History

Essay Title Ideas


He was in the act of crossing essay title ideas one leg overthe other to look at the sole of his foot, when essaything was heard togive way. His right leg hung down and he was found to have receiveda transverse fracture of the femur at the junction of the middle andlower thirds the writer had a case in bellevue hospital during the past winter 1892-93 of a man who stated that he had been well and active untilessay weeks previously, when, from muscular force alone, he sustained afracture of the neck of the femur essaything abnormal in the bone maybe present in such paper in paper of spontaneous fractures there are no marks of externalviolence which, if present, would remove the idea of spontaneity fractures of the extremities are not dangerous per se, unless theyare compound or occur in old, debilitated, or diseased persons, andthey are more severe the nearer they are to a joint the healing offractures is more rapid in the young than in the old and in the upperthan in the lower extremity it is not proven that adiposity of itselfimpedes union the question may be asked, how long before examination a given bone wasfractured as a rule, we can only say as to whether the injured personhas lived a long or short period since the injury, as the process ofrepair varies according to age and constitution no changes occur untileighteen to twenty-four hours, when lymph is exuded according tovillermé the callus is cartilaginous anywhere between the sixteenthand twenty-fifth days, it becomes ossified between three weeks andthree months, and it takes six to eight months to become like normalbone the question may also be asked. Has a bone ever been fractured?. The existence and situation of a fracture can often be recognizedlong after the accident, by the callus or slight unevenness due toprojection of the edges or ends of the fragments where the bone liesdeeply covered by soft writings, it is difficult and often impossible totell, long after union has taken place, whether or where a fracture hasoccurred the answering of this question may essaytimes be of importance inidentifying the dead, especially in the case of skeletons in thelatter instance by sawing the bone longitudinally we can tell by thethickness, irregularity, or structure of the bone tissue whether afracture existed, and if it were recent or old at the time of death dislocations call for a medico-legal investigation less often thanfractures they are less common in the old and where the bones arebrittle, when fracture occurs more readily they are seldom fatal perse, unless between the vertebræ or when compound they may occur fromdisease in the affected joint or even spontaneously the diagnosis ofa dislocation is easy until it has been reduced, and then it may leaveno trace except pain in and limitation of the motion of a joint besidesswelling and ecchymosis these effects are transient, and after theyhave disappeared it may be impossible to say whether a dislocation hasexisted on a living body, unless, as essaytimes occurs, especially inthe shoulder joint, there may be a temporary or permanent paralysisof a nerve and muscular atrophy after death, the existence of an olddislocation may often be recognized on dissection by scar tissue in andabout the capsule examination and description the examination of wounds or injuries in a case which is or may becomethe subject of a medico-legal investigation should be made withwritingicular care and exactness as the examination of the wounded person is to give most, and in essaypaper all, the information to the medical expert on which he isto base his testimony, it should be made with reference to all thepossibilities of the case the writingicular variety of wound as described in the foregoing sectionshould be noted, and any peculiarities as to its situation, shape, extent, length, breadth, depth, direction, and the writings involved besides these points, the condition of the edges of the wound, whetherswollen and ecchymotic, smooth and straight or dentated and irregular, and whether inverted or everted and gaping, are matters of importance the presence or absence of coagula and clots, the staining of thetissues with blood, the presence of ecchymosis and its comparative age, as shown by its color, should also be noted thesis of the above points help us in solving another problem, namely, the form of the instrument used this question will be discussedin a subsequent section, but the basis for our opinion is founded, of course, on an examination of the writingiculars of the wound thesolution of still another question which often arises and which willbe discussed in the next section, namely, whether a wound was producedbefore or after death, is based upon writingicular features of the woundsuch as the fluid or clotted condition of the blood on the surface, or ecchymosed in the tissues, also the amount of the hemorrhage ascompared to the vascularity of the writing as well as the greater or lessstaining of the tissues with blood, and the conditions of the edges, whether inverted or everted and whether or not retracted the questionas to whether a wound was directly, secondary or necessarily the causeof death, is determined, in writing at least, by examination of the wound in this connection we take note as to whether a wound has opened ordivided a large vein or artery or is situated in such a vascular writingas to be fatal from hemorrhage we also note whether death could havebeen due to shock from the situation of the wound, or whether aninflammation which was directly responsible for death was necessarilydue to the wound, as in case of a penetrating wound of the viscera, etc further, we note whether one of the thesis forms of wound diseasesfrom infection of the wound has complicated the case and caused deathin the case of a wound not otherwise necessarily fatal it may be addedthat often the necropsy aids us in the solution of the question as towhether the wound was the necessary and direct cause of death, byshowing a healthy or diseased condition of the viscera the question as to which of a number of injuries was first inflicted, also as to the relative position of the victim and assailant, can beanswered, if at all, only by an accurate and close examination of thewounds finally, the most important question of all, from a medico-legalstandpoint, namely, the distinction between homicidal, suicidal, andaccidental wounds, is decided or inferred from the characteristics ofthe wound after careful examination all the foregoing questions contribute to the solution of this themost important one the various questions referred to above will beconsidered at greater length in the subsequent sections they have beenmerely referred to in brief above, to show the various lines of thoughta medical examiner must have in mind in making an examination as to the act of examination itself, the physician should conductit in such a way as not to harm the wounded person often simpleinspection is the most that can be done, or the examination may haveto be deferred altogether until the physician in charge informs thecourt that an examination may be safely made it is often necessaryfor the expert to get information as to the original lesion from thephysician in charge if the wound has been a fatal one and if we arecalled in after death, we may examine the wound on the dead body withmuch more freedom here we may examine the depth, direction, etc , of apunctured wound by cutting down on a probe or director after carefulinspection of the wound we may examine it by palpation, and go on tothe dissection of the wound and the surrounding writings, tracing andnoting the various vessels, muscles, etc , involved in the wound, andlooking for the presence of any foreign body in the wound furthermore, if the cause of death be at all obscure, we should examinenot only the wound itself and the writings about the wound, but also, byan autopsy, all the cavities and organs of the body for death may havebeen due to natural causes in an organ not examined, if the examinationhas not included all, and the physician has to disprove it in examining at an autopsy the depth of a wound in reference to theinstrument which caused it, it should be borne in mind that the woundmay be deeper than the weapon owing to a depression of the surface bythe handle of the weapon this may appear especially marked in the caseof the movable viscera, as at the time of the accident the viscus mayhave been as near as possible to the surface, and at the examination asfar as possible from the surface, as in the case of a given coil of theintestines also the thorax when opened at autopsy enlarges or expandsa little, so that the measured depth of a wound may be greater than theweapon which caused it vibert612 mentions a case of a penetratingwound of the thorax involving the heart, where the measured depth ofthe wound was 0ᵐ 035 greater than the length of the instrument thismay also be accounted for by a depression or flattening of the thoraxby the blow, as in the case of soft writings it is often difficult in anexamination to measure accurately the depth of a wound, for one mayfind it hard to determine the precise end of a wound also, for exactmeasurement it is necessary to have the writings in the same position asat the time of the accident, and these writings are more or less displacedby the necessary dissection besides the examination of the wound there are other points theexamination of which may aid us in solving the problems presented by acase among these, the examination of the clothing or dress is perhapsthe most important this may indicate the weapon used in an incised orpunctured wound contused and lacerated wounds or fractures, etc , maybe produced without injuring the clothing blood, dirt, or grease onthe clothing may throw light on the case in self-inflicted wounds thewound in the clothing and that on the body may not and often do notcorrespond, as an intending suicide often a murderer rarely opensthe clothing to select the spot for the wound the wound in the dressis then added by a second blow not corresponding to the first in thisway we may essaytimes distinguish between a homicidal and suicidalwound, and thus remove a false suspicion of murder or show that a woundwas self-inflicted to conceal other crimes or to falsely impute it toanother the suspicion of homicide in accidental wounds may be clearedup by an examination of the dress, as in the following instance relatedby taylor:613a woman was found dead in bed with two indentations about the middleof the right parietal bone, a large superficial clot here and threeounces of clotted blood between the dura mater and skull, which latterwas fractured over an area of four inches no other cause of death wasfound the evidence brought out the facts that she had been knockeddown the evening before, about 7:30 o’clock, by a man accidentallyrunning into her she fell on the back of the head, was stunned, raisedup, and stimulated. She then walked home, ate her supper, and waslast seen at 9 o’clock by a fellow-lodger who let her in and noticednothing unusual the next morning she had evidently been dead essaytime suspicion fell upon the lodger, who had often quarrelled withher, and the two claws of a hammer found in his room corresponded moreor less closely with the two indentations found in the skull at theadjourned inquest, however, the bonnet worn by the deceased at thetime of the accident was found to have two indentations on the back ofit corresponding to those on the woman skull and containing dust anddirt, and rendering probable what from the history seemed unlikely, that the fall in the road caused the fatal injury the examination ofthe dress thus avoided an unjust accusation of murder contused and lacerated wounds and fractures or dislocations may beproduced without injury to the dress, especially if the latter beelastic or yielding the comparison of the wound in the clothes withthat on the body may indicate the position of the body at the time ofthe blow the examination of the clothes of the injured person mayindicate a struggle which would support the idea of homicide a bluntinstrument may indirectly cause an injury by striking essaything in oron a person clothes instances have been reported where a wound hasbeen caused by an article in the pocket, or worn outside the clothing, without any trace of an injury to the clothes or pocket lining 614the examination of the dress may further show which of several cuts orstabs was first inflicted this is shown by the staining of the edgesof the cuts in the clothing, the edges of the first cut or stab showingno blood-stain or only on the inner surface, as the knife is cleanof blood on entering and all that is removed by the clothing on itswithdrawal is found on the inner edges if the edges of the cuts in theouter layers of clothing are bloody, it is evident that the knife wasalready bloody when used, and the corresponding wound was not the firstinflicted the imprint of the bloody hand of the assailant may essaytimes be foundon the clothing of the one injured, and is especially important asevidence, when the hands of the assaulted are not bloody in the caseof a severe wound, especially if it is likely to become the object of acriminal investigation, the physician should always require to see thedress of the wounded the examination of the clothing which the accusedwore at the time the assault took place may give important evidence byshowing evidences of a struggle or blood-stains absence of the latterwould not prove the innocence of the accused, as the clothes actuallyworn may be destroyed and others substituted, or the marks and stainsmay be removed in the latter case, the eye of a medical man may detecttraces of blood which otherwise would go unnoticed, and a microscopicaland chemical examination would reveal the real character of the stain besides the examination of the clothing of the accused, the examinationof his person may furnish evidence of his being engaged in a more orless desperate struggle by the scratches, marks of nails, contusions, bites, etc , on the face, neck, front of chest, forearms, and hands if the accused should attempt to explain these wounds and spots, thelatter may or may not verify the explanation, and thus additionalevidence may be obtained as to the guilt or innocence of the accused it is well for the medical expert, as well as for others, to collectthe statements of the wounded person relative to the circumstances ofthe injury also, if the accused will vouchsafe any such statements wemay compare these with one another and with the facts indicated by thewound, etc other points to examine, especially in paper of suspected suicide, may be briefly mentioned the presence of the weapon in the hand ofthe victim and firmly grasped in general indicates suicide, if itcorresponds to the weapon causing the wounds, for otherwise it mayhave been used for defence if not in the hand, note the spot wherethe weapon was found in the case of a suicide, the hand as well asthe weapon held by it is likely to be bloody, also in case of murderthe generally empty hand is apt to be bloody, as the hand is naturallycarried to the wound we cannot further describe the thesis points which the medical examinershould bear in mind in making an examination in a medico-legal case, without repeating too fully what will be given at greater length insubsequent sections, reference to which should be made for furtherwritingiculars tardieu proposed as a basis for examining and studyingwounds, 1 to visit the wounded person and see what state he is in, and to determine 2 the nature, 3 the cause, 4 the consequencesof the wound also if the wounded person is dead 5 to examine thebody for the cause of death in order to see if the latter is due to thewound also 6 to determine the circumstances of the affray the description of a wound should be given in plain language, avoiding the use of scientific terms or expressions, so as to bereadily understood by judge and jurors otherwise the usefulness of themedical expert is very much decreased the description should also beprecise and sufficient to justify the conclusions arrived at as to thecause of a wound, its gravity and results, and the weapon used witha view to exact statement in description, it is well to take notes asto the result of the examination and not depend merely on memory theobject of the witness should be to be understood and not to be thoughtthoroughly scientific was the injury inflicted before or after death?. This is a question which may often be asked in paper of fatal injuries, and it is one which must be answered as definitely as we are able, forthe defence may rest on the assertion that the wound or injury was postmortem and not ante mortem what are the means we have to enable us toanswer the above question?. the most important factor is the conditionof the blood and the changes that it undergoes after death for essayhours after death the body retains its animal heat as long as this isretained rigor mortis does not set in and the blood is more or lessfluid this period varies, but on the average it does not last longerthan eight or ten hours before this time, however, the blood has begunto undergo certain changes these changes result in the inability ofthe blood from a post-mortem wound to coagulate completely at firstthe greater writing may coagulate, but after a time coagulation is lessand less complete, and the coagula are not as firm as those from theblood of a living person the period at which these changes occur alsovaries, but they may generally be clearly noticed in from three to fourhours after death, or even sooner in the first two to four hours afterdeath, therefore, as far as the condition of the blood is concerned, itmay be difficult or impossible to say whether a wound was made beforeor soon after death in other words, this difficulty exists as long asthe tissues of the body live after the body as a whole is dead there are certain general pathological or occasional conditions of thebody in which the blood during life does not coagulate at all or onlyimperfectly, as in scurvy and in the case of the menstrual blood alsoblood in a serous cavity, especially if it be abundant or there existsinflammation, is found not to coagulate or only imperfectly postmortem the blood remains liquid long after death in paper of death bydrowning, asphyxia, etc , and in such paper hemorrhage may be free in awound made essay time after death furthermore, after putrefaction hasset in the blood again becomes more or less liquid, and may flow awayfrom a wound like a hemorrhage, but it no longer coagulates the principal signs of a wound inflicted during life are 1hemorrhage, 2 coagulation of the blood, 3 eversion of the lips ofthe wound, and 4 retraction of its sides 1 hemorrhage varies in amount with the size of the wound, thevascularity of the writing, and the number and size of the large vesselsinvolved in incised or punctured wounds the amount, as a rule, isquite considerable if there is a free exit most of the blood runsoff. The rest stays in the wound, where it soon coagulates with theexceptions mentioned above but besides writingly filling the wound inthe form of a clot, the edges of the wound are deeply stained withthe coloring matter of the blood, and this stain cannot be removed bywashing this staining involves especially the muscular and cellulartissues further, a hemorrhage during life is an active and not a passive one;the blood is forced into the interspaces of the tissues in the vicinityof the wound, and is found infiltrated in the cellular tissue, themuscles, the sheaths of the vessels, etc it is here incorporated, as it were, with the tissues so that it cannot be washed away in anante-mortem wound the arterial nature of the hemorrhage may show bythe marks of the jets of blood about the wound or on the clothes orsurrounding objects when a large vessel has been divided and theexit for the blood is free, this may run off without infiltrating thetissues or even staining the edges to any considerable extent, andthere may remain but little in the wound in the case of lacerated andcontused wounds the amount of hemorrhage is less, but rarely failsentirely, and if the wound is in a vascular writing it is liable to causedeath from hemorrhage, though a whole limb may possibly be torn offwithout much hemorrhage in the latter case, however, there are usuallyfound clots of blood adhering to the edges of the lacerated woundand the ends of the vessels in contusions where there is no woundof the skin the blood is prevented from flowing externally, and itsaccumulation and distribution form an ecchymosis here again we see theactive power of the hemorrhage which infiltrates between the tissues, stains them deeply, and appears either as a mere stain or in fineclots incorporated, as it were, with the tissues or writingly occupying acavity formed by an extensive displacement of the surrounding writings the amount of blood varies under the same conditions as in incisedwounds, and also according to the greater or less disintegration ofthe tissues by the blow, allowing a larger or smaller central cavityto be formed in “bleeders” the amount of the hemorrhage does notvary under the normal conditions, but a fatal hemorrhage may occurfrom a very insignificant wound after hemorrhage from a wound madeduring life the veins are empty about the wound, especially thosesituated centripetally, while normally after death the blood is mostlyaggregated in the veins they are the source of post-mortem hemorrhage, but do not empty themselves to any great extent the hemorrhage from a wound made after death may be extensive ifthe blood remains fluid as in the paper mentioned above, i e , after death from drowning or asphyxia or after the commencement ofputrefaction otherwise the amount of hemorrhage decreases with thelength of time after death, until the blood loses its fluidity andhemorrhage no longer occurs in general, it is slight unless a largevein is opened, for the veins are the source of the hemorrhage thereis usually scarcely any hemorrhage after the first two to four hours this applies also to subcutaneous hemorrhages or ecchymoses thesepost-mortem hemorrhages are passive and not active, consequently thereis less infiltration of blood into the surrounding tissues, whichmerely imbibe it, and the stain is less deep and may be washed off theedges of the wound, in contrast to the stain of ante-mortem wounds after putrefaction has set in the hemorrhage may be more abundant, as the blood is driven to the surface by the formation of gas in theabdomen and thorax at the same time, the coloring matter of the bloodtransudes through the walls of the veins and is imbibed by and stainsthe tissues, so that it may be impossible to distinguish it from a trueecchymosis fortunately these conditions are of small moment, as anexamination is seldom deferred so long cadaveric ecchymoses show almost invariably while the body is stillwarm and the blood more or less liquid, i e , during the first eightor ten hours after death they are not due to injury or violence beforeor after death, but they may closely resemble ecchymoses produced onthe living body and be mistaken for them this is the more important asthey are quite constant on the cadaver in this connection, it may be said that an ecchymosis due to a blowbefore death may not show till after death, as it requires essay timefor a deep ecchymosis or even an ecchymosis covered by a thick layerof skin to show superficially thus a man kicked in the abdomen diedthirty-five hours after the injury from peritonitis, due to a ruptureof the bladder no ecchymosis appeared at the site of the injuriesuntil after death it is not uncommon in paper of hanging to observean ecchymosis along the course of the cord appearing only after death huize met with a case of this description devergie remarked that onthe bodies of those drowned ecchymoses are often hidden for a time onaccount of the sodden state of the skin, and they appear only afterthe water has evaporated, which may require essay days furthermore, it is not necessary to survive long after an injury in order that anecchymosis may show post mortem if the blood is fluid at the time ofthe blow and any capillaries or larger blood-vessels are torn, then wemay have an ecchymosis though death be almost instant casper thoughtthat it required essay time before death for an ecchymosis to develop, and that if the person injured by a contusion died soon after theinjury, an ecchymosis would not appear after death there are thesiswell-authenticated paper to prove that casper opinion is wrong amongthe most famous of these is that of the duchesse de praslin 615 shewas attacked and killed by her husband while she was asleep in bed the thirty or so wounds showed a mortal conflict, and she could nothave survived more than one-half hour, and yet after death there werenumerous ecchymoses from the contusions another case is also mentioned by taylor 616 a young man diedsuddenly after a blow from a companion, having been struck in the sidea fortnight before by a heavy box, which knocked him senseless andnearly killed him the post mortem revealed an ecchymosis on the sidewhich on the authority of casper opinion was attributed to the oldinjury the color of the ecchymosis would be sufficient to settle allsuch doubts, as the changes of color would have fully developed or thecolor even disappeared in writing in fourteen days’ time an ecchymosis made post mortem does not undergo the color changesseen in ecchymoses during life, unless the tissues are œdematous inwhich the ecchymosis occurs these changes in color have already beendescribed, the deep blue changing to violet in eighteen to twenty-fourhours at the earliest in support of the foregoing and disprovingcasper views, christison found that within two hours after deathsevere blows on a dead body are followed by a livid discoloration, similar to those produced by a blow shortly before death this lividdiscoloration is due to the effusion of a very thin layer of bloodexternal or superficial to the true skin, essaytimes in a stratum ofthe true skin or more rarely into the cellular tissue, staining deeplythe writingition walls of the fat-cells of course, a more or less recentcontusion or ecchymosis on a dead body was not necessarily produced atthe same time as the cause of death it should be borne in mind inthis connection that ecchymosis is not a necessary result of a blow orcontusion according to devergie, ecchymosis does not appear when a blow inflictedpost mortem is received by skin directly covering a bony surfacebeneath, and rarely appears where there is a large amount of fat and nosolid point of resistance beneath the site of the blow we have already referred to the fact which portal long ago remarked, namely, that the spleen has been ruptured without ecchymosis orabrasion of the skin the same absence of ecchymosis has been noticedin paper where the liver, stomach, intestines, bladder, etc , have beenruptured as the result of contusing blows the following case cited by taylor617 illustrates this point henkereported the case of a man who died of peritonitis a few hours afterfighting with another man there was no mark on the skin or ecchymosis, though there existed peritonitis from rupture of the small intestine the blow was proven by direct evidence, and though essay medicalwitnesses on account of the absence of external signs thought that noblow could have been struck, others of more experience admitted that itcould have been the cause of the rupture watson618 reports a similar case of a girl nine years old whoreceived a blow from a shoe on the abdomen this was followed by greatpain, collapse and death in twenty-one hours no marks of injury werevisible externally, but peritonitis existed from rupture of the ileum a similar case is reported by williamson, 619 where peritonitisresulted from complete rupture of the ileum without any trace of injuryexternally, though the blow was struck by the hoof of a horse another case was brought into guy hospital620 who had been run overby an omnibus no injury was discoverable, though the wheel had passedover the chest and abdomen he died of peritonitis, however, which setin on the second day, and on post-mortem examination the liver andsmall intestines were found ruptured christison thought as the result of his experiments and experiencethat the most reliable signs of an ecchymosis made during life, anddistinguishing it from one caused by a blow after death, were asfollows.

Fellow of the german congress of surgeons. Of the american orthopædic association. Of the american genito-urinary surgeons’ association. Of the new york academy of medicine, etc , etc gunshot wounds general considerations few medical men there are who have long engaged in practice who havenot been compelled to take writing in essay medico-legal controversy inpaper of accidental or alleged homicidal gunshot wounds so soon asdeath occurs the surgeon ceases to work as such, but may continue towork as a medical jurist, and in preparation for this event must beready to answer any questions bearing upon the case which, thoughpossibly ridiculous in surgery, are or may be necessary in law hemay be called upon to testify as to the precise nature of a woundinflicted upon the body of a man seen before or after death. As to themeans by which it was inflicted. Whether the purport was suicidal orhomicidal. How much blood was lost. Whether the weapon was near to orat a distance from the body when fired. Whether it were possible thatthe deceased could have fired it himself. Whether after the receptionof the wound the person could have moved or performed any act in otherwords, whether death was instantaneous he may be asked also as togenuine or spurious blood-stains, whether genuine blood-stains werehuman or from essay other animal. Whether possibly they were from thebody of the deceased he will be expected to tell from what directionthe bullet or missile was fired. Which the wound of entrance and whichof exit, and thesis other things possible concerning the circumstancesunder which death occurred it is unnecessary to state that questionsof this nature call not only for conventional surgical skill, but forthe highest degree of shrewdness and general information, as well asessaytimes for expert knowledge with regard to small-arms and theirballistics it has been well said that the first duty of a medical jurist is tocultivate a habit of minute observation when this is combined with aknowledge of what the law requires and with the results of a technicaleducation, he will be able to meet all or nearly all of the scientificquestions which may be asked of him a learned judge once said that“a medical man when he sees a dead body should notice everything ”certainly he should make a minute scrutiny of the body to note whetherthere are upon the dress or hands of the deceased marks of blood, orwhether blood-stains are noted in different writings of the room. Whetherthe body or any writing of it is cold or warm. Whether the limbs are coldor rigid or pliant, since by these means the accurate date of death maybe more accurately determined examination and description in determining facts attending a suspicious case of gunshot wound, there should be noted, if known, 1st, the exact time of death, aswell as of infliction of the wound.

It is excellently good against pestilenceand poison pliny and dioscorides affirm, that no serpent will meddlewith him that carries this herb about him the elder tree i hold it needless essay title ideas to write any description of this, since every boythat plays with a pop-gun will not mistake another tree instead ofelder. I shall therefore in this place only describe the dwarf-elder, called also dead-wort, and wall-wort the dwarf-elder descript this is but an herb every year, dying with his stalks tothe ground, and rising afresh every spring, and is like unto the elderboth in form and quality, rising up with square, rough, hairy stalks, four feet high, or more essaytimes the winged leaves are essaywhatnarrower than the elder, but else like them the flowers are white witha dash of purple, standing in umbels, very like the elder also, butmore sweet is scent. After which come small blackish berries, full ofjuice while they are fresh, wherein is small hard kernels, or seed the root doth creep under the upper crust of the ground, springing indivers places, being of the bigness of one finger or thumb essaytimes place the elder-tree grows in hedges, being planted there tostrengthen the fences and writingitions of ground, and to hold the banksby ditches and water-courses the dwarf elder grows wild in thesis places of england, where being oncegotten into a ground, it is not easily gotten forth again time most of the elder trees, flower in june, and their fruit isripe for the most writing in august but the dwarf elder, or wall-wort, flowers essaywhat later, and his fruit is not ripe until september government and virtues both elder and dwarf tree are under thedominion of venus the first shoots of the common elder boiled likeasparagus, and the young leaves and stalks boiled in fat broth, dothmightily carry forth phlegm and choler the middle or inward barkboiled in water, and given in drink, works much more violently. Andthe berries, either green or dry, expel the same humour, and are oftengiven with good success to help the dropsy. The bark of the root boiledin wine, or the juice thereof drank, works the same effects, but morepowerfully than either the leaves or fruit the juice of the roottaken, doth mightily procure vomitings, and purges the watery humoursof the dropsy the decoction of the root taken, cures the biting ofan adder, and biting of mad dogs it mollifies the hardness of themother, if women sit thereon, and opens their veins, and brings downtheir courses. The berries boiled in wine perform the same effect. Andthe hair of the head washed therewith is made black the juice of thegreen leaves applied to the hot inflammations of the eyes, assuagesthem. The juice of the leaves snuffed up into the nostrils, purgesthe tunicles of the brain. The juice of the berries boiled with honeyand dropped into the ears, helps the pains of them. The decoction ofthe berries in wine, being drank, provokes urine. The distilled waterof the flowers is of much use to clean the skin from sun-burning, freckles, morphew, or the like. And takes away the head-ache, coming ofa cold cause, the head being bathed therewith the leaves or flowersdistilled in the month of may, and the legs often washed with thesaid distilled water, it takes away the ulcers and sores of them theeyes washed therewith, it takes away the redness and bloodshot. Andthe hands washed morning and evening therewith, helps the palsy, andshaking of them the dwarf elder is more powerful than the common elder in opening andpurging choler, phlegm, and water. In helping the gout, piles, andwomen diseases, colours the hair black, helps the inflammationsof the eyes, and pains in the ears, the biting of serpents, or maddogs, burnings and scaldings, the wind cholic, cholic, and stone, thedifficulty of urine, the cure of old sores and fistulous ulcers eitherleaves or bark of elder, stripped upwards as you gather it, causesvomiting also, dr butler, in a manuscript of his, commends dwarfelder to the sky of dropsies, viz to drink it, being boiled in whitewine.

As also for the plague or pestilence thepeople in essay countries of this land, do use to bruise the herb, andlay it to cuts or wounds in the hands or legs, to heal them wheat essay title ideas all the several kinds thereof are so well known unto almost all people, that it is all together needless to write a description thereof government and virtues it is under venus dioscorides saith, thatto eat the corn of green wheat is hurtful to the stomach, and breedsworms pliny saith, that the corn of wheat, roasted upon an iron pan, and eaten, are a present remedy for those that are chilled with cold the oil pressed from wheat, between two thick plates of iron, or copperheated, heals all tetters and ring-worms, being used warm. And herebygalen saith, he hath known thesis to be cured matthiolus commends thesame to be put into hollow ulcers to heal them up, and it is good forchops in the hands and feet, and to make rugged skin smooth the greencorns of wheat being chewed, and applied to the place bitten by a maddog, heals it. Slices of wheat bread soaked in red rose water, andapplied to the eyes that are hot, red, and inflamed, or blood-shotten, helps them hot bread applied for an hour, at times, for three daystogether, perfectly heals the kernels in the throat, commonly calledthe king evil the flour of wheat mixed with the juice of henbane, stays the flux of humours to the joints, being laid thereon the saidmeal boiled in vinegar, helps the shrinking of the sinews, saith pliny;and mixed with vinegar, and boiled together, heals all freckles, spotsand pimples on the face wheat flour, mixed with the yolk of an egg, honey, and turpentine, doth draw, cleanse and heal any boil, plague, sore, or foul ulcer the bran of wheat meal steeped in sharp vinegar, and then bound in a linen cloth, and rubbed on those places that havethe scurf, morphew, scabs or leprosy, will take them away, the bodybeing first well purged and prepared the decoction of the bran ofwheat or barley, is of good use to bathe those places that are burstenby a rupture. And the said bran boiled in good vinegar, and appliedto swollen breasts, helps them, and stays all inflamations it helpsalso the biting of vipers which i take to be no other than our englishadder and all other venomous creatures the leaves of wheat mealapplied with essay salt, take away hardness of the skin, warts, and hardknots in the flesh wafers put in water, and drank, stays the laskand bloody flux, and are profitably used both inwardly and outwardlyfor the ruptures in children boiled in water unto a thick jelly, andtaken, it stays spitting of blood.

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In essay paper asbeing of a dark color and in others of a bright arterial hue deathby asphyxia or suffocation, by the deprivation of oxygen, and by theproducts of combustion, would be accompanied by a dark or venous hueof the blood an atmosphere containing an excess of carbon monoxide, resulting from combustion, would cause death by apnœa with an arterialhue to the blood 722 but other influences must be considered according to schjerning, 723 it is difficult to deduce positiveconclusions from the condition of the blood the changes induced by thespleen and kidneys, as well as the varying intensity of the degree ofheat to which the body may be subjected, tend to render positive andconstant conclusions from this source difficult falk724 refers to the bright red color of the blood found in essaypaper, and explains this condition in writing by the influence of chemicalchanges in the tissues surrounding the vessels wertheim725 describes certain conditions observed by him and mentionsan increase in the number of the leucocytes, together with the presenceof hæmoglobin and melanin hoppe seyler meets with similar results and arrives at the sameconclusions in his observations ponfik, 726 on the contrary, is doubtful of the constant presence ofessay of these conditions and also of their diagnostic value seliger727 confirms the conclusions of wertheim, in that he describesthe presence of crystalline bodies and of dark discolorations melanin essay spectroscopic analyses have disclosed the presence of bandsadditional to those of normal blood the lack of uniformity ofconditions described and of conclusions reached leaves the subject in aposition of uncertainty examination of the blood of those dying fromburns has not been so extensively and minutely followed as to enable usto decide questions which may arise in any case explanation of plate ii figure 1 - ante-mortem burn scald by steam from a boiler bursting, july, 1892 from a photograph taken sixty hours after the accident the injurycovered one-half of the surface of the body the red line is sharplymarked. The extensive blisters formed are broken and their contentshave escaped. The serum drying has produced yellowish discolorations;the blush of redness on adjacent writings is well marked death resultedon the fifth day figure 2 - post-mortem burn exp 1 appearances after application of a tin can containingboiling water the cuticle was raised by expansion the blisterscontained no serum and no red line is developed figure 3 - post-mortem burn exp 2 appearances after the application of iron at a dull redheat no proper blister formed.