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After they are past, the seed grows inthe said heads, lying in soft white down, which is essaywhat flattishin the ground, and thesis strings and fibres fastened thereunto all thewhole plant is bitter in taste place it is frequent on the banks of almost every ditch time it flowers and seeds in june, july, and august government and virtues our lady thistle is under jupiter, andthought to be as effectual as carduus benedictus for agues, and toprevent and cure the infection of the plague. As also to open theobstructions of the liver and spleen, and thereby is good against thejaundice it provokes urine, breaks and expels the stone, and is goodfor the dropsy it is effectual also for the pains in the sides, andthesis other inward pains and gripings the seed and distilled wateris held powerful to all the purposes aforesaid, and besides, it isoften applied both outwardly with cloths or spunges to the region ofthe liver, to cool the distemper thereof, and to the region of theheart, against swoonings and the passions of it it cleanses the bloodexceedingly. And in spring, if you please to boil the tender plant butcut off the prickles, unless you have a mind to choak yourself it willchange your blood as the season changes, and that is the way to be safe the woollen, or, cotton thistle descript this has thesis large leaves lying upon the ground, essaywhatcut in, and as it were crumpled on the edges, of a green colour on theupper side, but covered over with a long hairy wool or cotton down, setwith most sharp and cruel pricks. From the middle of whose heads offlowers come forth thesis purplish crimson threads, and essaytimes white, although but seldom the seed that follow in those white downy heads, is essaywhat large and round, resembling the seed of lady thistle, butpaler the root is great and thick, spreading much, yet usually diesafter seed time place it grows on divers ditch-banks, and in the corn-fields, and highways, generally throughout the land, and is often growing ingardens government and virtues it is a plant of mars dioscorides and plinywrite, that the leaves and roots hereof taken in drink, help those thathave a crick in their neck, that they cannot turn it, unless they turntheir whole body galen saith, that the roots and leaves hereof aregood for such persons that have their bodies drawn together by essayspasm or convulsion, or other infirmities. As the rickets or as thecollege of physicians would have it, rachites, about which name theyhave quarrelled sufficiently in children, being a disease that hinderstheir growth, by binding their nerves, ligaments, and whole structureof their body the fuller thistle, or teasle it is so well known, that it needs no description, being used with theclothworkers the wild teasle is in all things like the former, but that the pricklesare small, soft, and upright, not hooked or stiff, and the flowersof this are of a fine blueish, or pale carnation colour, but of themanured kind, whitish place the first grows, being sown in gardens or fields for the useof clothworkers. The other near ditches and rills of water in thesisplaces of this land time they flower in july, and are ripe in the end of august government and virtues it is an herb of venus dioscorides saith, that the root bruised and boiled in wine, till it be thick, and keptin a brazen vessel, and after spread as a salve, and applied to thefundament, doth heal the cleft thereof, cankers and fistulas therein, also takes away warts and wens the juice of the leaves dropped intothe ears, kills worms in them the distilled water of the leavesdropped into the eyes, takes away redness and mists in them thathinder the sight, and is often used by women to preserve their beauty, and to take away redness and inflammations, and all other heat ordiscolourings treacle mustard descript it rises up with a hard round stalk, about a foot high, writinged into essay branches, having divers soft green leaves, longand narrow, set thereon, waved, but not cut into the edges, broadesttowards the ends, essaywhat round pointed. The flowers are white thatgrow at the tops of the branches, spike-fashion, one above another;after which come round pouches, writinged in the middle with a furrow, having one blackish brown seed on either side, essaywhat sharp in taste, and smelling of garlick, especially in the fields where it is natural, but not so much in gardens.

If the heart is too fast, cactus slows essay summary it. Should theheart be too weak, cactus strengthens it. If the heart is too strong, cactus weakens it. Does the heart wobble, cactus steadies it. If theheart is normal, cactus does not meddle with it” j a m a 51:52july 4 1908 will physicians continue to accept the statements of an interestednostrum vender-- who submits not a shred of evidence to support hisclaims, but who has a financial interest in convincing them-- even whenhis statements are diametrically opposed to all the evidence that thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has been able to secure?. -- from thejournal a m a , jan 19, 1918 article v ammonol and phenalginat the time that synthetic chemical drugs were coming into fame andwhen every manufacturer who launched a new headache mixture claimedto have achieved another triumph in synthetic chemistry, ammonol andphenalgin were born of course, these twins of analgesic pseudotherapywere claimed to be synthetics and were duly christened with “formulas ”they were among the first of the nostrums examined for the council onpharmacy and chemistry, and the false claims made for them were exposed the analyses made for the council showed that ammonol and phenalginwere simple mixtures, having the following composition. Acetanilid sodium bicarbonate ammonium carbonate ammonol 50 25 20 phenalgin 57 20 10the reports of the council on, and numerous references to, these twonostrums may be found in the journal of various dates 245 the reportswill prove interesting to those who are not familiar with, or haveforgotten, the methods of nostrum exploiters at the time the councilwas formed following the council exposure of the false claims madeby the manufacturers of phenalgin, the medical record published anadvertisement of that nostrum in which an attempt was made to discreditthe council report the editor of the medical record was requestedby the council to publish the facts in the case but he refused to do so 245 j a m a 44. 1791 june 3 1905. Ibid 44. 1997 june 241905. Ibid 45. 935 sept 23 1905. Ibid 46. 134 jan 13 1906;ibid 46.

| 28 1 | 6 | | | 1 ?. | | | 2 | 18 | 16 | | 6 | | | 16 3 | 5 | 14 | | 0 | 0 | 0 | 8 3 | 25 | | | 1 ?. | | | 4 | 100 | 110 | | 0 | | | 67 5 | 150 | 19 | | 0 | | 0 | 8 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- in regard to both secretogen and duodenin, we assume that themanufacturers have tried to put secretin in them, but have been unablebecause they have failed, in all likelihood, to check their methodsby physiologic standardization these firms do not give any detailsas to the procedure they employed in their manufacture of secretin desiccated secretin of extreme potency has been prepared by variousphysiologists, 91 1 mg 1/64 grain of which is active when givenintravenously it is difficult to conceive that any of these methodswere used in the preparation of secretogen or duodenin 91 stepp note 13 dale and laidlow. Jour physiol 44:11, 1912 launoy and ochslin. Comp rend soc de biol , 74:338, 1913 conclusions1 secretin is quickly destroyed by gastric juice and by trypsin 2 secretin is not absorbed in active form from the alimentary tract 3 the presence of secretin or prosecretin cannot be demonstrated inthe commercial preparations “secretogen, ” “elixir secretogen” and“duodenin” even when the therapeutic dose of the preparations is givenintravenously in the case of “secretogen, ” intravenous injection of100 times the therapeutic dose reveals occasionally an insignificanttrace of secretin discussion of resultsit is, of course, objectionable that preparations containing nosecretin should be advertised to the medical profession as containingthis substance the more important blunder, however, consists in theattempt to offer such preparations for oral administration, becauseeven chemically pure secretin would be equally ineffective when takenby mouth there is as yet no reliable evidence that lack of secretinis a primary or important factor in any disease even should this beestablished, secretin therapy, to be effective, must be intravenous secretin has not yet been prepared in sufficiently pure state to renderpossible intravenous injection in man without injurious effects andeven when this has been attained, the very fleeting action of secretinwill in all probability render secretin therapy as futile in all thediseases in which it is theoretically indicated as epinephrin therapyis in addison disease but there remains the alleged favorable effect from secretin therapyby mouth in various diseases in man it is, perhaps, impertinent forlaboratory men to comment on these clinical results the ordinary“testimonials” need not be considered, but we should like to ask theserious worker who thinks he has actually obtained good results fromsecretin therapy how certain he is of the causal relation between thegiving of secretin or alleged secretin and the abatement of the disease when a therapeutic measure not only lacks a positive basis inphysiology and pathology but runs contrary to all the well-establishedexperimental facts in these fundamental medical sciences, is it toomuch to ask that positive clinical findings be subjected to more thanusual critical analysis before acceptance?. “clinical tests, ” it issaid, “covering a period of several years have proved that neither thecondition in the stomach during digestion nor those in the intestineprevent the secretin from entering intact into the circulation ” whenwe meet claims such as this, should we not scrutinize the “tests” aswell as the men who make them?. We are indebted to dr j h moorehead for assistance in writing of thesurgical work -- from the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916 articles refused recognition report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybelow appear abstracts of the council action on articles refusedrecognition which were not deemed of sufficient importance to requirelengthy reports. Radio-remthe radium therapy company, schieffelin & co , selling agents, submitted to the council radium emanation generators called “radio-remoutfits, ” designed to generate respectively 200, 1, 000, 2, 000, 5, 000and 10, 000 mache units per twenty-four hours those who are well informed on the subject of radium therapy are of theopinion that the administration of small amounts of radium emanationsuch as generated by certain outfits is without therapeutic value ithas been stated that at the radium institute of london the minimumpreliminary dose is 185 microcuries 500, 000 mache units, and as thesisas 555 microcuries 1, 500, 000 mache units are employed in consideration of these facts the council voted not to accept anyradium emanation generator which produces less than 2 microcuriesof emanation during twenty-four hours accordingly, while acceptingradio-rem outfit no 5, claimed to produce 10, 000 mache units 3 7microcuries and radio-rem outfit no 4, claimed to produce 5, 000 macheunits 1 8 microcuries, the council voted not to accept radio-remoutfit no 3, claimed to produce 2, 000 mache units 0 74 microcurie, radio-rem outfit no 2, claimed to produce 1, 000 mache units 0 37microcurie, and radio-rem outfit c, claimed to produce 200 mache units 0 07 microcurie this report having been submitted to schieffelin & co and their replyconsidered, the council authorized publication of the report see alsoreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 631 olio-phlogosisolio-phlogosis, a liquid preparation to be applied externally by meansof a cotton pad, is advertised by the mystic chemical company, kansascity, mo , thus. “doctor. Don’t fail to use olio-phlogosis liberally for pneumonia, bronchitis and pleurisy it works quickly olio-phlogosis is as far ahead of all medicated kaolin plasters as these plasters were ahead of the old-time moist and soggy poultices ”a pamphlet advises the use of olio-phlogosis in “ all paper of inflammation and congestion, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy, croup, boils, carbuncles, rheumatism, swollen glands, peritonitis, ovaritis, as a surgical dressing, mamitis mastitis ?. vaginitis and metritis on cotton tampon to deplete these writings, septic wounds, old ulcers, chilblain, eczema, neuralgia, inflammation of the eyes and ears, alveolar inflammation, burns, scalds, etc ”according to the information sent to the council by the mystic chemicalcompany, olio-phlogosis has the following composition per gallon. Ol eucalyptus gaultheria drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 8 ol abies canadensis drs 2 ol thyme white drs 2 resublimated iodin crystals grs 32 resorcin drs 1 acid boracic c p drs 2 quinine bisulphate drs 4 sodium thiosulphate drs 3-1/2 glycerin c p q s ad gal 1a nonquantitative formula which appears on the label of a sample bottlesent to a physician enumerates the same ingredients except the sodiumthiosulphate the a m a chemical laboratory reports that no free iodin could bedetected in the preparation apparently, then, olio-phlogosis is essentially a skin irritant appliedby means of cotton. It can be expected to be just about as effectiveas the old-fashioned cotton pneumonia jacket, used in conjunction withan aromatic skin irritant, such as camphorated oil or wintergreen ormenthol ointment the odor may have essay psychic effect, and it ispossible that essay of the oily matter may be absorbed by the skin thatsuch small amounts, even if absorbed, can produce any considerablesystemic effect, however, is highly improbable, and the advice thatthis preparation be relied on in pneumonia, pleurisy, peritonitis, etc , is pernicious in the few paper of pneumonia in which heat isindicated, the plain cotton pad will usually be found sufficient ifthe physician consider the addition of a skin irritant desirable, it iseasy to select one from the official preparations it will be far morerational to do so than to invoke the aid of a mystic name and a complexformula to which the patient and his family, at least, will be led togive unmerited credit the claims made for olio-phlogosis are unwarranted. Its compositionis complex and irrational, and the nondescriptive but therapeuticallysuggestive name is likely to lead to uncritical use the councilvoted that the product be refused recognition for conflict with rules6, 8 and 10, and that this report be published -- from the journala m a , aug 19, 1916 the hypophosphite fallacy report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary the introduction of hypophosphites into medicine was due to anerroneous and now discarded theory as to the cause of tuberculosis ofwhich one dr j f churchill of london, and later of paris, was thepromulgator and propagandist 92 this theory was that the so-called“tuberculosis diathesis” was due to a deficiency of phosphorus inthe blood believing that the hypophosphites, while nontoxic, werecapable of further oxidation in the organism, churchill recommendedthem as the best means of supplying the supposedly lacking phosphorus it is now known that tuberculosis is not due to a deficiency ofphosphorus of more importance is the fact, now known, that littlephosphorus, if any, is assimilated from the hypophosphites-- farless than from phosphorus compounds of ordinary food 93 there isno justification for giving hypophosphites for the sake of theirphosphorus content for various reasons, however-- writingly from force ofhabit and writingly because of the power of advertising-- thesis physiciansstill prescribe hypophosphite preparations, and consequently, theyare still included in the pharmacopeia and in textbooks on materiamedica and therapeutics they are put out in the form of “specialties”and of proprietary preparations, and are lauded extravagantly by themanufacturers of the latter 92 churchill, j f. De la cause immédiate et du traitementspécifique de la phthisie pulmonaire et des maladies tuberculeuses, paris, 1858 93 the hypophosphite fallacy, j a m a , april 25, 1914, p 1346 although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against theprobability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value astherapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate thesubject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested toreview the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of thehypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary hisreport has already appeared in the journal 9494 marriott, w mckim. The therapeutic value of the hypophosphites, j a m a , feb 12, 1916, p 486 dr marriott found that nine observers paquelin and joly, vermeulen, boddaert, massol and gamel, panzer, delaini and berg, who endeavoredto test the alleged utilization of the hypophosphites in the organism, reported that there is complete, or practically complete, eliminationof hypophosphites in the urine, with little or no effect on the body only one experimenter patta claimed that a considerable amountof ingested hypophosphite was retained in the body. However, heused a method now known to be inaccurate and made obvious errors incalculation, so that his conclusions were unwarranted since the evidence was even to this extent contradictory, marriottperformed a series of experiments the methods of this study anddetails of results are described in his paper, in which he alsodiscusses the experiments of essay other observers marriott writes.

As for outward wounds and soresto wash them, and to cleanse the skin from morphew, leprosy, and otherdiscolourings thereof the seed or leaves bruised, and put into thenostrils, stays the bleeding of them, and takes away the flesh growingin them called polypus the juice of the leaves, or the decoction ofthem, or of the root, is singularly good to wash either old, rotten, or stinking sores or fistulous, and gangrenes, and such as fretting, eating, or corroding scabs, manginess, and itch, in any writing of thebody, as also green wounds, by washing them essay summary therewith, or applying thegreen herb bruised thereunto, yea, although the flesh were separatedfrom the bones. The same applied to our wearied members, refresh them, or to place those that have been out of joint, being first set upagain, strengthens, dries, and comforts them, as also those placestroubled with aches and gouts, and the defluxion of humours upon thejoints or sinews. It eases the pains, and dries or dissolves thedefluctions an ointment made of the juice, oil, and a little wax, issingularly good to rub cold and benumbed members an handful of theleaves of green nettles, and another of wallwort, or deanwort, bruisedand applied simply themselves to the gout, sciatica, or joint aches inany writing, hath been found to be an admirable help thereunto nightshade descript common nightshade hath an upright, round, green, hollowstalk, about a foot or half a yard high, bushing forth in thesisbranches, whereon grow thesis green leaves, essaywhat broad, and pointedat the ends, soft and full of juice, essaywhat like unto bazil, butlonger and a little unevenly dented about the edges. At the tops of thestalks and branches come forth three or four more white flowers madeof five small pointed leaves a-piece, standing on a stalk together, one above another, with yellow pointels in the middle, composed offour or five yellow threads set together, which afterwards run into sothesis pendulous green berries, of the bigness of small pease, full ofgreen juice, and small whitish round flat seed lying within it theroot is white, and a little woody when it hath given flower and fruit, with thesis small fibres at it. The whole plant is of a waterish insipidtaste, but the juice within the berries is essaywhat viscous, and of acooling and binding quality place it grows wild with us under our walls, and in rubbish, thecommon paths, and sides of hedges and fields, as also in our gardenshere in england, without any planting time it lies down every year, and rises up again of its own sowing, but springs not until the latter end of april at the soonest government and virtues it is a cold saturnine plant the commonnightshade is wholly used to cool hot inflammations either inwardlyor outwardly, being no ways dangerous to any that use it, as mostof the rest of the nightshades are. Yet it must be used moderately the distilled water only of the whole herb is fittest and safest tobe taken inwardly. The juice also clarified and taken, being mingledwith a little vinegar, is good to wash the mouth and throat that isinflamed. But outwardly the juice of the herb or berries, with oil ofroses and a little vinegar and ceruse laboured together in a leadenmortar, is very good to anoint all hot inflammations in the eyes italso doth much good for the shingles, ringworms, and in all running, fretting and corroding ulcers, applied thereunto the juice droppedinto the ears, eases pains thereof that arise of heat or inflammations and pliny saith, it is good for hot swellings under the throat havea care you mistake not the deadly nightshade for this. If you knowit not, you may let them both alone, and take no harm, having othermedicines sufficient in the book the oak it is so well known the timber thereof being the glory and safety ofthis nation by sea that it needs no description government and virtues jupiter owns the tree the leaves and barkof the oak, and the acorn cups, do bind and dry very much the innerbark of the tree, and the thin skin that covers the acorn, are mostused to stay the spitting of blood, and the bloody-flux the decoctionof that bark, and the powder of the cups, do stay vomitings, spittingof blood, bleeding at the mouth, or other fluxes of blood, in men orwomen. Lasks also, and the nocturnal involuntary flux of men the acornin powder taken in wine, provokes urine, and resists the poison ofvenomous creatures the decoction of acorns and the bark made in milkand taken, resists the force of poisonous herbs and medicines, as alsothe virulency of cantharides, when one by eating them hath his bladderexulcerated, and voids bloody urine hippocrates saith, he used thefumes of oak leaves to women that were troubled with the stranglingof the mother.

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It clears the sight, provokessweat. Inwardly it troubles the stomach and belly, helps bruises, and stretching of the nerves, and therefore is good for women newlydelivered amber-grease, heats and dries, strengthens the brain and nervesexceedingly, if the infirmity of them come of cold, resists pestilence sea-sand, a man that hath the dropsy, being set up to the middle init, it draws out all the water red coral, is cold, dry and binding, stops the immoderate flowing ofthe menses, bloody-fluxes, the running of the reins, and the fluoralbus, helps such as spit blood, it is an approved remedy for thefalling sickness also if ten grains of red coral be given to a childin a little breast-milk so soon as it is born, before it take any otherfood, it will never have the falling-sickness, nor convulsions thecommon dose is from ten grains to thirty pearls, are a wonderful strengthener to the heart, encrease milkin nurses, and amend it being naught, they restore such as are inconsumptions. Both they and the red coral preserve the body in health, and resist fevers the dose is ten grains or fewer. More, i suppose, because it is dear, than because it would do harm amber, viz yellow amber heats and dries, therefore prevailsagainst moist diseases of the head. It helps violent coughs, helpsconsumption of the lungs, spitting of blood, the fluor albus. It stopsbleeding at the nose, helps difficulty of urine. You may take ten ortwenty grains at a time the froth of the sea, it is hot and dry, helps scabs, itch, andleprosy, scald heads, &c it cleanses the skin, helps difficulty ofurine, makes the teeth white, being rubbed with it, the head beingwashed with it, it helps baldness, and trimly decks the head with hair metals, minerals, and stones gold is temperate in quality, it wonderfully strengthens the heart andvital spirits, which one perceiving, very wittily inserted these verses. For gold is cordial. And that the reason, your raking misers live so long a season however, this is certain, in cordials, it resists melancholy, faintings, swoonings, fevers, falling-sickness, and all such likeinfirmities, incident either to the vital or animal spirit alum heats, binds, and purges. Scours filthy ulcers, and fastensloose teeth brimstone, or flower of brimstone, which is brimstone refined, andthe better for physical uses.