a four-page advertisingleaflet illustrating and describing the “ogden rectal cabinet” andalso the “ogden rectal table and stool ” there is also a littlepostcard-- addressed, of course, to “h l roberts”-- for the physicianto fill in stating that “you may enroll me as intending to attend dr ogden clinic in proctology, to be held at-- -- ” should the recipientnot fill in and mail this enrolment card he gets another form lettercalling attention to the fact that the enrolment card has not beenreceived and stating further that “available hotel facilities make itnecessary to limit our enrolment to twenty students ”careful search fails to disclose that dr willard ealon ogden has everdistinguished himself in the practice of the specialty in which he nowwishes to instruct physicians equally careful search fails to showthat dr ogden has ever published a paper either on any proctologicsubjects or on any other phase of medicine or surgery neither doesthere seem to be any evidence for the claim that dr ogden “has beenassociated with the leading proctologists of america ”-- from thejournal a m a , feb 4, 1922 “patents” patent laws and patent office practicethe inequity of our patent laws, or possibly it would be more correctto say, of the interpretation of our patent laws, has been commented onthesis times in the journal the journal also has had occasion to callattention to patents that have been issued for obviously unscientificand quackish devices and preparations the paper of the preposterousgas-pipe fake “oxydonor” and the creatinin mixture for the allegedconferring of immunity against diphtheria, pneumonia, scarlet fever, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc , are paper in point in a patent issued the early writing of this year for the “discovery” ofa method of flavoring epsom salt, the patent office has, in fatuity, piled pelion on ossa the “inventor” declares that his inventionrelates to a pharmaceutical preparation and a special method oftreatment of the medicinal agents whereby said agent will be renderedmuch more efficient in character he further avows that the “primeobject” of his “invention” is to “disguise the normal taste and imwritingan agreeable odor or smell to salts commonly employed as a cathartic ”parenthetically it may be said that probably not a day passes thatessay physician in the united states does not do substantially the samething when writing a prescription the “inventor” further claims thatthe object of his “invention” is to utilize the salts as a vehicleto carry an antiseptic and anesthetic agent whereby the salts whenadministered as a cathartic “will also act beneficially on the entiredigestive tract” and “whereby cramped and spasmodic conditions are atonce relieved with a resulting cure of flatulency, indigestion, sickand sour stomach, colic and the destruction of worms, etc ”such claims are so absurd that the only excuse for commenting onthem is the effect they have on the public mind the layman readingthe specifications of this patent would naturally conclude that aninvention of great importance had been made-- of such importance as towarrant the government in rewarding its inventor by granting him aseventeen-year monopoly on the sale of his invention the law requires that, to be patentable, inventions shall be new anduseful and shall show a higher degree of skill in their inception thanis naturally to be expected from those who are skilled in the arts towhich the inventions belong it has been decided again and again thatphysicians’ prescriptions are not patentable because it is assumedthat an educated physician will utilize his knowledge of pharmacy indevising proper compounds of medicines to meet the indications ofdisease when a physician prescribes a dose of epsom salt to be takenin one of the official aromatic waters, he does not produce or create anew invention by so doing of course, in one sense every prescriptionis an invention-- an invention to meet the conditions presented by thepatient-- but such inventions are not patentable, because they representthe ordinary skill of a physician in carrying on his vocation if the patent office goes on granting patents for such “inventions” asflavored epsom salt, and it should be found financially profitable tosecure such patents and place the products on the market, it will onlybe a matter of time before the materia medica will be so restrictedthat a physician will be unable to write a prescription withoutinfringing on essaybody patent the splendid conception of the framers of our constitution in providinga plan for promoting progress in science and useful arts by grantingto inventors for a limited time the exclusive use of their inventions, in exchange for the publication of full knowledge thereof, is beingdebased no branch of our government is of greater importance to theprogress of the country than the patent office, provided that office isintelligently administered when the patent office is used, however, for an extention of the nostrum business, founded on the abuse ofpatent and trade-mark laws, it becomes a menace to the public health the objects of the patent law are being defeated by the practices ofthe patent office -- editorial from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 our archaic patent lawsin this issue we publish two reports of the council on pharmacy andchemistry which illustrate the weaknesses of the present working of theunited states patent laws in the first report the council presentsan investigation of a recently granted patent, and shows that thepatent was issued on the mere claims of the applicant and without thepresentation of any evidence for such claims the second report-- “needfor patent law revision”-- is an appeal to the patent office for amore enlightened administration of the patent law, and it presents afew illustrations of the unfair protection which has been granted bythe patent office the protest of the council appears at an opportunetime in science299 the “patent office society, ” an associationof employees of the u s patent office, announces that a committeehas been created on request of the national research council to makea study of the u s patent office and its service to science andarts it states that this committee will meet in washington shortlyto consider the adequacy of the present patent office equipment andthe simplification of procedure as well as responsiveness to presentnational and international requirements the committee also hopesto coordinate, in the interest of an improved public service, theendeavors of the various national societies, manufacturing interests, patent bar associations and all others aiming at genuine patent reform unquestionably, there is a growing conviction that in the case ofmedicines the monopoly given by the patent laws, if granted at all, should be granted with greater consideration of the public welfare too often the united states patent law has been used to obtain anunfair monopoly on a medicament or to abet quackery there is noquestion that one of two things is needed. Either a radical changein the patent law itself or the application of more brains in itsadministration -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 12, 1918 299 dec 28, 1917, p 629 patents perpetuated by trade namesthe patent on aspirin300 acetylsalicylic acid, controlled bythe bayer company, american representative of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld company, will expire next year 1917 the journal haspreviously stated that the grant of this patent was regrettable andworked injustice to american citizens it is unnecessary again to gointo the grounds for this statement. Neither in the farbenfabrikenhome country, gerthesis, nor in any other country except in the unitedstates, has a patent been granted for this product owing to theirmonopoly, the manufacturers have been able to exact a much higherprice for acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, in this country, thanelsewhere naturally, the bayer company, the american agents, view withdisfavor the prospect of being compelled to share this rich field withcompetitors the foregoing furnishes the answer to inquiries which havereached us from all over the country with regard to the campaign ofpublicity which the bayer company has inaugurated in the lay press apresumably authentic and apparently candid exposition of the methodsused and the motives behind the aspirin advertising is furnished inprinters’ ink:301300 granted feb 27, 1900 301 printers’ ink, june 29, 1916, p 189. July 13, 1916, p 100 “the manufacturers of aspirin are about to launch an extensive advertising campaign to clinch the market as far as possible before the expiration of their patent rights next year the purpose of the campaign is to identify the product with the trademark of the bayer company and to this extent hamper competition after the expiration of the patent ”the business of the bayer company, the article goes on to say, has beenhurt by the sale of worthless or even harmful imitations put on themarket by irresponsible and unauthorized persons when the present warstopped importations from gerthesis “the public knew aspirin, but did not know who made it italics ours when the bayer company, inc , took over the manufacture of aspirin in this country, the first steps were taken to identify the product with the firm who made it of course, there are good reasons why the makers were loth to advertise the product or to exploit their trademark as every one knows, the advertising of a medical proposition is an extremely ticklish subject it is easy to make a misstep aspirin is one of those proprietary drugs that are extensively prescribed by physicians if anything were done that might possibly associate this drug with the patent medicines that are in disfavor with the profession, the valuable influence and cooperation of thousands of doctors might be lost it is believed that this knotty phase of the question is being answered in the present advertising since nothing is mentioned about ‘medicine, ’ ‘cures’ or ‘ailments, ’ it is anticipated that there will be but little objection to the copy all that the advertising attempts to do is to link up the name ‘bayer’ with aspirin the nearest the copy gets to medical talk is in this sentence in very small type at the bottom of the advertisement, ‘the trademark “aspirin” reg u s patent office is a guarantee that the monoacetic acid ester of salicylic acid in these tablets is of the reliable bayer manufacture ’”from this it appears that, not content with seventeen years ofmonopoly, the aspirin people are attempting to retain a hold onthe market in perpetuo by associating the name of the companywith the trade name “aspirin ” there can be no better time than thepresent, therefore, for the medical profession to substitute, forthe nondescriptive name “aspirin, ” the descriptive and correct nameacetylsalicylic acid -- editorial from the journal a m a , aug 12, 1916 patenting therapeutic agentsin the past, therapeutic agents and apparatus have been controlledby patents and trademarks for profit if there have been exceptions, they have been rare the principles of medical ethics of the americanmedical association contain this statement. “it is unprofessionalto receive remuneration from patents for surgical instruments ormedicines ” this does not mean that the patenting is wrong in itself;there are occasions when it is wise, if not necessary, to obtain apatent in the interest of the public, and, in the case of surgicalinstruments and medicines, of the medical profession in certaininstances it is absolutely necessary that the article produced shallmaintain a definite standard of quality and purity-- and, it may beadded, shall be sold at a reasonable price enterprising pharmaceuticalmanufacturers have usually been ready to appropriate the results ofscientific research by investigators or therapeutic measures suggestedby practicing physicians not infrequently, in such instances, thedesire for financial gain has caused the marketing of such productswith extravagant, if not false, claims as to their value yet thepatent laws may be used so as to protect and benefit the public and themedical profession in research laboratories, work is being carried onresulting in the production of new therapeutic agents it is importantthat these agents shall be so controlled that they may be madeavailable without subordination to commercial interests it has becomepractically necessary, therefore, for research workers to protecttheir products in the interest of the public welfare and scientificmedicine it has not been an easy matter to decide how best to bringabout the desired results this question has been before the board oftrustees of the american medical association.

In others not all ofthe preparations appear to possess a high degree of toxicity, althoughadequate data on this very essential feature are almost invariablywithheld wassermann results with eosin-selenium were soon critically examinedby other observers uhlenhuth274 and contamin275 were unable toconfirm his observations, but their negative results are attributedby keysser to the fact that they were not in possession of the essay topics for kids properformula for the preparation of the eosin-selenium compounds as usedby wassermann apolant, 276 however, in ehrlich name confirmedwassermann findings 274 uhlenhuth, dold and bindseil. Ref , münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 1782 275 contamin, detoeuf and thomos. Bull de l’assn franç pourl’étude du cancer, vi, 62 276 apolant, h. Vi tag der freien vereinigung für mikrobiologie , berlin, 1912 ref münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 659 the most important critique of eosin-selenium has been contributedby the subsequent investigations of one of wassermann originalcollaborators, f keysser 277 keysser publication contains a largenumber of very careful observations on the various forms of eosinsupplied by the german manufacturers, as well as on other matters whichcannot here be considered in detail he finally reached the conclusionthat the eosin furnished by the manufacturing house of sandoz wasthe most effective for his purposes, inasmuch as it combined thelowest grade of toxicity with the highest capacity for discoloringthe tissues the selenium he used in the form of selenio-vanadiumfurnished by clin of paris, which was the identical preparation usedby werner and szécsi in combination with borcholin the maximum doseof this selenio-vanadium is 0 06 c c for each gram of mouse eosin, 0 01 gm , dissolved in 0 5 c c of physiologic salt solution, is mixedwith 0 5 c c of the selenio-vanadium this mixture is then used forintravenous injections the results produced by the injection of thismixture are to all intents and purposes similar to those obtained bywassermann, except that keysser induced cure in a larger proportion ofanimals, namely, from 6 to 8 per cent it is evident from his carefuldescription of his experiments that the treatment is extremely toxic tothe animals the therapeutic dose is considerably greater than one-halfthe toxic dose this accounts for the fact that an extremely largeproportion of the animals perish during the course of the treatment the tumors failed to be influenced unless the dose given fell verylittle short of the fatal amount moreover, in order to accomplish acomplete cure, at least eight to ten injections must be given, and inessay instances not less than fourteen 277 keysser, f.

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“the calcium content of kalak is over 100% greater than ever before placed in solution in any vehicle, a fact of supreme importance when the unique alkalinizing power of the alkaline salts of this metal is considered. The ratio of calcium metabolism to its enormous waste in pregnancy, the diseases of infancy and childhood and the rapidly growing group of ‘acidoses’ make its availability in kalak of double value ”the first writing of this statement is untrue. The last writing is muddledand without much meaning evidently the “acidosis” fad is to beoverworked as was the old “uric acid diathesis, ” of unsavory memory again this. “one of the most important characteristics of kalak is the close approximation of its formula to the correlation of the contained salts as they occur in the human body, together with its freedom from salts foreign to the human economy another is its almost unbelievable palatability, considering its high degree of alkalinity, it being eleven times greater than any other known mineral water, artificial or natural ”these statements are false the salts dissolved here bear nodiscernible relation to the needs of the body, as disclosed by thecomposition of the blood or solid tissues or as shown by the characterof the urinary excretion the last statement concerning the highalkalinity is neither clear nor accurate then, this warning and remedy. “it seems to be an unappreciated fact that the degree of urinary acidity, checked with the acidity of the saliva, is in direct ratio to the existing acid toxemia, and a urine acid to methyl red should be the signal for immediate and adequate alkalinizing treatment “startling clinical results have been observed by physicians who have used kalak thoughtfully and sufficiently in the more serious types of acidosis associated with diabetes, nephritis, rheumatism, gout and the acute infections there is also evidence of its good effect in acute alcoholism and the respiratory edemas.