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Same as iodin, being of a colloidal nature has the advantage of being more readily absorbed and taken up by all cellular structure, thus getting a perfect cellular medication of iodin ”a sample of b iodine, marked “nitrogen hydrate of iodin” was submittedby the manufacturers and this sample was examined b iodine was found to be a granular powder, almost black with a purplecast it has an odor of iodin and dissolves in water readily it isalso quite soluble in alcohol, but not entirely soluble in chloroformand ether ether quickly dissolves iodin from b iodine, leaving aresidue of a white granular substance chloroform acts the same asether except that the iodin is dissolved out with essay difficulty onheating b iodine, vapors of iodin escape if the heating is done ona water bath, a residue of a white granular substance, subsequentlyidentified as ammonium iodid, remains if heated in a bunsen flame, noresidue remains these tests all indicate that iodin is held in theform of a simple mixture ammonia. B iodine when mixed with an excess of sodium hydroxid andwarmed, evolves ammonia iodine. 0 1567 gm b iodine dissolved in water required 5 88 c c tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate solution indicating 48 28 per cent iodin 0 3721 gm b iodine required 14 18 c c tenth-normal sodiumthiosulphate solution indicating 48 37 per cent iodin the average is48 33 per cent iodin ammonium iodide. 0 3453 gm of the residue after heating b iodine ona water bath until all iodin had volatilized was dissolved in water, acidulated with phosphoric acid, and hydrogen dioxid solution added the liberated iodin was extracted with chloroform and titrated withtenth-normal sodium thiosulphate 23 78 c c were required indicating0 3447 gm , or 99 83 per cent , ammonium iodid a mixture of 5 gm iodin and 5 gm ammonium iodid has the properties ofb iodine mentioned above the conclusion is that b iodine is essentially a mixture of iodin andammonium iodid in equal writings, the two substances being finely powderedand intimately mixed b oleum iodinethe following regarding b oleum iodine is quoted from the circularsubmitted. “b oleum iodine. Iodine soluble in mineral oil 5 and 10% for nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, bronchial, rectal, etc , and all meucoid affections and abnormal conditions of the mucous membrane ”a sample of b oleum iodine was submitted by the manufacturer andexamined the label on the bottle states that it is 5 per cent b oleum iodine in mineral oil this sample has the characteristics ofa solution of iodin in liquid petrolatum it is oily and has thecharacteristic violet color ammonia.

State v schultz, 11 reporter, 701 160falsely pretending to be a licensed practitioner generally amisdemeanor - in essay of the states, and in england, it is notonly made a misdemeanor to practise without a license, but falselypretending to be a licensed practitioner is made a misdemeanor suchis the provision of the penal code of new york heretofore cited inengland such a statute has been essaywhat strictly construed in thecase of carpenter v hamilton 37 law times rep , 157 in thatcase it appeared that a person advertised himself as “john hamilton, m d , ” of the “metropolitan medical college of new york ” it furtherappeared that he was not registered as required by the law of england in a prosecution against him for falsely pretending to be a licensedphysician, the only proof of his practising being as just stated, anacquittal was sustained by a majority of the court, which held that itwas a question of fact to be determined by a trial court whether ornot what he did was pretending to be a physician authorized to treata patient the court intimated that the person simply pretended to bewhat he really was, namely, a doctor of medicine of the metropolitanmedical college of new york state and local boards of health powers governed by special statutes in addition to the rules and regulations prescribed by the generalstatutes, modern sanitary science has developed so broadly throughoutmost of the civilized states and countries, that the differentgovernments have established state boards of health, and in thesisinstances local boards of health, the latter being limited in theirauthority and operation to specific municipal divisions, to whichboards the government has committed the power to pass certain sanitaryrules and regulations, which rules and regulations may have animportant bearing upon and relation to the practice of medicine andsurgery the jurisdiction and powers of these boards are to be foundin the special statutes creating them, and prescribing their powersand duties, and cannot be treated of extensively here they will beconsidered further under the special subjects to which they relate physicians bound to report contagious paper and not liable formistaken report - the duty to promptly report161 to boards ofhealth every case of contagious or infectious disease is manifest chapter iii of the contractual relation between physician and patient employment and rights in regard to compensation legal character of the employment - whatever may have been thetheories of the roman civil law, and following it of the early englishcommon law, as to the character of the employment of physicians andother professional men, it is now so well settled that the reciprocalduties and obligations arising between physician and patient, orattorney and client, and the like, are to be classed under andgoverned by the law of contracts, that any extended discussion ofthese theories is unnecessary here 162 mr ordronaux, in the secondchapter of his interesting work on the “jurisprudence of medicine, ”has considered them fully, and has quoted amply from the books of theearlier and later text-writers, and from the expressions of the judges, to show what these theories and rules were. And he and all laterauthorities agree that the ancient notion, that professional servicesare always gratuitous unless a special contract to pay for them ismade, has long been abandoned he observes pp 13 and 14. “but inour day the increase in the number of professional practitioners, andtheir exclusive devotion to a special class of services as a meansof living, has essentially modified the practical character of thecontracts with their patrons although in legal acceptation a mandate, yet from force of circumstances growing out of an altered state ofsociety, the mandate is practically changed into a contract of hire locatio operis this doubtless reduces professions to the statusof artisanship, and places them on a par with manual labor, conjoinedto the special skill of a writingicular calling but it also simplifiesthe contract, removes it from the category of innominate or imperfectobligations, requiring the intervention of legal fictions to furnisha means for their enforcement, and brings it within the pale ofconsensual agreements based upon a sufficient consideration ”the physician right to sue on contract in england was declared bylegislative enactment by chap 90 sec 31, 21 and 22 victoria it hasnever been denied in the united states adams v stephens, 26 wend , 451-455 physicians’ and surgeons’ service in a sense voluntary - though itis true, as in the case of thesis other doctrines of ancient law whichwere formulated under social conditions far different from those whichprevail in modern times, that these rules and theories have longsince lost their potency as distinct rules governing actions at law, nevertheless the legal aspect of the peculiar relationship betweenphysician and patient, is still affected by the idea that the serviceon the writing of the physician is voluntary that is, the physician orsurgeon is not bound to come and perform services whenever or whereverhe is called he is at liberty to refuse any and every patient whoattempts to employ him patients may cease employing at any time, unless there is a contractfor a certain period - and when he is employed, the patient may at anymoment discharge him, without incurring liability in damages, unless aspecial contract has been entered into between them that the servicesshall be rendered for a fixed period service once begun by physician must be continued until notice ofintention to cease is given by him - if, however, the services arebegun, they must be continued until notice has been given of theintention to discontinue them, and a reasonable time allowed thepatient to obtain the services of another person the reasons for thisrule will be considered more fully below contracts either express or implied - the contract between thephysician and patient may be an express one, that is, one in which allthe terms are agreed upon or expressed between the writingies, or it maybe what is called an implied contract, or one in which the patient, oranother person, simply calls on the physician or surgeon to come andperform services, and neither writingy specifically stipulates or agreesupon any of the terms of the employment express contracts may include any stipulation not contrary to publicpolicy - in the case of an express contract the agreement of thewritingies settles and determines their mutual obligations, whether itbe written or merely verbal but an express contract may also be madein such a form that certain conditions are required to be performedby the physician before he becomes entitled to any compensation forhis services it may also embody an agreement that the patient shallpay certain sums at certain times as the treatment goes on, or that noother physicians shall be employed without the consent of the attendingphysician, or if so employed that they shall be under the direction ofthe attending physician almost anything may be stipulated which is not contrary to publicpolicy, and a breach of any such stipulation entitles the aggrievedwritingy to rescind the contract and cease from performing it 163qualifications of the rule that express contracts may include anystipulation - essay qualifications of this rule of law must, however, be noted a breach by the patient of any one of these stipulationswould entitle the physician to treat the engagement as terminated likeany other contractual relation, and to bring his action for a recoveryfor services rendered up to the time of the breach. But it is doubtfulwhether he would have any action for damages for failure to permit himto perform further services this doubt arises from the legal doctrine, hereinbefore referred to, that a patient is always at liberty todismiss his physician at any time without notice, and without assigningany cause, which recognizes and grows out of the fact that if the trustand confidence of the patient are destroyed, or impaired, no matter howunreasonably or unjustly, the relation between them must thereafterbe unprofitable to both writingies, and dangerous to the patient on theother hand there is little doubt but that whenever an express contractis made by a physician to treat a patient for a certain length of timefor a writingicular disease or injury, the physician is not at liberty toarbitrarily terminate that relation or his connection with the case, unless he has in the contract specifically reserved the right so to do contracts making payment contingent upon successful treatmentvalid - the express contract between the writingies may also contain astipulation, by which the physician makes his compensation contingentupon his effecting a cure smith v hyde, 19 vt , 54. Mack v kelly, 3 ala , 387 see also coughlin v n y cen r r co , 71n y , 443 in such a case, however, if the patient does not permitthe physician opportunity to treat him during the time named in thecontract, or for a reasonable time, if no specific time is fixed, thecourts would probably permit the physician to recover a reasonablecompensation for his services for the time during which he treated hispatient physician must allow reasonable time to supply his place if hequits his patient - in any event, whether the contract be expressor implied, conditional or unconditional, the law through motives ofpublic policy, and with a just regard for the welfare of the sick andinjured, undoubtedly requires that if a physician has once taken chargeof a case, and determines to abandon it, he must give the patientreasonable notice and reasonable opportunity to supply his place if hefails to do this he is liable in damages for the results that follow asthe proximate consequence of his abandoning the case this rule true even in the case of a charity patient - this is true, it is believed, even when the patient is a charity patient, and theservices are gratuitous shiels v blackburn 1 h blacks , 159 forany other rule less strict might entail the most serious consequences ordronaux, “jur of med , ” 13 and 14, citing inst , lib 3, 26, 11;pothier, “du contrat mandat, ” chap i , § 4 elements of the contract between physician and patient duties of physician - when the relations between physician andpatient are not defined otherwise by express contract, the impliedcontract is, and the law presumes, that the physician contracts, first, to use the necessary care and attention. Second, to use the necessaryskill. Third, in case the physician furnishes his own medicines andthe obligation to furnish them would probably be imposed, if it was thecustom of the school or class of physicians to which the writingicularphysician belonged to do so, that the medicines are proper andsuitable as a corollary of these duties it necessarily follows, also, that the physician contracts that the instruments or appliances whichhe uses are free from taint or contagion, and are suitable and properfor the uses to which they are put upon this theory an action could bemaintained against a physician for using impure vaccine duties of patient - the patient on his writing contracts, first, togive the physician information concerning the facts and circumstancesof the case, and full opportunity to treat him properly. Second, toobey his instructions and follow his directions, and, third, to payhim the reasonable worth and value of his services the differentbranches of this contract are reciprocal the failure of either writingyto fulfil the obligation of any one of them which is imposed uponhim, would bar him of his remedies against the other writingy to recoverdamages for any breach, or any proximate result of his breach, ofsuch obligations the necessary care and attention required of thephysician in such a case are measured by the requirements of the caseand the physician duties to his other patients, modified, however, by the rule that the physician is presumed to know, at the time hetakes up the case, the condition and situation of his other patientsat that time consequently, if those who have first employed him areso situated at the time that his services for them are likely to besoon and continuously required, he cannot without making himself liablein damages undertake another case and then neglect it, but he shouldeither decline to take it, or should with the full knowledge andconsent of the patient make provision for the temporary substitutionof essay other physician, during the time that his prior obligationsengross his attention nevertheless, if the situation and condition ofthose to whom he has first contracted his services is such that he had, although he exercised due professional knowledge and skill, no reasonto apprehend that these patients would need his exclusive service, and by a sudden development, arising from those occult causes whichobtain in all serious diseases and injuries, any of his prior patientssuffer a sudden and dangerous relapse, or from an accession of new anddangerous symptoms and conditions so that he must fly to their aid, he would not be liable to another patient, to whom he had afterwardcontracted his services, for neglecting his case. Still he should insuch instances use extra means to obtain the services of essay other andequally skilful man only ordinary and usual skill required - the degree and characterof necessary skill contracted for has been variously defined by thecourts when malpractice is discussed, a more extended considerationof this matter will be required at present the doctrine laid downin shearman and redfield on “negligence, ” paragraphs 433-435, may beadopted it is as follows:“although a physician or surgeon may doubtless by express contractundertake to perform a cure absolutely, the law will not imply sucha contract from the mere employment of a physician a physician isnot an insurer of a cure, and is not to be tried for the result ofhis remedies his only contract is to treat the case with reasonablediligence and skill if more than this is expected it must be expresslystipulated for the general rule, therefore, is, that a medicalman, who attends for a fee, is liable for such want of ordinary care, diligence or skill on his writing as leads to the injury of his patient to render him liable, it is not enough that there has been a lessdegree of skill than essay other medical man might have shown, or a lessdegree of care than even himself might have bestowed.

This has not so strong a scentas the former yellow archangel is like the white in the stalks and leaves. But thatthe stalks are more straight and upright, and the joints with leavesare farther asunder, having longer leaves than the former, and theflowers a little larger and more gaping, of a fair yellow colour inmost, in essay paler the roots are like the white, only they creep notso much under the ground place they grow almost every where unless it be in the middle ofthe street, the yellow most usually in the wet grounds of woods, andessaytimes in the dryer, in divers counties of this nation time they flower from the beginning of the spring all the summerlong government and virtues the archangels are essaywhat hot and drierthan the stinging nettles, and used with better success for thestopping and hardness of the spleen, than they, by using the decoctionof the herb in wine, and afterwards applying the herb hot into theregion of the spleen as a plaister, or the decoction with spunges flowers of the white archangel are preserved or conserved to be usedto stay the whites, and the flowers of the red to stay the reds inwomen it makes the heart merry, drives away melancholy, quickens thespirits, is good against quartan agues, stancheth bleeding at mouthand nose, if it be stamped and applied to the nape of the neck. Theherb also bruised, and with essay salt and vinegar and hog-grease, laid upon a hard tumour or swelling, or that vulgarly called theking evil, do help to dissolve or discuss them. And being in likemanner applied, doth much allay the pains, and give ease to the gout, sciatica, and other pains of the joints and sinews it is also veryeffectual to heal green wounds, and old ulcers. Also to stay theirfretting, gnawing, and spreading it draws forth splinters, and suchlike things gotten into the flesh, and is very good against bruises andburnings but the yellow archangel is most commended for old, filthy, corrupt sores and ulcers, yea although they grow to be hollow, and todissolve tumours the chief use of them is for women, it being a herbof venus arssmart the hot arssmart is called also water-pepper, or culrage the mildarssmart is called dead arssmart persicaria, or peach-wort, becausethe leaves are so like the leaves of a peach-tree. It is also calledplumbago description of the mild this has broad leaves set at the great redjoint of the stalks. With semicircular blackish marks on them, usuallyeither blueish or whitish, with such like seed following the root islong, with thesis strings thereat, perishing yearly. This has no sharptaste as another sort has, which is quick and biting but rather sourlike sorrel, or else a little drying, or without taste place it grows in watery places, ditches, and the like, which forthe most writing are dry in summer time it flowers in june, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues as the virtue of both these is various, sois also their government. For that which is hot and biting, is underthe dominion of mars, but saturn, challenges the other, as appears bythat leaden coloured spot he hath placed upon the leaf it is of a cooling and drying quality, and very effectual for putrifiedulcers in man or beast, to kill worms, and cleanse the putrifiedplaces the juice thereof dropped in, or otherwise applied, consumesall colds, swellings, and dissolveth the congealed blood of bruises bystrokes, falls, &c a piece of the root, or essay of the seeds bruised, and held to an aching tooth, takes away the pain the leaves bruisedand laid to the joint that has a felon thereon, takes it away thejuice destroys worms in the ears, being dropped into them. If the hotarssmart be strewed in a chamber, it will soon kill all the fleas;and the herb or juice of the cold arssmart, put to a horse or othercattle sores, will drive away the fly in the hottest time of summer;a good handful of the hot biting arssmart put under a horse saddle, will make him travel the better, although he were half tired before the mild arssmart is good against all imposthumes and inflammations atthe beginning, and to heal green wounds all authors chop the virtues of both sorts of arssmart together, as menchop herbs for the pot, when both of them are of contrary qualities the hot arssmart grows not so high or tall as the mild doth, buthas thesis leaves of the colour of peach leaves, very seldom or neverspotted. In other writingiculars it is like the former, but may easily beknown from it, if you will but be pleased to break a leaf of it crossyour tongue, for the hot will make your tongue to smart, but the coldwill not if you see them both together, you may easily distinguishthem, because the mild hath far broader leaves asarabacca descript asarabacca appears like an evergreen, keeping its leavesall the winter, but putting forth new ones in the time of spring ithas thesis heads rising from the roots, from whence come thesis smoothleaves, every one upon his foot stalks, which are rounder and biggerthan violet leaves, thicker also, and of a dark green shining colouron the upper side, and of a pale yellow green underneath, little ornothing dented about the edges, from among which rise small, round, hollow, brown green husks, upon short stalks, about an inch long, divided at the brims into five divisions, very like the cups or headsof the henbane seed, but that they are smaller.

In the essay tigers lungs, for pulmonary apoplexy or the first stageof lobar pneumonia. In the intestines and spinal meninges, for thebeginning of inflammatory changes the position of these hypostases will afford the best correction forthis possible error the appearances presented by cadaveric ecchymoseshave often been mistaken for the effects of violence applied duringlife innocent persons have been accused and tried for murder ormanslaughter on charges afterward proved to be groundless therefore itis of the utmost importance that the medical jurist should be able todistinguish between ante-mortem and post-mortem ecchymoses the following are the points of difference:1 situation post-mortem ecchymoses are seen on that portion of thebody which has been most dependent, generally the posterior aspect, and they involve principally the superficial layers of the true skin;ante-mortem ecchymoses may occur anywhere, and generally the deepertissues are discolored 2 in cadaveric lividity there is no elevation of the skin and thediscoloration terminates abruptly 3 after cutting into the tissues where an ecchymosis has been producedby violence, the blood without the vessels is free in the tissue. Thisis not so in cadaveric ecchymosis 4 post-mortem ecchymoses are very extensive, ante-mortem generallylimited in area a peculiar appearance of cadaveric lividity is observed in bodieswhich have been wrapped in a sheet and allowed to cool or that havecooled in their clothing it occurs in the form of bands or stripesover the whole surface, and often gives an appearance as of a personflogged the explanation of this appearance is that the congestion ofthe vessels takes place in the interstices of the folds, while thewritings compressed remain whole the unbroken condition of the cuticle, together with the other characteristics just mentioned, are sufficientto distinguish these ecchymoses from those produced by violence whilecadaveric lividity is seen in all bodies after death, it is especiallypronounced in those persons who have died suddenly in full health orby violence, as from apoplexy, hanging, drowning, or suffocation itis very slight in the bodies of those who have died from hemorrhage oranæmia the time at which cadaveric lividity appears varies greatly casper, who has investigated the subject thoroughly, sets the time at fromtwelve to fifteen hours after death putrefaction at a period varying from a few hours to three days after death, certainchanges are seen in the human body which show that putrefaction hascommenced a change of color appears first upon the middle of theabdomen and gradually spreads over the rest of the body. It is firstpale green, which gradually deepens, and finally becomes purplish orbrown this change in color is due to the action on the hæmoglobin ofthe gases developed by decomposition similar discoloration makes itsappearance on the chest, between the ribs, on the face, the neck, thelegs, and lastly on the arms, where it is more marked along the largevenous trunks, and has essaytimes been mistaken for marks of violence the eyeballs become flaccid, and if exposed to the air the conjunctivaand cornea become dry and brown gases are formed, not only in thehollow organs of the abdomen but also in the skin those developed inthe cavities of the head and face force frothy, reddish fluid or mucusfrom the mouth and nostrils, and may cause swelling of the features andprotrusion of the eyes and tongue it must be remembered that the gaseswhile producing distention of the abdomen may also cause changes in theposition of the blood and slight displacement of the organs. They mayalso force undigested food into the mouth and into the larynx, and solead to suspicion of death from suffocation as putrefaction advances, after a period of five or six days the entiresurface of the body becomes green or brown, the cuticle becomes looseand easily detached. The tissues flaccid and often bathed in a reddishserum in such situations as the neck, the groin, and the back writing ofthe scalp the thorax and abdomen become enormously distended, thefeatures distorted and scarcely recognizable, and the hair and nailsloosened beyond this, it is impossible to follow the changes leadingto disintegration with any degree of certainty the changes which ihave just described as produced by putrefaction are the ordinaryones seen in a body exposed to the air at a moderate temperature, butit must be remembered that the time and rapidity of the development ofthese changes may be influenced by a large number of factors, and thatthey are of very little importance in estimating the time of death ihave seen bodies buried two months that have shown fewer of the changesproduced by putrefaction than others dead but a week the appearance of a body buried in a coffin will be as follows after aperiod varying from a few months to one or two years the soft tissueswill have become dry and brown and the face and limbs covered with asoft white fungus hard white crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatewill be found on the surface of the soft organs, and when found onthe surface of the stomach care should be taken not to confound themwith the effects of poison in time the viscera become so mixedtogether that it is difficult to distinguish them for the most writingthe changes that take place in a body buried in a coffin are similar, but much slower, to those that occur if the body is exposed to the airor buried in soil even under apparently identical circumstances themost varied results have been observed, so it is not possible for amedical jurist to fix a definite period of death or the time of burialfrom the appearance of an exhumed body for example, taylor records acase where after thirty-four years’ interment an entire and perfectskeleton was discovered, surrounded by traces of shroud and coffin, while in an adjoining grave all that remained of a body that had beendead twenty-five years were the long bones and base of the skull, inone case a body was found well preserved after six years’ burial and inanother after even thirty years’ interment this brings us next to a consideration of those factors that favor orretard decomposition circumstances favoring putrefaction 1 temperature - putrefaction advances most rapidly at a temperaturebetween 70° and 100° f it may commence at any temperature above 50°f , but it is wholly arrested at 32° f so one day exposure of abody in summer may effect greater changes than one week in winter after freezing, putrefaction takes place with unusual rapidity uponthe thawing out of the body a temperature of 212° f stops allputrefactive changes 2 moisture - putrefaction takes place only in the presence ofmoisture an excess of moisture, however, seems to retard the process, possibly by cutting off the excess of air the viscera according tothe amount of water they contain decompose at different times afterdeath for instance, the brain and eye rapidly, the bones and hairslowly 3 air - exposure to air favors decomposition by carrying to the bodythe micro-organisms which bring about putrefaction.

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Drop five essay tigers feet in one there was atlo-axoid dislocation 93 dercum. Phila med times, 1886-87, xvii , p 368 - descriptionof the brain of a man executed by hanging 94 kirtikar. Trans m and p soc , bombay, 1885, vi , pp 104-107 - man, age 25, and woman, age 35 both hanged drop nine feet knot tied over cricoid cartilage, a little to left side in falling, the knots slipped to below the ear there was fracture of the body ofthird cervical vertebra and rupture of ligaments the cord was rupturedin each. In the woman in two places once at the third cervical, theother at the dorso-lumbar junction 95 lamb. Med news, philadelphia, 1882, xli , pp 42-45 - executionof guiteau drop six feet. Knot placed under left ear, but slippedto back of head yellowish furrow a few lines wide around the neck, directed downward and forward sterno-mastoid muscles torn transverselyabout midway of their length thyro-hyoid ligament ruptured. Hyoidbone and thyroid cartilage widely separated large blood-vessels notinjured no fracture or dislocation of vertebræ 96 thomson and allen. Catalog surg sec army med mus. Specimens298 to 302 - execution of wirtz rope one-half inch diameter. Dropfive feet. Knot under left ear several slight shrugs of shoulders, after which body was quiet.