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On which are set divers branches ofgreen leaves shorter and smaller than fennel essay support services to the top. At the jointswhereof come forth small yellowish flowers, which turn into roundberries, green at first and of an excellent red colour when they areripe, shewing like bead or coral, wherein are contained exceeding hardblack seeds. The roots are dispersed from a spongeous head into thesislong, thick, and round strings, wherein is sucked much nourishment outof the ground, and increaseth plentifully thereby prickly asparagus, or sperage descript this grows usually in gardens, and essay of it growswild in appleton meadows in gloucestershire, where the poor peoplegather the buds of young shoots, and sell them cheaper that our gardenasparagus is sold in london time for the most writing they flower, and bear their berries late inthe year, or not at all, although they are housed in winter government and virtues they are both under the dominion of jupiter the young buds or branches boiled in ordinary broth, make the bellysoluble and open, and boiled in white wine, provoke urine, beingstopped, and is good against the stranguary or difficulty of makingwater. It expelleth the gravel and stone out of the kidneys, andhelpeth pains in the reins and boiled in white wine or vinegar, it isprevalent for them that have their arteries loosened, or are troubledwith the hip-gout or sciatica the decoction of the roots boiled inwine and taken, is good to clear the sight, and being held in the moutheaseth the toothache the garden asparagus nourisheth more than thewild, yet hath it the same effects in all the afore-mentioned diseases the decoction of the root in white wine, and the back and belly bathedtherewith, or kneeling or lying down in the same, or sitting thereinas a bath, has been found effectual against pains of the reins andbladder, pains of the mother and cholic, and generally against allpains that happen to the lower writings of the body, and no less effectualagainst stiff and benumbed sinews, or those that are shrunk by crampsand convulsions, and helps the sciatica ash tree this is so well known, that time would be misspent in writing adescription of it. Therefore i shall only insist upon the virtues of it government and virtues it is governed by the sun. And the youngtender tops, with the leaves, taken inwardly, and essay of themoutwardly applied, are singularly good against the bitings of viper, adder, or any other venomous beast. And the water distilled therefrombeing taken, a small quantity every morning fasting, is a singularmedicine for those that are subject to dropsy, or to abate thegreatness of those that are too gross or fat the decoction of theleaves in white wine helps to break the stone, and expel it, and curesthe jaundice the ashes of the bark of the ash made into lye, and thoseheads bathed therewith which are leprous, scabby, or scald, they arethereby cured the kernels within the husks, commonly called ashenkeys, prevail against stitches and pains in the sides, proceeding ofwind, and voideth away the stone by provoking urine i can justly except against none of all this, save only the first, viz that ash-tree tops and leaves are good against the bitings ofserpents and vipers i suppose this had its rise from gerrard or pliny, both which hold that there is such an antipathy between an adderand an ash-tree, that if an adder be encompassed round with ash-treeleaves, she will sooner run through the fire than through the leaves:the contrary to which is the truth, as both my eyes are witnesses therest are virtues essaything likely, only if it be in winter when youcannot get the leaves, you may safely use the bark instead of them thekeys you may easily keep all the year, gathering them when they areripe avens, called also colewort, and herb bonet descript the ordinary avens hath thesis long, rough, dark green, winged leaves, rising from the root, every one made of thesis leaves seton each side of the middle rib, the largest three whereof grow at theend, and are snipped or dented round about the edges.

If theheart is normal, cactus does not meddle with it” j a m a 51:52july 4 1908 will physicians continue to accept the statements of an interestednostrum vender-- who submits not a shred of evidence to support hisclaims, but who has a financial interest in convincing them-- essay support services even whenhis statements are diametrically opposed to all the evidence that thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has been able to secure?. -- from thejournal a m a , jan 19, 1918 article v ammonol and phenalginat the time that synthetic chemical drugs were coming into fame andwhen every manufacturer who launched a new headache mixture claimedto have achieved another triumph in synthetic chemistry, ammonol andphenalgin were born of course, these twins of analgesic pseudotherapywere claimed to be synthetics and were duly christened with “formulas ”they were among the first of the nostrums examined for the council onpharmacy and chemistry, and the false claims made for them were exposed the analyses made for the council showed that ammonol and phenalginwere simple mixtures, having the following composition. Acetanilid sodium bicarbonate ammonium carbonate ammonol 50 25 20 phenalgin 57 20 10the reports of the council on, and numerous references to, these twonostrums may be found in the journal of various dates 245 the reportswill prove interesting to those who are not familiar with, or haveforgotten, the methods of nostrum exploiters at the time the councilwas formed following the council exposure of the false claims madeby the manufacturers of phenalgin, the medical record published anadvertisement of that nostrum in which an attempt was made to discreditthe council report the editor of the medical record was requestedby the council to publish the facts in the case but he refused to do so 245 j a m a 44. 1791 june 3 1905.

For it must have beenobvious to even the most stupid observer that his well-being dependedto a great extent upon the action of the sun from this perceptionto the idea that other heavenly bodies were also intended to exert adecisive influence upon things terrestrial was only a short step forthe ancient civilized peoples. For here the conclusion from analogy wasactually so closely and so enticingly under every one nose that allhe had to do was but to pitch upon the powers which rule all earthlylife and neatly box them up in a well-constructed system but as theconclusion from analogy was always considered in the ancient worldas the most certain, never-failing path to knowledge, it was readilyfollowed in this connection also and thus astrology, like the greaterwriting of medico-physical knowledge, was based, we think, upon thetreacherous ground of a conclusion per analogiam besides, our opinion that the warming and vitalizing power of the sunformed one of the most important factors in the origin of astrologyis confirmed by the utterances of astrologists themselves thus, forinstance, ptolemy points to the sun and moon as the sources of life tomankind, and hermes and almansor repeat the dictum this is furthermoreproved by the unparalleled popularity which astrology has enjoyed inall phases of civilization there is no civilized people, eitherof ancient or of modern times, which has not adhered to astrologicdoctrines with the fullest confidence and most unswerving faith babylonians, egyptians, greeks, romans, germans, romanians in short, all nations have professed their belief in astrology such a conformityof opinion would, however, be inexplicable amid such a dissimilarity ofreligious and cultural ideas as characterized the different peoples, unless a common principle had decisively influenced all nations in thesame manner this principle was acknowledged in the influence of thesun every human being was bound to observe the animating power of thesun on his own bodily sense and from his own observation, and would beat once led to the conclusion that a similar power resided also in theother celestial bodies this conception, which to a great extent was brought about byconclusions from analogy, provided a method of inference concerningvarious other phenomena man meditated, speculated, concluded, untilthe required sidereal relation of each organ and each function of thehuman body was determined thus astrology may serve as one of themost telling examples of scientific delusions to which the ancientdiagnostico-theoretical methods were bound to lead, with theirconclusions from analogy and their deductive modes of procedure the above survey indicates, altho only in very general outlines, the origin of astrology we shall now consider more in detail theacquisition for which the art of medicine is especially indebted toastrology babylonico-assyrian civilization possessed in its earliest ages awell-developed system of astrologic medicine, as is evident fromwritings bequeathed to us from antiquity campbell-thompson hasrecently published, from the great stock of cuneiform tablets in thecollection of the british museum, 276 inscriptions of an astrologicalnature belonging to the so-called kouyunjik collection sudhoff hascompiled them, so far as they refer to medicine, and has subjected themto critical analysis we take the liberty of repeating certain extractsfrom these cuneiform tablets, which appear to be the reports whichassyrian and babylonian court astrologists made to the king tablet 69a says. “if the wind comes from the west upon appearance ofthe moon, disease will prevail during this month ”tablet 207. “if venus approaches the constellation of cancer, obedienceand prosperity will be in the land the sick of the land willrecover pregnant women will carry their confinements to a favorabletermination ”tablet 163. “if mercury rises on the fifteenth day of the month, therewill be thesis deaths if the constellation of cancer becomes obscured, afatal demon will possess the land and thesis deaths will occur ”tablet 232. “if mercury comes in conjunction with mars, there willfollow fatalities among horses ”tablet 175. “if a planet becomes pale in opposition to the moon, or ifit enters into conjunction with it, thesis lions will die ”tablet 195. “if mars and jupiter come in conjunction, thesis cattle willdie ”tablet 117. “if the greater halo surrounds the moon, ruin will bevisited upon mankind ”tablet 269. “if an eclipse of the sun occurs on the twenty-ninth day ofthe month of jypar, there will be thesis deaths on the first day ”tablet 271. “an eclipse at the morning watch causes disease if aneclipse takes place during the morning watch, and lasts throughout thewatch, while the wind blows from the north, the sick in akkad willrecover ”tablet 79. “if a halo surrounds the moon and if regulus stands within, women will bear male children ”tablet 94. “if sun and moon on the fifteenth day ‘answer my prayer’shall he say let him nestle close to his wife, she shall conceive ason ”these few extracts show us the close relations into whichassyrico-babylonian culture brought the becoming and passing away ofall animal life with the stellar movement. In fact, as we note fromtablet 94, the astrologists of this period did not hesitate to intrudeinto the most intimate occurrences of married life it is quite obviousthat, under such circumstances, the babylonian physician was compelledto consider very carefully the utterances of the astrologists incarrying on his practise it may be possible that we shall obtain stillfurther information regarding the quality of sidereal therapy from thenumerously discovered cuneiform tablets we know positively that aphysician was forbidden to perform any surgical operations on certaindays of each month thus, for instance, the 7th, 14th, 19th, 21st, and28th of the month schall-elul were unfavorable days for such operations oefele these directions were especially stringent in regard tovenesection, to which act we shall again refer in greater detail when civilization, later on, continued to thrive upon the shores ofthe nile, astrology still found a fertile soil there, and it appearsthat here also the name ἰατρομαθηματικοί has originated, which, subsequently, was a favorite designation of adherents to the siderealart of healing the astrological prognoses made by the professionalastrologist, petosiris, for the king nechepso of sais are well known however, it appears, according to the latest investigations comparethe excellent work of sudhoff, page 4, etc , that these prognoses havenothing at all to do with that king nechepso who reigned in the seventhcentury, b c it seems more probable that essay cunning alexandrianastrologist of the second century, b c , fraudulently used the nameof the king as a cover for his work but however this may be, theseprognoses of petosiris have considerable value, in that they give us aninsight into the manufacture of such medical prophesies the object of these prognoses was primarily to discover the terminationof a disease, whether the patient would die or recover, either soonor only after the lapse of a certain time for instance, after sevendays this was all that petosiris undertook to predict all detailsregarding treatment, complications, and diagnosis of a case are stillentirely wanting petosiris, in making such a prognosis, by no meansrelied solely upon the conjunction of certain celestial bodies, but heemployed a rather intricate method, in which mystic numbers, onomancy, and astrology were important elements to prognosticate medicallyaccording to this system a circle of numerals was required in the firstplace there existed two different kinds of such circles one simple, the other more complicated berthelot has furnished us with examples ofboth as used by petosiris illustration.

It would bring away gravel from the kidneysinsensibly, and without pain it also essay support services helps the stranguary parsnips the garden kind thereof is so well known the root being commonlyeaten that i shall not trouble you with any description of it but thewild kind being of more physical use, i shall in this place describe itunto you descript the wild parsnip differs little from the garden, butgrows not so fair and large, nor hath so thesis leaves, and the root isshorter, more woody, and not so fit to be eaten, and therefore moremedicinal place the name of the first shews the place of its growth theother grows wild in divers places, as in the marshes in rochester, and elsewhere, and flowers in july. The seed being ripe about thebeginning of august, the second year after its sowing. For if they doflower the first year, the country people call them madneps government and virtues the garden parsnips are under venus thegarden parsnip nourishes much, and is good and wholeessay nourishment, but a little windy, whereby it is thought to procure bodily lust. Butit fastens the body much, if much need it is conducible to the stomachand reins, and provokes urine but the wild parsnips hath a cutting, attenuating, cleansing, and opening quality therein it resists andhelps the bitings of serpents, eases the pains and stitches in thesides, and dissolves wind both in the stomach and bowels, which is thecholic, and provokes urine the root is often used, but the seed muchmore the wild being better than the tame, shews dame nature to be thebest physician cow parsnips descript this grows with three or four large, spread winged, roughleaves, lying often on the ground, or else raised a little from it, with long, round, hairy foot-stalks under them, writinged usually intofive divisions, the two couples standing each against the other. Andone at the end, and each leaf, being almost round, yet essaywhat deeplycut in on the edges in essay leaves, and not so deep in others, of awhitish green colour, smelling essaywhat strongly. Among which risesup a round, crusted, hairy stalk, two or three feet high, with a fewjoints and leaves thereon, and branched at the top, where stand largeumbels of white, and essaytimes reddish flowers, and after them flat, whitish, thin, winged seed, two always joined together the root islong and white, with two or three long strings growing down into theground, smelling likewise strongly and unpleasant place it grows in moist meadows, and the borders and corners offields, and near ditches, through this land time it flowers in july, and seeds in august government and virtues mercury hath the dominion over them theseed thereof, as galen saith, is of a sharp and cutting quality, andtherefore is a fit medicine for a cough and shortness of breath, the falling sickness and jaundice the root is available to all thepurposes aforesaid, and is also of great use to take away the hard skinthat grows on a fistula, if it be but scraped upon it the seed hereofbeing drank, cleanses the belly from tough phlegmatic matter therein, eases them that are liver-grown, women passions of the mother, aswell being drank as the smoke thereof received, and likewise raisessuch as are fallen into a deep sleep, or have the lethargy, by burningit under their nose the seed and root boiled in oil, and the headrubbed therewith, helps not only those that are fallen into a frenzy, but also the lethargy or drowsy evil, and those that have been longtroubled with the head-ache, if it be likewise used with rue it helpsalso the running scab and shingles the juice of the flowers droppedinto the ears that run and are full of matter, cleanses and heals them the peach tree descript a peach tree grows not so great as the apricot tree, yetspreads branches reasonable well, from whence spring smaller reddishtwigs, whereon are set long and narrow green leaves dented about theedges the blossoms are greater than the plumb, and of a light purplecolour. The fruit round, and essaytimes as big as a reasonable pippin, others smaller, as also differing in colour and taste, as russet, red, or yellow, waterish or firm, with a frize or cotton all over, with acleft therein like an apricot, and a rugged, furrowed, great stonewithin it, and a bitter kernel within the stone it sooner waxes old, and decays, than the apricot, by much place they are nursed in gardens and orchards through this land time they flower in the spring, and fructify in autumn government and virtues lady venus owns this tree, and by it opposesthe ill effects of mars, and indeed for children and young people, nothing is better to purge choler and the jaundice, than the leaves orflowers of this tree being made into a syrup or conserve let such asdelight to please their lust regard the fruit. But such as have losttheir health, and their children, let them regard what i say, theymay safely give two spoonfuls of the syrup at a time. It is as gentleas venus herself the leaves of peaches bruised and laid on the belly, kill worms, and so they do also being boiled in ale and drank, andopen the belly likewise. And, being dried, is a far safer medicine todiscuss humours the powder of them strewed upon fresh bleeding woundsstays their bleeding, and closes them up the flowers steeped allnight in a little wine standing warm, strained forth in the morning, and drank fasting, doth gently open the belly, and move it downward asyrup made of them, as the syrup of roses is made, works more forciblythan that of roses, for it provokes vomiting, and spends waterish andhydropic humours by the continuance thereof the flowers made into aconserve, work the same effect the liquor that dropped from the tree, being wounded, is given in the decoction of coltsfoot, to those thatare troubled with a cough or shortness of breath, by adding thereuntoessay sweet wine, and putting essay saffron also therein it is good forthose that are hoarse, or have lost their voice. Helps all defectsof the lungs, and those that vomit and spit blood two drams hereofgiven in the juice of lemons, or of radish, is good for them that aretroubled with the stone, the kernels of the stones do wonderfully easethe pains and wringings of the belly through wind or sharp humours, andhelp to make an excellent medicine for the stone upon all occasions, in this manner.

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They provoke sweat, andare used familiarly in drying diet drinks satyrij utriusque of satyrion, each sort they are essay support services hot and moist intemper, provoke venery, and increase seed. Each branch bears two roots, both spongy, yet the one more solid than the other, which is of mostvirtue, and indeed only to be used, for essay say the most spongy rootis quite contrary in operation to the other, as the one increaseth, theother decreaseth saxifragiæ albæ of white saxifrage, in sussex we call themlady-smocks the roots powerfully break the stone, expel wind, provokeurine, and cleanse the reins sanguisorbæ a kind of burnet scabiosa of scabious the roots either boiled, or beaten intopowder, and so taken, help such as are extremely troubled with scabsand itch, are medicinal in the french disease, hard swellings, inwardwounds, being of a drying, cleansing, and healing faculty scordij of scordium, or water-germander see the herb scillæ of squills see vinegar, and wine of squills, in the compound scropulariæ, &c of figwort the roots being of the same virtue withthe herb, i refer you thither scorzoneræ of vipers grass the root cheers the heart, andstrengthens the vital spirits, resists poison, helps passions andtremblings of the heart, faintness, sadness, and melancholy, opensstoppings of the liver and spleen, provokes the menses, ease women ofthe fits of the mother, and helps swimmings in the head seseleos of seseli, or hartwort the roots provoke urine, and helpthe falling-sickness sisari, secacul of scirrets they are hot and moist, of goodnourishment, essaything windy, as all roots are. By reason of which, they provoke venery, they stir up appetite, and provoke urine sconchi of sow-thistles see the herb spinæ albæ, bedeguar the arabians called our ladies-thistles bythat name. The roots of which are drying and binding, stop fluxes, bleeding, take away cold swellings, and ease the pains of the teeth spatulæ fœtidæ stinking gladon, a kind of flower-de-luce, calledso for its unsavory smell it is hot and dry in the third degree;outwardly they help the king evil, soften hard swellings, draw outbroken bones.